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    code mixing and code switching code mixing and code switching Document Transcript

    • CODE MIXING- ICE CANDY-MAN1 ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………PAGE # 11.1 BACK GROUND STUDY…………………………………………PAGE # 21.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM………………..PAGE # 21.3 AIMS & OBJECTIVES…………………………………………….PAGE # 21.4 LIMITATIONS AND DELIMITATIONS…………………………PAGE # 31.5 METHODOLOGY………………………………………………….PAGE # 32 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………..PAGE # 42.3 DEFINE LANGUAGE……………………………………………..PAGE # 42.4 SOCIOLINGUISTIC……………………………………………….PAGE # 42.5 CODE………………………………………………………………PAGE # 52.6 SPEECH COMMUINITY…………………………………………PAGE # 62.7 BILINGUALISM/MULTILINGUALISM…………………………PAGE # 63 CODE-MIXING………………………………………………………PAGE # 73.1 FEATURES OF CODE-MIXING…………………………………PAGE # 83.2 CODE-MIXING LINGUISTIC FORM……………………………PAGE # 83.3 CODE-MIXING SOCIO CULTURAL MEANING………………PAGE # 93.4 TYPES OF CODE-MIXING……………………………………....PAGE # 93.5 REASON OF CODE-MIXING…………………………………...PAGE # 103.6 CODE-MIXING IN PAKISTAN……………………………………PAGE # 103.7 CODE-MIXING IN LITERATURE………………………………...PAGE # 104 CONCLUSION……………………………………………………...PAGE # 145 REFRENCES………………………………………………………..PAGE # 15SOCIOLINGUISTICS Page 1
    • CODE MIXING- ICE CANDY-MANABSTRACT: Through this project we present an analysis of Urdu-English code-mixing inPakistani English. However, data has been analyzed only at the phrase and clause level. Based ona novel from Pakistani English Literature, this research aims to show that code-mixing is not agrammarless phenomenon rather it is ruled governed activity at the phrase and clause level. Thisresearch suggests that variations and changes in a language are an integral part of bilingualismand multilingualism. All the present data shows that the occurrences of various Urdu phrases andclauses impose no ungrammatical effect on the construction of English syntax. Language plays an important role in the society and this leads to the study of codemixing in relation to sociolinguistics and how code mixed utterances have been triggered as aresult of language gap, stylistic motivations, domains, societal factors, message intrinsic factors,physical settings and situational factors. This work examined how these motivations haveresulted in code mixed utterances by critically analyzing randomly selected utterances from theselected text from „ICE-CANDY MAN. We find many Urdu phrases in English sentences in thistext, which brings out the creative and unpredictable nature of language users. It is therefore safeto conclude that motivations for code mixing enhance communication among peoplelinguistically united or disjointed.Key words: Bilingualism, multilingualism, code-switching and code mixing, non-nativevarieties of English.SOCIOLINGUISTICS Page 2
    • CODE MIXING- ICE CANDY-MAN GENERAL INTRODUCTION:1.1 BACKGROUND STUDY:Society impinges on language, and language impinges on the society. Hence, there must be arelationship existing between language and society. The interdependency of these two entities,language and society led to the study of sociolinguistics. Sociolinguistics is the study of allaspects of linguistics applied towards the connections between language and society, and the waywe use it in different language situations. Language is seen as a unifying force and a commonground among various people through which effective communication is carried out. It hashowever been noticed that even within the same language, there are different ways or styles ofspeaking.1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM:The multilingual nature of the country and some individuals‟ multilingual or bilingualcompetence and the inter-language relationship existing between English language and ournative language that led to code-mixing in conversation, discourse and communicativecompetence. These lead to the following questions  Is there any limit or restriction to code-mixing?  Is code-mixing really necessary in communication?  What informs code-mixing?1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:This research is informed by questions arising from code-mixing in our daily conversation withone another. This research focuses on some literary texts in which Urdu language predominatesin the English medium used. This research attempts at discovering why the people code mix intheir conversation. This study will examine the various reasons and motivations for code-mixing.This study will look at how the people have arrive at a communicative end via code-mixing andexamines the success or otherwise of this trend.SOCIOLINGUISTICS Page 3
    • CODE MIXING- ICE CANDY-MAN1.4 DELIMITATION AND LIMITATION:Due to the level of knowledge and understanding of the English, Urdu and Pidgin languages, wewill cover some selected literary text of Pakistani literature in English, in which these languagesare used, and our work is limited to code-mixing in this project.1.5 METHODOLOGY:Ten chapters of the novel Ice-Candy Man will be chosen randomly from The Pakistani Literaturein English, these chapters will be analyzed alongside the reasons and motivations for code-mixing. Data has been analyzed only at the phrase and clause level.SOCIOLINGUISTICS Page 4
    • CODE MIXING- ICE CANDY-MAN 2. INTRODUCTION:2.1 LANGUAGE:Language is a major means of identifying a set of people, nation or country. Hornby (list oflinguists), defines language as the system of communication in speech and writing that is used bya people of a particular country.The word „language‟ is derived from „lingua‟ the Latin word for tongue, which rightlyemphasizes the speech aspect as basic in language. It is often called that „man is a social being‟;and what, perhaps, plays the vital role in enabling man to act as a „social being‟ is his ability touse language for communication. Language is the fundamental tool for social interaction thatopens up the possibilities to convey, inform and share different ideas, thoughts, messages,feelings and viewpoints.Babatunde asserts that:The indispensability of language has been inexorably tied to the existence of man in the society.Language plays an important role in our lives.Sellers assert that:“Language is intrinsic to the way we think, to the way we construct our groups and selfidentities, to the way we perceive the world and organize our social relationships and politicalsystems”.According to another linguist Whitman:“language is not an abstract construction of the learned or of dictionary-makers, but is somethingarising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, andhas its basis broad and low close to the ground”.2.2 SOCIOLINGUISTICS:Human beings are great travelers, traders and colonizers. The mythical tales of nearly all culturestell tales of the trials and tribulations of travel and exploration, such as those of “Ulysses” inHomer‟s “Odyssey”. Surely, one of the tribulations of ranging outward from your house issooner or later you will encounter people who do not speak your language, nor you theirs. Someparts of the world, we may not have to travel farther than the next door to find languagesdisconnect and other part we may have to cross the ocean. This situation is so common inhuman history and society, several solutions for bridging this communication gap have arisen,sociolinguistics being one.SOCIOLINGUISTICS Page 5
    • CODE MIXING- ICE CANDY-MANMany scholars have discussed sociolinguistics and have come up with several definitions basedon their individual perspectives. Hudson defines sociolinguistics as, the study of language inrelation to the society. It is the study of language as it affects and is being affected by socialrelations; it is also the study of language and linguistic behavior as influenced by social andcultural factors.Holmes defines sociolinguistics as, the way people use language in different contexts, and theway people indicate aspects of their social identity through language. Sociolinguistics is ascientific discipline developed from the cooperation of linguistics and sociology that investigatesthe social meaning of the language system and language use, and the common set of conditionsof linguistic and social structure.Fishman defines sociolinguistics as the study of the characteristics of language varieties, thecharacteristics of their functions, and the characteristics of their speakers as these threeconstantly interact, change and change one another within a speech community.Anything that either examines language in its social context or investigates social life throughlinguistics could be referred to as sociolinguistics. Sociolinguistics is the study and analyses oflanguage; its nature, characteristics as well as its structure in relation to the society where itfunctions. The focus of sociolinguistics is the effect of the society on the language.Sociolinguistics actually does not discuss a structure of a language, but it focuses on how alanguage is used, so it could play its function well. From this statement, we can get a descriptionthat people also face language conflicts before sociolinguistics appears. So it is clear now that therole of sociolinguistics is to manage a language as its functions in society, or in other wordssociolinguistics deals with a language as means of communication.2.3 CODE:In everyday interaction, people usually choose different codes in different situation. Theymay choose a particular code or variety because it makes them easier to discuss a particulartopic, regardless where they are speaking. When talking about work or school at home, forinstance, they may use the language that is related to those fields rather than the language used indaily language communication at home.A code is a system that is used by people to communicate with each other. When people want totalk each other, they have to choose a particular code to express their feeling. According toStockwell, a code is “a symbol of nationalism that is used by people to speak or communicate ina particular language, or dialect, or register, or accent, or style on different occasions and fordifferent purposes.”SOCIOLINGUISTICS Page 6
    • CODE MIXING- ICE CANDY-MANRonald Wardaugh also maintains that a code can be defined as “a system used forcommunication between two or more parties used on any occasions.” When two or morepeople communicate with each other in speech, we can call the system of communication thatthey employ a code. Therefore, people are usually required to select a particular codewhenever they choose to speak, and they may also decide to switch from one code toanother or to mix codes, sometimes in very short utterances and it means to create a code.From those opinions of the code given by many linguists above, we can make conclusionthat a code can be said as a language. The code is a form of the language variation that isused by a society to make communication with other people.2.4 SPEECH COMMUNITY:Human beings are social beings who are always committed to a certain group of people called acommunity. A particular community has its own characteristics, including the way of itscommunication. This community is called speech community.Bloomfield offers the simple definition of speech community. He says that a speech communityis a group of people who interact by means of speech. Spolsky also defines speech community as“all the people who speak a single language and so share notions of what is same or different inphonology or grammar.”Because of the system, Gumperz further states that “the language of a speech community can beanalyzed both within the context of the language itself and also within the broader context ofsocial behavior”. One example of this phenomenon is language switching and mixing.2.5 BILINGUALISM/ MULTILINGUALISM:Most people as speakers usually occupy more than one code and require a selected codewhenever they choose to speak with other people. The phenomenon of people having two ormore than two codes (languages) is called bilingualism or multilingualism.To clarify the term bilingualism or multilingualism, Spolsky defines a bilingual as “a personwho has some functional ability in the second language.” This may vary from a limited abilityin one or more domains, to very strong command of both languages. According toBloomfield, bilingualism is a situation where a speaker can use two languages as well.Gumperz also mentions that bilingual people usually use their own idioms for in-groupcommunication and the common language for their interaction and communication withoutsiders. In this case, the bilinguals have a repertoire of domain-related rules of languagechoice meaning that bilinguals are able to choose which language that he is going to use.SOCIOLINGUISTICS Page 7
    • CODE MIXING- ICE CANDY-MANIn other words, since the members of a bilingual community vary in the capacity of masteringthe languages used in the community, they have to be able to set a condition where they cancommunicate effectively. This condition leads them to do code switching and code mixing.3. CODE MIXING:Code-mixing is the change of one language to another within the same utterance or in the sameoral/written text. It is a common phenomenon in societies in which two or more languages areused. Studies of code-mixing enhance our understanding of the nature, processes and constraintsof language and of the relationship between language use and individual values, communicativestrategies, language attitudes and functions within particular socio-cultural contexts.Code mixing is a mixing of two codes or languages, usually without a change of topic. Nababansaid that, code mixing is found mainly in informal interactions. In formal situation, the speakertends to mix it because there is no exact idiom in that language, so it is necessary to usewords or idioms from other language.Referring to the different characteristics and features of code-mixing, various linguists havedefined it in different ways. For instance O”Numan and Carter define code-mixing as, “a phenomenon of switching from one language toanother in the same discourse.” According to Berthold, Mangubhai and Bartorowiez 1997, code-mixing occurs when speakers shift from one language to the other in the midst of theirconversation. Thus this definition accommodates inter-sentential switching and intra-sententialmixing both under the term code switching.Code-mixing is an interesting phenomenon in bilingual societies. Code-mixing leads to languagehybridization that in turn gives birth to the issues of language maintenance, shift, and desertion.Wardhaugh (1992), characterizes that code mixing occurs when during conversation, speakers“use both languages together to the extent that they shift from one language to the other in thecourse of a single utterance”. In code-mixing sentences, pieces of one language are used while aspeaker basically using another language.Code mixing is a mixing of two codes or languages, usually without a change of topic. Codemixing often occurs within one sentence, one element is spoken in language A and the rest inlanguage B. In addition, Nababan, a linguist, said that code mixing is found mainly in informalinteractions. In formal situation, the speaker tends to mix it because there is no exact idiom inthat language, so it is necessary to use words or idioms from other language.SOCIOLINGUISTICS Page 8
    • CODE MIXING- ICE CANDY-MAN At last, we can say the phenomenon of bilingualism results in the occurrence of code mixing. Ithappens when a speaker requires a particular code, in order to switch or mix one code to anotherand even create a new code.3.1 FEATURES OF CODE MIXING:Code-mixing is a phenomenon of switching one language to another in such communities wherepeople are bilingualism or multilingualism. If we talk about features of code mixing then wecome top know that; Sridhar, a linguist, has elaborated the following three features of codemixing through analysis of a text.These features are an applicable on the everyday language use:  The mixed elements are on every level of grammatical organization such as noun, verbs, attributive and predicative adjectives, and noun phrases etc.  The mixed elements are not specifically culture oriented or „culture bond‟. They are mostly from day to day life and every day usage items, which have acceptable equivalent in the language in which they are mixed.  The mixed elements obey the rules of the original language from which they are taken as far as their grammatical organization is concerned3.2 CODE MIXING: LINGUISTIC FORM:In some subjects we have difficulty in coding for language diaries due to delicate differentiationbetween our mother language and English mix in daily utterances. In some cases, English propernames and acronyms were not counted as English linguistic elements. In others, certain Englishwords have become somewhat lexicalized in some other language and treated as pure parts ofthat language. Examples include “Mummy” (mama), “BB” (baby), “OK” and “Bye-Bye”.In fact, the difficulty in coding has highlighted a significant issue: how mixed is a mixed code?Code-mixing refers to any admixture of linguistic elements of two or more language systems inthe same utterance at various levels: phonological, lexical, grammatical and orthographical. Dueto constraints of space, the discussion will focus on lexical and grammatical code-mixing.  Phrases  Short forms  Proper nounsSOCIOLINGUISTICS Page 9
    • CODE MIXING- ICE CANDY-MAN  Lexical words  Incomplete sentences  Letters of the alphabet  Single full sentences and two-sentence Units3.3 CODE MIXING: SOCIO CULTURAL MEANING:Code mixing plays a very significant role in language variation, and also provides an insight intothe socio-cultural phenomena taking place in that area or region, through the linguistic choices ofthe people. Code mixing is done in almost all the languages of the world; however, South Asia isa fertile field for search in code mixing since in all South Asian countries a wide range of codesexist simultaneously, and their interaction given way to code mixing. Code mixing is a socialphenomenon; and social and linguistic characteristics of code mixing are interlinked. The socialaspects of code mixing i.e. the setting, addressee, and addresser as well as other social factorsuch as prestige attached to a particular language, socio-historical background of a language etc.determine the linguistic choices and preferences in the process of code mixing. On the other handthe linguistic choices of items to be code mixed reflect the socio-cultural context.3.4 TYPES OF CODE MIXING:  Intra-lexical code mixing:  Involving a change of pronunciation  Intra-sentential switching / code mixingINTRA-LEXICAL MIXING:This kind of code mixing which occurs within a word boundary. The insertion of well-defined chunks of language B into a sentence that otherwise belongs to language A. Insertion ofwords from one language into a structure of another language.INVOLVING A CHANGE OF PRONUNCIATION:This kind of code mixing occurs at the phonological level, as when Indonesian people sayan English word, but modify it to Indonesian phonological structure. For instance, theword „strawberry‟ is said to be „stroberi‟ by Indonesian people. The use of element from eitherlanguage in a structure that is wholly or partly shared by languages A or B.SOCIOLINGUISTICS Page 10
    • CODE MIXING- ICE CANDY-MANINTRA-SENTENTIAL:The succession of fragments in language A and B in a sentence, which is overall not identifiableas belonging to either A, or B and do come again. `Thats all right then, and do come again.3.5 REASON OF CODE-MIXINGWhen code mixing occurs, the motivation or reasons of the speaker is an important considerationin the process. According to Hoffman, there are a number of reasons for bilingual or multilingualperson to switch or mix their languages. Those are:  Interjection  Quoting somebody else  Expressing group identity  Because of real lexical need  Talking about a particular topic  Repetition used for clarification  Being emphatic about something  To soften or strengthen request or command  Intention of clarifying the speech content for interlocutor  To exclude other people when a comment is intended for only a limited audience3.6 CODE MIXING IN PAKISTAN:The emergence of English as a lingua franca in the recent decades has given rise to the process ofcode mixing of English with the local languages all over the world. This process is significantlyobservable in South Asia and particularly in the Sub-continent. As far as Pakistan is concernedmixing of English words in other codes is a prominent feature of the present socio-linguisticscenario. Code-mixing of English with the national language of Pakistan, Urdu is a commonaspect of the present socio-linguistic situation. Even a layman frequently uses the English wordsin everyday conversation. Thus, such instances can be frequently heard:  Kitna khubsurat scene hai. (noun)  In dono ko compare kro. (verb)  Yeh one-sided report hai. (noun phrase)  Aaj main nay bara tasty kofta curry banaya hai. (noun phrase hybridization)SOCIOLINGUISTICS Page 11
    • CODE MIXING- ICE CANDY-MAN3.7 CODE MIXING IN LITERATURE:Code-mixing is the widely accepted phenomena in the everyday life of bilinguals. PakistaniEnglish Literature in which Pakistani speech communities and characters are depicted is theexamples of these instances. The sociolinguistics types, reasons and context of the code-mixingdone by the characters are traced down in this work which proves that sociolinguistics theoriesare not only applicable to real life situations but also on the written representation of suchsituations by competent authors.ICE-CANDY MAN BY BAPSI SIDHWA: Bapsi Sidhwa is an author of Pakistani origin who writes in English and is resident inAmerica. She describes herself as a "Punjabi-Parsi-Pakistani". Ice Candy Man presents violationof human rights and pathetic conditions during the partition of Subcontinent in 1947. Throughthe character of Lenny, Bapsi Sidhwa gives the details of how the political changes affect thecitizens of India. The novel realistically represents the exploitation and suppression of women.Men using their masculine powers fulfill the desires and brutally assault the women. Sidhwa as anovelist talks about the power and skills of women.Sidhwas novel deals with the partition of India and its aftermaths. This is the first novel by afemale novelist from Pakistan which describes the fate of people in Lahore. The novel deals with"the bloody partition of India through the eyes of a girl Lenny growing up in a Parsee family,surviving through female bonding and rebellion."SIGNIFICANCE OF CODE-MIXING IN NOVEL: Bapsi Sidhwa is an author of Pakistani origin who writes in English and is resident inAmerica. She describes herself as a "Punjabi-Parsi-Pakistani". She mentions Urdu and Punjabiand she wants to dominate her own language because language is the symbol of a personidentity. Sidhwa uses Urdu language in her novel just because she wants to give local touch toher novelWe find many examples of code mixing in this novel “ICE CANDY MAN”. Bapsi Sidhwa is aPakistani writer and she uses Urdu language in her novel just because she wants to give localtouch to her novel. When she wrote this novel she lived in English colonized society, whereUrdu and Punjabi are the common language of the people. She mentions Urdu and Punjabi in hernovel because she wants to dominate her own language because language is the symbol of aperson identity. We find different examples of code-mixing in “ICE CANDY MAN” that isfollowing:“Waris road, lind with rain gutters”………………………………………………….....[Page 1]SOCIOLINGUISTICS Page 12
    • CODE MIXING- ICE CANDY-MAN“A few furlongs away jail road vanishes into the bazaars of mozan chungi”………....[Page 2]“An English gnome wagging a leathery finger in my ayah’s face”…………………….[Page 2]“She sends her ……mini aunty, who with her dogged devotion to my mother”……....[Page 8]“Her eyes twinkling concern, in her grey going out saari”……………………………...[Page 8]“She calls him, Jan: life”……………………………………………………………….[Page 10]“In the faint glow of night bulb”……………………………………………………….[Page 10]“Bhai jee! Wake up”…………………………………………………………………....[Page 10]“Lungar deen! Paisay ka teen! Tamba motaa, pag mahin!”………………………....[Page 3]“She wears only white khaddar saaris”…………………………………………………[Page 4]“And will soon sweep away the Raaj!”………………………………………………...[Page 17]“Shanta pushes the red felt slippers”…………………………………………………....[Page 11]“A thread of saliva stretch to a wet spot on the dhurrie”………………………………[Page 11]“The shawl she has flung aside earlier lies in a heap on the floor”……………………..[Page 11]“A woman in a shabby black burka holds the child”………………………………….[Page 12]“She is called, in moments of needs and gratitude, bijli”……………………………….[Page 21]“Far away I hear a siren, tee-too!”………………………………………………………[Page 21]“Choorails, vitches with turned- about feet, who ate the hearts of children”………….[Page 22]“Coming to get men on his motorcycle”………………………………………………..[Page 22]“He is my little English baba!”…………………………………………………………[Page 25]“Last evening ayah took us for a walk in Simla-pahari”……………………………....[Page 25]“You like jungly lions in zoo”……………………………………………………….....[Page 26]“He is a pahailwan: a wrestler”…………………………………………………………[Page 27]“His shoulders gleam with sweets and a stripped lungi clings to his buttocks and legs”.[Page 27]“Ayah covered my head with her saari palloo”…………………………………………[Page28]SOCIOLINGUISTICS Page 13
    • CODE MIXING- ICE CANDY-MAN“Japanese will help us liberate India from the Angrez”………………………………...[Page 28]“I have never seen you in shalwar-kamize”…………………………………………….[Page 29]“Arrey baba, says ayah”………………………………………………………………..[Page 29]“Duffa ho! Go! She says”……………………………………………………………….[Page 29]“Save me! Save me! Bachao! Bachao!”………………………………………………...[Page 30]“Ayah Shouts: put him down at once, oye, badmash!”………………………………...[Page 30]“Hollow-eyed and dazed with heat we pile perspiring into the Tonga”………………...[Page 32]“Who is going to rule once we get swaraj?”…………………………………………….[Page 36]“Then, at last, the Grand Vazir appeared on deck”……………………………………..[Page 38]“Shabash! Well done! Say the parsees”…………………………………………………[Page 39]“Emperor Akbar invited Zarathushti scholar to his darbaar”…………………………...[Page 40]He is a politician, yaar, says masseur soothingly………………………………………..[Page 91]Arrey, you foolish Sikh……………………………………………………….…………[Page 92]She is forever slapping the dough into chapattis…………………………….………….[Page 94]In the evening she sweeps our compound with a stiff reed jharoo…………………….[Page 94]Because y‟all do “kaan! Kaan!” at the top of your voices like a rowdy flock of crows[Page 100]Aiiay jee, aiiay! Sit, Sufi sahib, sit…………………………………………………..…[Page 100]How will I show my face to Jemadar Tota Ram? …………………………………….[Page103]His head wrapped in a crisp white puggaree, his lungi barely clearing the mud……...[Page 105]A hookah swinging in his right hand…………………………………………………..[Page 105]Wearing calf-length shirts over tight churidar pyjamas, perform the ghadka before driftingwaves of admirers……………………………………………………………………… [Page105]Frying onion pakoras………………………………………………………………….. [Page105]Dost Muhammad appears to have sunk lower into the charpoy……………………….. [Page107]We keep track of things on our chaudhry’s radio………………………………………[Page107]SOCIOLINGUISTICS Page 14
    • CODE MIXING- ICE CANDY-MANMay the ten Gurus help us, ‘the granthi sighs.wah Guru!...............................................[Page107]Here‟s something from your Noni chachi, pahailwan………………………………….[Page108]They cannot throw the Mussulmans out!........................................................................ [Page109]I‟ll prepare the tea and parathas………………………………………………………...[Page109]What answer do you have to that, Hawaldar Sahib?......................................................[Page 110]We call it Dungarwadi………………………………………………………………….[Page113]She hums a new tune and sighs: Siski hawa ne lee: Har pati kanp oothi……………..[Page119]The wrestler shouts to Chotay………………………………………………………….[Page 127]Be right back janab!........................................................................................................[Page 129]The Angrez call you a “bloody nuisance”………………………………………………[Page129]SOCIOLINGUISTICS Page 15
    • CODE MIXING- ICE CANDY-MANCONCLUSION:It is a saying that language communicates a wide range of functions within the constraints of itsstructure. Multilingual persons therefore have at their disposal a greater repertoire of structuralpotential for the expression of meaning. A fully adequate account of linguistic knowledge mustbe inclusive of cross-language phenomena and be able to explain the structural characteristics ofcode-mixing, including the types of sociolinguistic knowledge which multilingual speakerstacitly command. Code-mixing is associated with situational informality in which the switchinghas an unmarked and positive function even if its semantic and cultural dimensions are alsooperating below the level of conscious awareness.Written language, however, is relatively planned, and the careful writer has more time to beaware of dimensions of meaning that lie beneath the surface. In the case of writers who make artwith language, while the structure may for the most part be consistent with spoken switching, itis nevertheless a marked choice given that it is in the written and public medium. Multi-literatetexts are constructed deliberately so that switch points or other points of linguistic contact withinthe text often signal additional, metaphorical levels of meaning which are coherent with thetheme and/or other aspects of the work. To succeed in delivering these levels of meaning, themulti-literate writer must depend upon readers whose literacy‟s overlap with those of the writer.The implications for the development of a literary aesthetic in a multilingual society are that it isnot enough to recognize that a written work exhibits two or more languages and to understandthe meanings of the words in each language. To fully appreciate the aesthetic within the work,the writer and reader both must comprehend the complex political, historical, social, andinterdictions, as badge of identity, as index of civility, as symbol of otherness, as bearer ofideology, as words in the mouth of a preacher.SOCIOLINGUISTICS Page 16
    • CODE MIXING- ICE CANDY-MANREFRENCES:  www.lingref.com/isb/4/039ISB4.PDF  www.glottopedia.de/index.php/Codemixing  www.aclclp.org.tw/clclp/v14n3/v14n3a3.pdf  soar.wichita.edu/.../t11060_Brezjanovic%20Shogren.pdf  www.books.google.com.pk/books/about/Bilingual_Speech  “Bilingualism in Cicero? The evidence of Code-Switching” In Bilingualism in Ancient Society. 28-167  Bilingualism in Ancient Society. Language Contact and the Written Text. Oxford: Oxford UP  www.educ.utas.edu.au/users/tle/JOURNAL/issues/2007/21-2.pdf  www.grin.com/en/e-book/92496/code-switching-and-code-mixing  www.estudiosirlandeses.org/Issue3/issue3pdfs/pdftinabennett-kastor.pdf  jstor.org/discover/10.2307/30027655?uid=2&uid=4&sid=21101564056737  Florian Coulmas The Handbook of Sociolinguistics Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics 1998.pdf  originalresearch.blog.uns.ac.id/reasons-and-motivations-for-code-mixing.pdf  Class Lectures & Notes Provided By Teacher  Ice Candy-Man by Bapsi Sidhwa  www.sscs.arts.uwa.edu.au  www.flipkart.com/ice-candy-man-1947SOCIOLINGUISTICS Page 17