DIRECT METHOD AND GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHODDIRECT METHOD: The direct method of teaching was developed as a responseto the Grammar-Translation method. It sought to immerse the learner in thesame way as when a first language is learnt. All teaching is done in the targetlanguage, grammar is taught inductively, there is a focus on speaking andlistening, and only useful ‘everyday language is taught. The weakness in theDirect Method is its assumption that a second language can be learnt in exactlythe same way as a first, when in fact the conditions under which a secondlanguage is learnt are very different. This approach, also known as the oral or natural method, originatedaround the 1900s as an alternative to the traditional grammatical translationmethod. At this time teachers were starting to experiment with teaching andeducational models as previous techniques were failing to improve spokencommunication.Direct teaching is a systematic instructional method that foremost requires theteacher to have a command of the subject matter at as close to a mastery level,middle school level, high school level, college level or adult education level, thatthe teacher thoroughly “understand” the content. Direct Instruction is based on behaviorist learning principles. Therefore iteffectively helps in obtaining students’ attention, reinforcing correct responses,providing corrective feedback, and practicing correct responses. Tends toincrease the academic learning time, or the amount of instructional time duringwhich students are attending to the task and performing at a high success rate.Studies show that students learn basic skills more rapidly when they receive agreater portion of their instruction directly from the teacher. The Direct Method continues to provoke interest and enthusiasm today, butit is not an easy methodology to use in a classroom situation. It requires smallclasses and high student motivation, and in the artificial environment of aclassroom it is difficult to generate natural situations of understanding andguarantee sufficient practice for everyone.Some characteristics of this method are: • Lessons are in the target language. • There is a focus on everyday vocabulary. • Visual aids are used to teach vocabulary. • Particular attention is placed on the accuracy of pronunciation and grammar. • A systematic approach is developed for comprehension and oral expression. • Grammar, when it is taught, is taught inductively.
• The vocabulary and structure of the language are inculcated to a large extent by the teacher and answered by students. • The meanings of words and forms are taught by means of object or natural context. • Oral teaching precedes any form of reading and writing.ADVANTAGES OF DIRECT METHOD:1) It makes the learning of English interesting and lively by establishing directbond between a word and its meaning.2) It is an activity method facilitating alertness and participation of the pupils.3) According to Macnee, "It is the quickest way of getting started". In a fewmonths over 500 of the commonest English words can be learnt and used insentences. This serves as a strong foundation of further learning.4) Due to application of the Direct Method, students are able to understand whatthey learn, think about it and then express their own ideas in correct Englishabout what they have read and learnt.5) Psychologically it is a sound method as it proceeds from the concrete to theabstract.6) This method can be usefully employed from the lowest to the highest class.7) Through this method, fluency of speech, good pronunciation and power ofexpression are properly developed.Disadvantages of Direct Method:1) There are many abstract words which cannot be interpreted directly in Englishand much time and energy are wasted in making attempts for the purpose.2) This method is based on the principles that auditory appeal is stronger thatvisual. But there are children who learn more with visual than with their oral-aural sense like ears and tongue.3) The method ignores systematic written work and reading activities andsufficient attention is not paid to reading and writing.4) Since in this method, grammar is closely bound up with the reader, difficulty isexperienced in providing readers of such kind.5) There is dearth of teachers trained and interested in teaching English in thismethod.6) This method may not hold well in higher classes where the Translation Methodis found suitable.7) In larger classes, this method is not properly applied and teaching in thismethod does not suit or satisfy the needs of individual students in large classes.Grammar Translation Method: Sometimes also known as the Classical Method, this is a traditionalteaching technique that was used to teach Latin and Greek and was particularlyin vogue during the 16th Century.
This teaching method is still common in many countries and institutionsaround the world, and still appeals to those interested in languages froman intellectual or linguistic perspective. However, it does little to improve yourability to use the language for oral communication. Grammar-translation method of teaching foreign language is one of themost traditional methods, it was originally used to teach ‘dead’ languages andliteratures, such as, Latin and Greek, involving little or no spoken communicationor listening comprehension. It was designed according to the facultypsychology approach which was very popular during the 18th and 19th century.It contended that” mental discipline was essential for strengthening the powers ofthe mind”. The Grammar-Translation Method has been used by language teachers formany years. In this century, this method was used for the purpose of helpingstudents read and appreciate foreign language. To understand the grammar ofthe target language, the teacher and the students use their native language formaking the grammar more familiar. This method is probably true that is not newto many of you. An important goal is for students to be able to translate eachlanguage into the other. If students can translate from one language into another,they are considerate successful language learners. The teacher asks students in their native language if they have anyquestion. A student asks one and is answered in her native language. Theprimary skills to be developed are reading and writing. Little attention is given tospeaking and listening, and almost none to pronunciation. The teacher is theauthority in the classroom. It is very important that students get the correctanswer. When the students translate new words from native language into targetlanguage, they have to find native language which equivalents for all targetlanguage words. Learning is facilitated through attention to similarities betweenthe target language and the native language. It is important for students to learnabout the form of the target language. Students apply a rule to examples they are given. And they have tomemorize vocabulary also. When the teacher asks students to state the grammarrule, the students should be conscious of the grammatical rules of the targetlanguage. Students memorize present tense, past tense, and past participleforms of one set of irregular verbs. The roles are very traditional. The teacher is the authority in the classroom.The students do as she says so they can learn what she knows. Students studygrammar deductively: that is, they are given the grammar rules and examples,are told to memorize them, and then asked to apply the rules to other examples.They also learn grammatical paradigms such as verb conjugations. The
memorize native-language equivalents for target-language vocabulary words. Vocabulary and grammar are emphasized. Reading and writing are theprimary skills that the students work on. There is much less attention given tospeaking and listening. Grammar rules are presented with example. Exceptionsto each rule are also noted. Once students understand a rule, they are asked toapply it to some different examples. In order to show that students understandthe meaning and use of a new vocabulary item, they make up sentences in whichthey use the new words. Students are given lists of the target language vocabulary words and theirnative language equivalents and are asked to memorize them. Students are alsorequired to memorize grammatical paradigms such as verb conjugations. Theteacher gives the students a topic to write about in the target language. The topicis based upon some aspect of the reading passage of the lesson. The Grammar Translation Method was developed for the study of “dead”languages and to facilitate access to those languages’ classical literature. That’sthe way it should stay. English is certainly not a dead or dying language, so anyteacher that takes “an approach for dead language study” into an Englishlanguage classroom should perhaps think about taking up Math or Scienceinstead. Rules, universals and memorized principles apply to those disciplines –pedagogy and communicative principles do not.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DIRECT METHOD AND TRANSLATIONGRAMMATICAL METHOD: Direct Method and Grammar Translation Method are the two oldestmethods for teaching foreign languages. Grammar Translation Method firstappeared in the 18th century and was originally used for teaching old languageslike Greek, Latin then failed in teaching communication skills. After that, DirectMethod was built with the attempts to overcome the weakness of the GrammarTranslation Method. As a result of that, there are many differences in theprinciples of these two methods which will be summarized into following mainones.GRAMMAR: In direct method the teacher provides the knowledge in grammar inductivelythrough speak. On the other hand, the grammar translation method is focused ongrammar rules and their application is learned through rules.
VOCABULARY: In direct method, the vocabulary is learned through practice everyday, andin grammar translation method, the vocabulary is learned from the directtranslation of the L1. The students learn through rules.TEACHER’S ATTITUDE: The role of teacher is very important, they ask to the students constantly,encourage them to participate in class and correct their mistakes immediately. Ingrammar translation method, the role of the teachers is not very active becausethey just limit their work to translate for the students.STUDENT’S ROLE: The students are very actives, their oral communication skills areemphasized, and they have to speak a lot in direct method. The accuracy fromthe students is expected and they have to practice by translation in grammartranslation method.SKILLS TO BE IMPROVED: In direct method, oral communications skills were built up in a carefullygrade, and in grammar translation method, primary skills to be improved reading-writing.CONCLUSION: Through the realization of this work is more clear to us the differencebetween this two methods, as features teachers we have to know andunderstand it in order to make a class productive, and using the best of thedidactic methods in education, we are going to improved the knowledge of ourstudents and at the same time we will have the opportunity to experiment withdifferent types of education to choose or create our own method.