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translation theories

  1. 1. 1Translation studies project‘TRANSLATION ANALYSIS OF A FAREWELL TO ARMS WRITTENBY ERNEST HEMINGWAY, TRANSLATED BY ASHFAQ AHMAD ASWIDAA-E-JUNG’INTRODUCTION:Translation is “the process of turning an original or "source" text into a text in anotherlanguage1.” It is communication between humans; however, unlike most human linguisticcommunication, it is tied to communication between two parties that do not understand oneanother without the mediation of a middleman – a translator.“Translation has a central core of linguistic activity, it belongs most properly to semiotics,the science that studies sign systems or structures, sign processes and sign functions”2.Beyond the notion stressed by the narrowly linguistic approach, that translation involves thetransfer of `meaning contained in one set of language signs through competent use of thedictionary and grammar, the process involves a whole set of extra-linguistic criteria also.According to Nida and Taber in The Theory and Practice of Translation, “Translating consistsin reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source-language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style”.Our project is about translation analysis of A Farewell to Arms (English text) by ErnestHemingway translated as Widaa-e-Jang (Urdu text) by Ashfaq Ahmad. Although the mannerand the style of English language differs to some extent as compared to Urdu language, even ifthe translator tries his best to retain authenticity. In our present project, we are going to analyzethat how the manner and the style are different in the two languages. "To translate, one musthave a style of his own, for otherwise the translation will have no rhythm or nuance, which comefrom the process of artistically thinking through and moulding the sentences; they cannot be1Jeremy Munday2Hawks, Structuralism and Semiotics, London, 1977
  2. 2. 2Translation studies projectreconstituted by piecemeal imitation. The problem of translation is to retreat to a simpler tenor ofones own style and creatively adjust this to ones author3."We have selected two texts for this project. One is in English language (the source text) and theother is it‟s translation in Urdu language (target text). For the purpose of analysis, we will applythe models, approaches and theories on respective texts, more specifically the translated text. Thefollowing novels are selected for the analysis in this project. Novel is A Farewell to Arms byErnest Hemingway and its translation is Widaa-e-Jang by Ashfaq Ahmad.HYPOTHESIS:“Ashfaq Ahmed is acknowledged as a globally-renowned playwright, intellectual andspiritualist.”It is assumed that the target text (translated by Ashfaq Ahmad) has succeeded in providing theaesthetic pleasure to the readers in approximately the same manner as that of the original one.INTRODUCTION TO THE SOURCE TEXT:Hemingway was the most influential fiction writer of his generation who changed the way manyof his contemporaries expressed themselves. Ernest Hemingway was an American author andjournalist. His style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction.Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and won theNobel Prize in Literature in 1954. After high school he reported for a few months for The KansasCity Star, before leaving for the Italian front to enlist with the World War I ambulance drivers. In1918, he was seriously wounded and returned home. His wartime experiences formed the basisfor his novel A Farewell to Arms. He published seven novels, six short story collections and twonon-fiction works. Many of these are considered classics of American literature.When it was published in 1929, A Farewell to Arms was considered to be the bestseller. It wasbuilt on the theme of universal loneliness in the midst of war, and it left the impression ofoverwhelming emotion severely controlled, conveyed with the fewest possible words. That wasthe typical of the best of Hemingway„s writing.3Paul Goodman, Five Years: Thoughts During a Useless Time, 1969
  3. 3. 3Translation studies projectThe love story of A Farewell to Arms is narrated against the background of war. In the course ofthe novel, there are many references to the war and troops-movement. In fact, the novel is asmuch a story of war as of love. A Farewell to Arms deal with the subject: the condition of man ina society upset by the violence of war. The setting of the novel is war itself, and the romance ofFrederic Henry and Catherine Barkley, their attempt to escape the war and its resulting chaos is aparable of the 20th century man‟s disgust and disillusionment at the failure of civilization toachieve the ideals it had been promising throughout the 19th century.The novel opens with World War I raging all over Europe. A young American student, studyingarchitecture in Italy, offers his services to the Italian army. In Gorizia, he is wounded in the kneeand is sent to recuperate in a hospital in Milan. He falls in love with an English nurse, CatherineBarkley, then he lives with her, and she becomes pregnant. He returns to the front in Gorizia andis caught in the Italian retreat. In order to save his life, he deserts his post and goes away to ahospital in Milan to take Catherine and go some place where they can start a new life. They go toSwitzerland but cannot live happily, for a fresh tragedy awaits them. Their eagerly awaited son isstillborn and Catherine, who can never have a normal delivery, dies after a Caesarean operation.A Farewell to Arms was the first to be made available in Urdu. Its Urdu translation is done bywell-known writer and journalist Ashfaq Ahmed, under the name of Widaa-e-Jang.INTRODUCTION TO THE TARGET TEXT:Ashfaq Ahmed was one of the most prolific Urdu writers in Pakistan. He was a distinguishedplaywright, broadcaster, intellectual and spiritualist. He wrote the finest works in Urdu. Hestarted writing stories in his childhood.He completed his Masters in Urdu literature from Government College Lahore. He worked as ateacher at Dayal Singh College, Lahore and at Rome University. He worked in Radio Pakistanas a script writer. He also joined Radio Rome as an Urdu newscaster. During his stay in Europe,he learned Italian and French languages from the University of Rome and University ofGrenoble, France. He took out his own monthly literary magazine; Dastaango. Ashfaq Ahmedstarted his popular radio program, Talqeen Shah which made him immensely popular. He wasappointed director of the Markazi Urdu Board. He also served as adviser in the EducationMinistry.
  4. 4. 4Translation studies projectAshfaq Ahmeds subtle sense of humor and deep thoughts are reflected in his writings. Hispopular TV plays include Aik muhabbat sau afsanay, Uchhay burj Lahore dey, Tota kahani,Hairat kadah and Mun chalay ka sauda. All through his life, Ashfaq Ahmad endeavored toreform the society through his writings. He had authored over twenty five books including atravelogue, Safar dar Safar with a typical style. In fact, he gave a new mold to diction and locale.He used Punjabi literary words very well in Urdu and introduced a new kind of prose. AshfaqAhmed, in his later period of life, was greatly inclined towards Sufism, which was visiblyreflected in most of his works.Ashfaq Ahmed has translated Ernest Hemingways famous book, A Farewell to Arms as Widaa-e-Jang. In „taaruf‟ (introduction) of the translation he has written a short account ofHemingway‟s life. He has not written a summary of the source text, but told about author‟sintention of writing the source text. He has not provided any translator notes about his method oftranslation.LITERATURE REVIEW:Translation has always been understood to refer to a written transfer of a message or meaningfrom one language to another. For a formal definition, Dubois says “translation is theexpression in another language (or target language) of what has been expressed in another,source language, preserving semantic and stylistic equivalences” (in Bell, 1991: 5).The theoretical framework for Translation theories, models and analogies has to be drawn, forthe understanding of the Translation system, and to determine its validity for application in reallife translation.The explanation of the system is the theory of the scientist which, when passed on to the other, isrealized as a model.A theory is an explanation of a phenomenon, the perception of the system and order ofsomething observed. It has no tangible manifestation. It is an idea which constitutes the internalrepresentation of phenomenon.
  5. 5. 5Translation studies projectA model is, in contrast, an external manifestation, rather than an internal representation of theexplanation; a realization of the theory/pedagogy. It exists as a tangible object or form which„stands‟ for the idea embodied in the theory/pedagogy.Translation theory, in fact, limits its activities to the level of technique or that of method, whilewhat is required is a principled approach from which the rest can flow.In order to assess that how far the translator has succeeded in making the text to meet all thestandards of textuality, different translation theories, models and approaches are applied on thetext. The applied theories, models and approaches help to check the validity of the translatedtext. Moreover these are applied in order to see the levels of differences occur in writing indifferent languages.The models selected to analyze the target text in our present project are; Eugene Nida And The Science of Translating Roman Jacobson: The Nature of Linguistic Meaning and Equivalence Vinay and Darbelnet‟s Model Katharina Reiss‟s Text Typology1. EUGENE NIDA AND THE SCIENCE OF TRANSLATING:Nida and Taber in their book; The Theory and Practice of Translation (1969) listed someuniversal features of text that should be taken into account in translation:“…all languages do have certain important features which can be used, and which in’effective’ communications are used, to mark the units larger than sentences”Equivalence is a preoccupation of the American Bible translator Eugene Nida who rejects the“free” versus “literal” debate in favor of the concept of formal and dynamic equivalence – aconcept that shifts the emphasis to the target audience. This was done in order to make readingand understanding the Bible easier for people with no knowledge of it. Let us examine his modelof translation as shown in Figure below (1964: 146):
  6. 6. 6Translation studies projectIn this model, Nida divides the translation process into a decoding phase and an encoding phasein between the transfer of the message (M) from the source to the target language (A to B). Thismodel is clear and makes sense in a number of ways.In the history of translation, the Bible has very often been translated by a source-languagespeaker into the target language (from his mother tongue (A) into his foreign language (B)); thisversion would often be edited and written in „correct target language‟ by a target-languagespeaker.Eugene Nidas gave two types of equivalence: formal and dynamic. Formal equivalence“focuses attention on the message itself, in both form and content” “Principles ofCorrespondence” in (Venuti, 129). Formal equivalence centers on the form and content of themessage of the ST while dynamic equivalence, later termed functional equivalence (Venutip.148), “aims at complete naturalness of expression” (Munday p.42) in the TT. His 1964 Towarda Science of Translating and his co-authorship with Taber in 1969 of Theory and Practice ofTranslation aim at creating a scientific approach incorporating linguistic trends for translators touse in their work (Munday p.38).Dynamic equivalence is based upon “the principle of equivalent effect”. In this sort oftranslation the emphasis is on the “dynamic relationship” between message and receptor, andcare is taken that “the relationship between receptor and message should be substantially thesame as that which existed between the original receptors and the message” (129). Catford termssuch translations „free as opposed to „literal translations; Dagut goes even further and classifiesthem as „reproductions rather than translations. Nida points out that there are a “number ofintervening grades” between these two poles of translation. Recent trends in translation,however, seem to be inclined towards dynamic rather than formal equivalence.
  7. 7. 7Translation studies projectThe British translation theorist Peter Newmark, influenced by the work of Nida, feels that thedifference between the source language and the target language would always be a majorproblem, thus making total equivalence virtually impossible (Munday p.44). He replaces theterms “formal equivalence” and “dynamic equivalence” with “semantic translation” and“communicative translation”, and alters the focus of the translation back to the ST with hissupport for a literal approach.2. ROMAN JAKOBSON: THE NATURE OF LINGUISTIC MEANING ANDEQUIVALENCE:Douglas Robinson writes that for some translators “the entire purpose of translation is achievingequivalence. The target text must match the source text as fully as possible” (p.73)Roman Jakobson‟s study of equivalence gave new impetus to the theoretical analysis oftranslation since he introduced the notion of equivalence in difference. Linguistic meaning andequivalence are the key issues for the Russian structuralist Roman Jakobson who, in his 1959work On Linguistic Works of Translation, states that there are 3 types of translation:Intralingual (rewording or paraphrasing, summarizing, expanding or commenting withina language)Interlingual (the traditional concept of translation from ST to TT or the “shifting ofmeaning from one language to another” (Stockinger p.4)Intersemiotic (the changing of a written text into a different form, such as art ordance (Berghout lecture 27/7/05; Stockinger p.4).For Jakobson, meaning and equivalence are linked to the interlingual form of translation, which“involves two equivalent messages in two different codes” (1959/2000: p.114). He considersSaussure‟s ideas of the arbitrariness of the signifier (name) for the signified (object or concept)and how this equivalence can be transferred between different languages, for example theconcept of a fence may be completely different to someone living in the suburbs or a prisoninmate. He expands on Saussure‟s work in that he considers that concepts may be transferred by
  8. 8. 8Translation studies projectrewording, without, however, attaining full equivalence. His theory is linked to grammatical andlexical differences between languages, as well as to the field of semantics.Jakobson claims that, in the case of interlingual translation, the translator makes use of synonymsin order to get the ST message across. This means that in interlingual translations there is no fullequivalence between code units. According to his theory, translation involves two equivalentmessages in two different codes (ibid: 233).Jakobson goes on to say that from a grammatical point of view languages may differ from oneanother to a greater or lesser degree, but this does not mean that a translation cannot be possible,in other words, that the translator may face the problem of not finding a translation equivalent.He acknowledges that whenever there is deficiency, terminology may be qualified and amplifiedby loanwords or loan-translations, neologisms or semantic shifts, and finally, by circumlocutions(ibid:234). Jacobson provides a number of examples by comparing English and Russianlanguage structures and explains that in such cases where there is no a literal equivalent for aparticular ST word or sentence, then it is up to the translator to choose the most suitable way torender it in the TT.There seems to be some similarity between Vinay and Darbelnets theory of translationprocedures and Jacobsons theory of translation. Both theories stress the fact that, whenever alinguistic approach is no longer suitable to carry out a translation, the translator can rely on otherprocedures such as loan-translations, neologisms and the like. Both theories recognize thelimitations of a linguistic theory and argue that a translation can never be impossible since thereare several methods that the translator can choose. The role of the translator as the person whodecides how to carry out the translation is emphasized in both theories. Vinay and Darbelnet aswell as Jacobson conceive the translation task as something which can always be carried outfrom one language to another, regardless of cultural or grammatical differences between ST andTT.So Jakobsons theory is essentially based on his semiotic approach to translation according towhich the translator has to recode the ST message first and then s/he has to transmit it into anequivalent message for the TC.
  9. 9. 9Translation studies project3. VINAY AND DARBELNET’s MODEL:A classical model and one which has had a very wide impact is the Vinay and Darbelnet model.Vinay and Darbelnet in their book Stylistique comparée du français et de l’anglais came in 1958and its revised form in English in 1995, thirty seven years after the original. It compare thedifferences between English and French and identify two translation techniques that somewhatresemble the literal and free methods (Vinay and Darbelnet in Venuti p.128). Vinay andDarbelnet identified two general translational strategies direct translation and obliquetranslation and these two strategies comprise seven procedures.Direct (literal) translation discusses three possible strategies:1. Literal translation: it is word-for-word translation. According to Vinay and Darbelnet itis most of common between languages of same family and culture.2. Calque: SL expression is literally transferred to the TL, such as the English character„Snow White‟ in French becomes „Blanche Neige‟, because the normal wordconfiguration in English of „white snow‟ would be transferred as „neige blanche‟3. Borrowing: SL word is transferred directly into the TL.When literal translation is not possible, Vinay and Darbelnet say that the strategy of oblique(free) translation must be used. This covers further four procedures:1. Transposition: interchange of parts of speech that do not affect the meaning, a nounphrase for a verb phrase.2. Modulation: This changes the semantics and point of view of the S.L. It is a procedurethat is justified, in the words of the English edition, „when, although a literal, or eventransposed, translation results in a grammatically correct utterance, it is consideredunsuitable, unidiomatic or awkward in the T.L.3. Equivalence: Vinay and Darbelnet used this term to refer the cases where languagesdescribe the same situation by different stylistic or structural means. It is particularlyuseful in translating idioms and proverbs.4. Adaptation: cultural references may need to be altered to become relevant (Vinay andDarbelnet in Venuti pp129-135).
  10. 10. 10Translation studies projectDirect translation proceduresBorrowingCalqueLiteral TranslationOblique translation proceduresTranspositionModulationEquivalenceAdaptationTable 1 Vinay & Darbelnet‟s model of translation proceduresTwo other important features arise from the work of Vinay and Darbelnet. The first of these isthe idea of “servitude”, which refers to the compulsory changes from ST to TT; and “option”,which refers to the personal choices the translator makes, such as the modulation exampleabove. Option is an important element in translation because it allows for possible subjectiveinterpretation of the text, especially literary texts (Munday pp. 59-60).These seven main translation categories operate on three levels, i.e. the lexicon, syntacticstructure, the message.To facilitate analysis where oblique translation is used, Vinay and Darbelnet suggest numberingthe translation units in both the S.T and T.T. The units which have the same number in each textcan then be compared to see which translation procedure has been adopted.4. KATHARINA REISS’S TEXT TYPOLOGY:In 1970‟s Katharina Reiss introduced the concept of text type which builds on the concept ofequivalence but views the text rather than the word or sentence as the level at which thecommunication is achieved and at which the equivalence must be sought. Her functional
  11. 11. 11Translation studies projectapproach initially aims at systematizing the assessment of translations. It borrows Karl Buhler‟sthree way categorization the functions of language. There three functions of language, accordingto Reiss, are linked to the corresponding language dimensions and to the text types orcommunicative situations in which they are used.The main characteristics of each text types as summarized by Reiss, are as follows;1. The first type of text is the „Informative text’. The function of language in this text is torepresent objects and the facts. There is a plain communication of facts i.e. theinformation, knowledge and opinions etc are transferred are transferred to the readers ofthe translated text. The language dimension used to transmit the information is logicaland referential. The content is the main focus of this type of text, the translated textshould transmit the referential content i.e. it should aim to transmit the information, factsand object of the source text.2. The second type of text is the „Expressive text’. It is actually a „creative composition‟, inwhich the author of the translated text expresses the sender‟s attitude. The translationmethod is identifying method, in which the translator adopts the perspective of sourcetext author. Form of text is focused on in this type and the author uses the aestheticdimension of language. The sender or author of the original text is fore grounded.3. The third type of text is the „Operative text’. The function of the language is appellativein this type i.e. it makes appeal to the reader or receiver of the text in a certain way. Thetranslation should employ the „adaptive method‟, thus creating an equivalent effectamong the TT readers. This adaptive method is actually concerned with changing thebehavior of the readers of the text. The form of language is dialogic and the focus isappellative.4. The fourth type of text, according to Reiss, is the „Audio medial text’. Such textinclude films and visuals and spoken advertisements which supplement the other threefunctions with visual images, music etc.Reiss also lists a series of intra linguistic and extra linguistic instruction criteria by whichadequacy of the target text may be assessed.Intralingual criteria involve semantic, lexical, grammatical and stylistic features.
  12. 12. 12Translation studies projectExtra lingual criteria involve situation, subject field, time, place, receiver, sender and „affectiveimplications‟. (Irony, humor, emotion etc)For an expressive text, it is important to retain the metaphor in the translation of an expressivetext than in informative text, where translation of only semantic value alone will be sufficient.(Munday:72-74)According to Reiss (1976), the assessment of a translation requires that in the first place onemust determine the kind of text the original represents (in term of text type and text variety); thetranslators conception of the translation (to be inferred from his manner of translating, andperhaps also explicitly stated in a translators preface); and the aim of the translated text. Onlywhen these factors have become established is one in a position to judge a translation "fairly", inaccordance with the appropriate criteria. (Reiss 1976:97-100.)Text concept Translation type Translation aimText = sum of words word-for-word translation(interlinear)comparative linguisticresearchText = sum of sentences literal translation(grammar translation)foreign language learningText = basic linguisticsignlearned translation(deliberately marked +commentary)study of culture-boundlanguage differencesText = verbal componentof a communicationprocess (text-with-a-function)communicative translationa) normal caseb) special subtypea) integral communicativeperformanceb) all kinds of changes offunctionTable 2 Katharina Reiss‟s model of translation typology
  13. 13. 13Translation studies projectANALYSIS OF THE TARGET TEXT:EUGENE NIDA AND THE SCIENCE OF TRANSLATING:Eugene Nida rejects the “free” versus “literal” debate in favor of the concept of formal anddynamic equivalence – a concept that shifts the emphasis to the target audience. His introductionof the formal and dynamic equivalence was crucial in introducing a receptor-based (or reader-based) orientation to translation theory.Eugene A. Nida (1964) distinguishes between formal and dynamic equivalence in translation. Hesays “formal equivalence” refers to a faithful reproduction of source-text form elementswhereas a “dynamic equivalence” refers to equivalence of extra linguistic communicative effect(Nida 1964 in Nord 1997: 5). Moreover, in “A Framework for the Analysis and Evaluation ofTheories of Translation” (1976) Nida emphasizes the purpose of translation, the roles of both thetranslator and the receivers or recipients of translation, and also the cultural implications of thetranslation process.Nida‟s model of equivalence is applicable to the translation of A Farewell to Arms as Widaa-e-Jung. Examples from the text are as follows:1. Formal equivalence is described as; it focuses attention on the message itself, in bothform and content. It is actually word to word translation of the text.ST (Source Text) TT (Target Text)The trunks of the trees too were dusty andthe leaves fell early that year.(pg 7)(pg 5)The plain was rich with crops, there weremany orchards of fruit trees and beyondthe plain the mountains were brown andbare.(7)
  14. 14. 14Translation studies project(Pg 5)The next year there were many victories.(pg 8)(pg 6)The day had been hot.(pg 21) (pg 26)The carpet on the stairs was worn.(pg 115)(pg 167)I stepped out into the rain and the carriagestarted.(pg116)(pg 168)The roads were muddy.(pg 118) (pg 173)I went to the door and looked out.(pg 128)(pg 189)The girl looked at me fiercely.(pg 141)(pg 209)
  15. 15. 15Translation studies projectLater we were on a road that lead to ariver. (pg 150)(pg 224)We were supposed to wear steel helmetseven in Gorizia.(pg 25)(pg 32)From the above instances, it can be seen that sentences from source text (ST) is translated wordto word in the target text (TT) i.e. Urdu.2. Dynamic equivalence is defined as the relationship between receptor and message whichis substantially the same as that which existed between the original receptors and themessage. It is actually sense to sense translation of the text.ST (Source Text) TT (Target Text)Sculpture had always seemed a dull business.(pg 25)(pg 31)It’s not my leg. I got a rupture.(pg no. 29)(pg 38)The driver came out of the door with papersfor the wounded in the car.(page no. 29)(pg 38)
  16. 16. 16Translation studies projectI drove coming back and went fast with theemptycar to find the man from Pittsburgh.(30)(pg 40)The column stalled again in the night and didnot start. I got down and went back to seeAymo and Bonello. Bonello had two sergeantsof engineers on the seat of his car with him.They stiffened when I came up. (140)(pg 209)They were ruddy and healthy looking (152).(pg 226)They did not talk but we could not have heardthem because of the noise from the river.(pg152)(pg226 )It was beginning to be light enough,so I could see the bushes along the shore-line.(163)(pg 244)While we play billiards, we drank champagne.(181)
  17. 17. 17Translation studies project(pg 270 )I went to the door very softly, not to disturbCatherine, and opened it. (188)(pg 281)From these instances, it can be seen that sentences from source text (ST) is translated sense tosense in the target text (TT) i.e. Urdu. The meaning of the source text is closer to the meaning oftarget text.2. ROMAN JAKOBSON: THE NATURE OF LINGUISTIC MEANING ANDEQUIVALENCE:Roman Jakobson in On Linguistic Aspects of Translation, described three kinds of translation;intralingual, interlingual and inter-semiotic. Jacobson examined the key issues of interlingualtranslation (i.e. translation between two different written languages) notably linguistic meaningand equivalence.Jakobson has built his model on the relation set out by Saussure between the signifier (thespoken and written signal) and the signified (the concept).together, the signifier and the signifiedform the linguistic meaning; that is arbitrary. He then moves on to consider the thorny problemof equivalence in meaning between words in different languages. Jacobson says that: „There isordinarily no full equivalence between code-units.‟Jakobson‟s model of linguistic meaning and equivalence is applicable to the translation of AFarewell to Arms as Widaa-e-Jung. For example, the English word patriot is translated in Urduas Razaa kaar. Though there is no full equivalence between code-units in English and Urdu butstill the meaning is conveyed. For the message to be „equivalent‟ in source text (ST) and targettext (TT), the code-units will be different since they belong to two different sign systems(languages) which partition reality differently.
  18. 18. 18Translation studies projectAs in Jakobson‟s description, interlingual translation involves ‘substituting messages in onelanguage not for separate code-units but for entire messages in some other language’. Thus it isnot any inability of one language to render a message that has been written in another verballanguage. (Jakobson 1959/2004; 139)For Jakobson, cross-linguistic differences centre on obligatory grammatical and lexical forms;‘languages differ essentially in what they must convey and not in what they may convey’.(Jakobson 1959/2004; 139)The differences in interlingual translation (English-Urdu, vice versa) occur at:1. The Level of Gender:There are certain nouns which are feminine in English language but are masculine orneutral in Urdu. Likewise, sometimes it is the other way around. For example,ST (Source Text) TT (Target Text)A bat flewPage no. 75Page no.111the moon shone throughPage no. 261Page no. 290the lake widenedPage no. 261Page no. 290the wind blewPage no. 276Page no. 305they should declare war on her (Austria)Page no. 79 Page no. 84From the above examples it can be observed that „moon‟ is neutral in English while it ismasculine in Urdu. Likewise, „Austria‟ is feminine in English while masculine in Urdu.
  19. 19. 19Translation studies project2. The Level of Aspect:The level of aspect involves the change of part of speech.ST (Source Text) TT (Target Text)I couldn’t conscientiously open a kneePage no. 97Page no. 106Don’t talkPage no. 97Page no. 106As in the above-given examples, „Conscientiously‟ is adverb in English while it is nounin the Target text i.e. Urdu.3. The Level of Semantic Fields:The main focus of the level of semantic fields is equivalence in meaning between the twolanguages.ST (Source Text) TT (Target Text)RacesPage no. 94Page no. 134BandagedPage no. 94Page no. 134BowedPage no. 115Page no. 167sunsetPage no. 57Page no. 48tanneriesPage no. 188
  20. 20. 20Translation studies projectPage no. 208UndressingPage no. 38Page no. 36horse-drawn cartsPage no. 188Page no. 208British batteriesPage no. 42Page no. 41wedge like gapPage no. 261Page no. 290steerPage no. 261Page no. 290under your armPage no. 261Page no. 290ClosePage no. 260Page no. 289noblePage no. 260Page no. 289marblePage no. 260Page no. 289ambulancePage no. 260Page no. 289As in the first example, there is one word „sunset‟ in the source text while in the Urdu languagein order to achieve equivalence in meaning, it has been translated into more than one words inUrdu.
  21. 21. 21Translation studies projectVINAY AND DARBELNET’S MODEL:Vinay and Darbelnet carried out a comparative stylistic analysis of French and English. Theynoted the differences and identified the translation strategies and „procedure‟ in the texts of boththe languages i.e. source text and target text. The two general strategies identified by them are:1. Direct translation2. Oblique translationBoth the strategies comprising seven procedures can be found in the translation of the text AFarewell to Arms into Widaa-e-Jung.Direct Translation:Direct translation is a literal or word for word translation. It covers the following threeprocedures:1. Borrowing:In borrowing, the word in the source language (SL) is directly transferred into targetlanguage (TL). It is done to bridge the semantic gap between two languages. For example,ST (Source Text) TT (Target Text)stationpage no. 116Page no. 168RadiatorPage no. 140Page no. 208firstPage no. 108Page no. 104machinePage no. 108Page no. 104x-ray
  22. 22. 22Translation studies projectPage no. 108 Page no. 104surgeonPage no. 108Page no. 104ShawlPage no. 191Page no. 214GearPage no. 191Page no. 214socialistPage no. 191Page no. 214regimentPage no. 191Page no. 214SeatsPage no. 35Page no. 45unitPage no. 35Page no. 45messPage no. 35Page no. 45EspagettePage no. 35Page no. 45BenchPage no. 35Page no. 45truckPage no. 35Page no. 45stock-yardPage no. 35Page no. 45
  23. 23. 23Translation studies projectCabinPage no. 35Page no. 45hoylePage no. 35Page no. 45porchPage no. 35 Page no. 45OrderPage no. 35Page no. 45In all of the above examples words in source language are directly transferred in target text.2. Calque:Calque is „a special kind of borrowing‟ in which the source language expression istransferred in a literal translation. For example,ST (Source Text) TT (Target Text)Fuse capPage no. 80Page no. 118MedalsPage no. 118Page no. 174clearing stationpage no. 135Page no. 201Field hospitalsPage no. 135Page no. 201metal to metal brakesPage no. 35Page no. 45
  24. 24. 24Translation studies projectgolden gatePage no. 35Page no. 45wheelPage no. 35Page no. 45SergeantPage no. 35Page no. 45differentialPage no. 35Page no. 45ambulancePage no. 35Page no. 45In the above examples, Urdu substitutes of the words like ambulance, golden gate etc could beused by the author, but he borrowed these words as it is from the source text, and transferred thesource language expression in a literal translation.3. Literal Translation:It means word for word translation. For example,ST (Source Text) TT (Target Text)RottenPage no. 182Page no. 271Delightful languagePage no. 185Page no. 276Noble young manPage no. 74Page no.109Good man
  25. 25. 25Translation studies projectPage no. 189 Page no. 210Good nightPage no. 190Page no. 210In cases where literal translation is not possible, the strategy of oblique translation is used.2. Oblique Translation:Oblique translation refers to the free translation of the source text into the target text. Thefollowing four procedures fall in the oblique translation.1) Transposition:It is a change of one part of speech for another without changing the sense. For example,ST (Source Text) TT (Target Text)You talked out loudPage no. 143Page no. 213He slept heavilyPage no. 211Page no. 234‘I was very extravagant darling’, she said,‘but it’s a fine.’Page no. 148Page no. 161In the first example, the word „loud‟ is a verb in the source language which shows some action.While in its translation it has been changed to noun that is „bol‟. Similarly in the secondexample, the word „slept‟ is a verb in the source language which shows some action. While in itstranslation it has been changed to noun that is „neend‟
  26. 26. 26Translation studies project2) Modulation:It changes the semantics and point of view of source language. It exists in sentences wherethe translator changes the sentences in such a way e.g. affirmative to negative, active topassive, etc. but meaning remains the same as shown through the given examples. Forexample,ST (Source Text) TT (Target Text)If I had brains I wouldn‟t be here.Page no. 151 Page no. 225Why haven‟t you brains, anarchist?Page no. 151 Page no. 225the Austrians were sons of bitchesPage no. 95 Page no. 104I shook hands with the third doctorPage no. 98. . Page no. 107you wouldn’t be in bedPage no. 108Page no. 99we’re all friends herePage no. 160 Page no. 177I didn’t say anythingPage no. 211 Page no. 233no one was talkingPage no. 215 Page no. 238
  27. 27. 27Translation studies project3) Equivalence:Equivalence is used to refer to the cases where different languages describe the samesituation by different stylistic or structural means.ST (Source Text) TT (Target Text)It was all right.Page no.185Page no. 273It is a very unattractive wisdomPage no. 187 Page no. 279I said I had killed plentyPage no. 95Page no. 104And much lifting I was upstairs and in bedagainPage no. 95Page no. 104an army travels on its stomachPage no. 195Page no. 216In the above examples, the translator has used idioms and proverbial expressions whiletranslating simple sentences but still the meaning is fully conveyed.4) Adaptation:It involves the changing of cultural reference when a situation in the source language culturedoesn‟t exist in the target language culture. For example,
  28. 28. 28Translation studies projectST (Source Text) TT (Target Text)Go to hellPage no. 52Page no. 73I hope to Christ not.Page no. 149Page no. 222it was like being put to bed after earlysupperPage no. 72Page no. 75for Christ’s sweet sake take me to someroomPage no. 83Page no. 91Christ, I say it’s rottenI say it’s rotten. JesusPage no. 40Page no. 39Jesus Christ, ain’t this all a goddamn war?Page no. 41 Page no. 40they’ll shell the hell out of usPage no. 52Page no. 50The given examples show that the writer has used or changed the words according to his beliefsand cultural context.KATHARINA REISS’S TEXT TYPOLPGY:The target text (TT) i.e. Widaa-e-Jung is both an expressive and informative text.
  29. 29. 29Translation studies projectThe informative text is one which provides us information about the facts. In this case, thetarget text provides us information about the details and horrors of the World War.1. Language and Dimension:Being an informative text, the Target Text represents the full accounts of objects and figure.Examples from the source and target texts are given below:ST (Source Text) TT (Target Text)At the front they were advancing on the Carso,they had taken Kuk across from Plava andwere taking the Bain-sizza plateau.Page no. 85Page no. 97Many Germans in Italian uniform mixing withthe retreat in the North. That as one of thosethings you always heard in the warPage no. 209.Page no. 232Not in war times. I don’t think they let theItalians cross the frontier.Page no. 267Page no. 296I am sorry, we haven’t any rolls in war timePage no. 268.Page no. 297The above examples show that the text type is „plain communication of facts‟ i.e. it isinformative and referential.
  30. 30. 30Translation studies project2. Text Focus:The Target Text (TT) is content-focused and descriptive as well. For example:ST (Source Text) TT (Target Text)We walked down the stairs instead of takingthe elevator. The carpet on the stairs wasworn. I had paid for the dinner.Page no. 115Page no. 167We got into Milan early in the morning andthey unloaded us in the freight yard. Anambulance took me to the American hospitalPage no. 62Page no. 89Catherine Barkley was greatly liked by thenurses because she would do night dutyindefinitely.Page no. 107Page no. 118At the start of the winter came the permanentrain and with the rain came the cholera. But itwas checked and in the end only seventhousand died of it in the army.Page no. 7(page no. 6)
  31. 31. 31Translation studies projectThe text is expressive text and transmits the aesthetic and artistic form of Source text. Thetranslation uses the „identifying‟ method; still the translator is adopting the stand point of STauthor. For example,ST (Source Text) TT (Target Text)I watched her brushing her hair, holding herhead so the weight of her hair all came on oneside. It was dark outside and the light over thehead of the bed shone on her hair and on herneck.Page no. 184 Page no. 275When I awake after the operation I had notbeen away. You do not go away They onlychoke you. It is not like dying, it is just achemical choking, so you do not feel, andafterwards you might as well have been drunkexcept that when you throw up nothing comesbut bile and you do not feel better afterwardsPage no. 106(page no 117)
  32. 32. 32Translation studies projectI am afraid of rain because sometimes I see medead in itPage no. 125Page no. 133The shutters were up but it was still going oninside. Page no. 38Page no. 36It seems she had one hemorrhage afteranother. They couldn’t stop it. I went into theroom and stayed with Catherine until she died.She was unconscious all the time, and it didnot take her very long to diePage no. 317Page no. 352Blow, blow ye Western wind.Page no. 191 Page no. 212From the given examples, it can also be said that the text is a „creative composition‟ that isaesthetic and expressive.ASHFAQ AHMAD AS A TRANSLATOR:Importance of translator is defined as; „...the translator is a bilingual mediating agent betweenmonolingual communication participants in two different language communities4‟.4David Katan‟s Translating Cultures (2004: 16).
  33. 33. 33Translation studies projectRole of a translator varies from culture to culture, country to country, and from text to text.Translator acts as a mediator or reconciliatory and bridges the gap between source text (ST) andaesthetics of the source text in the target text.In the translation of the novel A Farewell to Arms as Widaa-e-Jang Ashfaq Ahmad has played arole of both mediator and creator.As a translator, Ashfaq Ahmad is first and foremost a mediator between the two parties forwhom mutual communication might otherwise be problematic. He not only possessed a bilingualability but also had bicultural vision. He has tried to overcome the incompatibilities which standin the way of transfer of meaning. There are certain signs which have the value in one culturalcommunity but are devoid of significance in another. Ashfaq Ahmad being a creative translatorhas identified and resolved the disparity between two cultures.Furthermore, the translation of the title of the novel (A farewell to Arms as Widaa-e-Jang) alsoreflects his creative ability as a translator. The translation of the title of our source text is aliterary one. Because Ashfaq Ahmad has not translated it word for word but he has conveyed thesense which renders the connotative power present in the original English words of the title.Widaa- e -Jang reflects Ashfaq Ahmad‟s reading and defines him as a non ordinary reader. Hehas also involved his own beliefs and values in the process of translation and has also skippedcertain sentences and paragraphs in his translation. In most part of the novel he has translatedmany simple sentences in the form of proverbs.Widaa-e-Jang reflects Ashfaq Ahmad‟s reading and defines him as a non-ordinary reader. Inshort, looking at the general and specific analysis of the novel, the translator‟s role as a creatorand mediator can be justified. He has attempted to present the original text‟s theme and mainidea with great fidelity and care.FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION:An analysis of the target text(TT) and the source text(ST) i.e. Farewell to the arms by EarnestHemingway and Wida-e-Jung by Ashfaq Ahmed, exhibits the Equivalent effect, No formalcorrespondence, Proverbial expressions, Natural and easy expressions, Sense for sense
  34. 34. 34Translation studies projecttranslation, Changed according to personal beliefs, Skipping of paragraphs and sentences,Aesthetics is preserved/maintainedAll the four models given above are fully applicable to the translation of A Farewell to Arms. Ina crux it can be said that, Widaa-e-Jung is a fine translation of A Farewell to Arms by AshfaqAhmed. It carries traces of different approaches and theoretical frameworks of translation givenby theorists.REFERENCES:
  35. 35. 35Translation studies projectIntroducing Translation Studies by Jeremy Munday, 2nd EditionA Farewell To Arms by Earnest HemingwayWidaa-e-Jang by Ashfaq Ahmed