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  • 1. International Islamic universityIslamabadTopic: Among the Believers – MalaysiaSubmitted to: Mam rubiaSubmitted by:Fatima gulAbida parveenMaryam tariqSiatara ayazDate 7thMay. 2103
  • 2. Conversation with ShafiThe Journey out of ParadiseIn the conversation with Shafi, Naipaul has demonstrated the religion of Islam. He has discussedabout Islam by presenting negative picture of it. He has discussed that Islam reached to Indonesiaand Malaysia, not by armies or colonist; rather it spread through merchants and priests. He hasfurther discussed that Islam spread as an idea—a Prophet divine revelation, heaven and hell, adivinely sanctioned code—and it is mingled with older ideas. For Naipaul Islamic missionariescome to different parts of the world to purify the mixed religion. These missionaries are onlyconcerned with Islam and the enemies of Islam.Moreover, while demonstrating the preaching system of Islam; Naipaul has narrated that,every Muslim is a missionary to Islam. And this was the idea of the brotherhood assembled inthe waterlogged desert of the Punjab. In this area people spent four days tent life and in thesedays they are being taught about Islam. Naipaul has asserted that a simple man, after spendingfour days in this area go out intoxicated by their vision of a world about to change. And these arethe people who go to Malaysia to preach Islam.Naipaul in his book Among the Believers has given the geographic imagery of Malaysia.As Malaysia is a state which is a hybridization of different cultures, hence there are a fewIndianized architectural remains in far north of Malaysia. Joseph Conrad, through his storiesportrayed the image of Malay large group of islands; Archipelago. He has also demonstrated theEuropean coasting vessels, their trading or administrative settlements, in his stories. He has alsonarrated about Chinese peasants and laborers. They established their roots in Malay. Conrad hasasserted the theme of outer edge of darkness, about Malaysia in his works. He argued that, afterwhen Malaysia has got independence, and after when Malaysia become a developed country;Islamic revolutionaries in Malaysia have emerged. After discussing geography of Malaysia,Conrad comes to the point of Malaysian economy; and highlights that Malaysia is a rich state. Itproduces more precious things like thin, rubber, palm oil, and oil, rather than coconut and rattan.Besides this, Conrad‘s stories also depicts about the population of Malaysia. People of Malaysiahave come out of the ‗edge of darkness‘ due to education. They become literate and have enteredinto a new world of civilization.
  • 3. Naipaul has also drawn imagery about the natural scenes of Malaysia, in his book Amongthe Believers. He has also given detailed description about the construction of colonial era, inMalaysia. Next to this he has also narrated about the public places and gardens of Malaysia. Hehas depicted the ways of living of Malay‘s uprooted village people. They dressed up themselveslike Arabs. They wear turbans and gowns. Malay girls wear gloves and socks and they also covertheir face with veils. Naipaul has claimed that this veil is a symbol of aggression.Despite of education, the young generation of Malaysia is still in confusion about theircountry. They consider their country as ‗remade‘ by British and Chinese colonizers; in a way thatboth of these colonizers have worked for the development of Malaysia. British have developedmines and plantation and along with them Chinese and Indians have also played their part in thisdevelopment. Still Malaysian thinks that they have lost a lot because of Colonialism.Naipaul has also narrated about the state affairs of Malaysia. Its official religion is Islam,and State is also governed by Islamic rules or laws. Naipaul has asserted that Malaysian have theweapon of Islam; which serves for them to get even with the world. He has also viewed Islam asa religion of impending change and triumph. It is a part of world movement. Moreover, Naipaulhas also presented Islam by comparing it with other religion. He has given reference of amissionary magazine, ‗Reading in Islam‘. In this magazine the author has claimed that ‗the westis eating itself up with its materialism and greed‘; whereas, in Islamic state materialistic world isto be pulled first. The instance of this can be observed in the states of Pakistan and Iran. Islamcontinues to spread in this way from Pakistan to Malaysia and Indonesia, as well. Moreover,Naipaul has asserted that Islam has a discrimination system for non-believers. He has mentionedthat Islam discriminates non-believers on the basis of their living style. Islam claimed about non-believers that they spend the major part of their wealth on ostentation living and demonstrates hispomp and show by wearing of silk and brocade and using vessels of gold and silver. Due to thisNaipaul claimed Islam as a ‗Malaysian Disease‘.The chief concern of Naipaul in the chapter ‗Conversations in Malaysia‘ is to share hisconversation with Shafi, to his readers. Shafi is a man who has worked for the cause of Muslims.He, in his conversation with Naipaul has discussed his experience of the world, outside of hisvillage. He has demonstrated that when he has visited the world he become attracted towardsmaterialistic world. But despite of this, he has not indulged in immoral acts.
  • 4. While Naipaul‘s conversation with Shafi he has investigated his visit to Kuala Lampur.Discussing this experience shafi has elaborated the idea of freedom, that freedom must bedefined within a certain framework. Shafi‘s primary aim to visit Kuala Lampur was education.But a conflict developed between his freedom and aim, due to the religious restrictions.Furthermore, he has drawn comparison between village and city life. He claimed that village lifeis simpler than city life. He has asserted the luxuries of city life as ‗wastefulness‘.Moreover, while discussion Shafi has also pointed out government discriminated favorfor Malyas. They were given loans to bring them up economically to the level of Chinese.Furthermore, he has also discussed about the comparison of Muslim and Chinese village. Hencethrough this conversation Naipaul has given the detailed image of Malaysian state.BRAVE GIRLSV.S. Naipaul so far a traveler in the land of Malaysia specifically Kuala Lumpur is now at thisstate of moment agitated because of sleepless nights and the unfamiliar environment around him.Not only he was alienated to the city, environment was also alien for him .In the room heldacross to the racecourse ground, he had chosen living in the Holiday Inn in Kuala Lumpur.Looking outside the window was his sole hobby that kept him motivated .He explicitly presentedbefore his readers an overview of racecourse ground which was to greater surprise was filledwith all human ,not a single horse. The purpose behind over population of humans in grounds onespecially Saturday and Sunday was to watch television and gamble. Under Malaysia‘s Islamiclaws-gambling was permitted in Kuala Lumpur only on the racecourse grounds.The weather especially nature which include dense plantation include made him realize that if hecould be more alert, he could enjoy more of what he saw. He went downstairs to talk aboutcables; the girl at desk referred him towards the door bearing Sign for Authorized PersonnelOnly. Malay girl who was an operator was not able to speak English well ,as checking her filesV.S. Naipaul read some of the staff notices which were in English and Malay “irresponsiblestaff” had been “urinating and purging” on the floor of the locker, and on canteen plates and incanteen glasses . He wished he hadn‘t read them.
  • 5. V.S. Naipaul is of the opinion that ritual cleanliness had nothing to do with cleanliness for itsown sake, nothing to do with regard for the other man. Now he went to Equatorial Hotel forbuffet lunch. There he met a Muslim who told him that the town was not built for Muslim peoplebecause Muslims were suppose to wash ritually five times a day before they offered theirprayers. The travel, V.S. Naipaul was excited to hear Shafi‘s story which partly kicked off thisdullness. Shafi came to see him in afternoon in his everyday office clothes along with his friendof small size. His friend‘s father was a village mullah. The friend himself was specialized inIslamic studies, went to Birmingham in England for his doctorate. Now was a high official inABIM.The travel rhetorically asked him “you are just like Shafi. You don‟t try to cover upanything”. The counter attack was also a question “what do we have to cover up? What do wehave?” while talking to them guests V.S. Naipaul asked about his yesterday question that whatyou thought of white people around the pool ,was it the first time you was to think of such athing ? The answer was “I never see those people”. He meant in both ways: he had neveroccasion to meet white people, and when he saw them he took never took them in. Caring ofShafi for his crippled friend reminded Naipaul of Behzad and his girl friend on the platform ofTehran station. Shafi had promised to take Naipaul to the ABIM School and even to find some“brave girls” there who could talk to him.At the school Naipaul met an Australian, a big middle aged man, sitting by himself. Shafi toldthat he was trying to learn about Islam. Shafi was to go for work so he left the traveler withNasar, whose ancestors were sheikh, Malay who lived in Arabia and shepherded Malay‘spilgrims to Mecca. Now in modern Malaysia he belonged to “a lower –middle class family”.Nasar told him that he was able to learn through his experience that big powers were notinterested in peace; they cared only about their spheres of influence; they sold arms. They are tooindividualistic .They always try to be together with others, but not with your family. Discussingabout the threats to modern Malaysia Nasar told that free mixing and alcoholism were the greatdangers. The people also believed that unemployment today was due partly the philosophy of“female liberation”. Shafi also said that “when the girls come from the village s to KualaLumpur, they don‟t want to be protected by the law”.
  • 6. Finally meeting the female of Malaysia who were the most important yet controversial area fortraveler to accomplish .the girls were of different racial types .they both wore long dresses andhad covered heads .they both were little nervous and had been working at the ABIM school fortwo years and they had come there because the hadn‘t done well enough in government school.The first question raised by Naipaul was about their head covers to which they call in Malay tu-dong. The answer was purely religious ―not a single piece of the hair must show‖. Oninquiring about the reasons the girls answered “some girls have very nice hair and sometimesmen are sexually attracted to the hair”. Girls further told that for a girl it is sinful to make menattracted to you .discussing more about their religion the other girl told that “the hair is aurat”.The feet are aurat and for men aurat from waist to the knee.The girls also told that the main aim of those philosophies is to preserve the beauty andgentleness of women, were can preserve our beauty .It is not for showing off. It is very bad. Thegirls also told Naipaul that they don‘t know Arabic but Koran is in Arabic so they can read itonly. Discussing the educational systems the girl told that right now in the government schoolthe educational system is more towards academic. The other girl raised another idea of Sciencewhich is now predominant in government school. The whole discussion was led to a point wherethe girls were of the opinion that we cannot forever chase materialistic things, because of theirfirm in life after death. So in this life we must balance ourselves between life on earth and lifeafter death.As the girls were Muslims contradictorily Naipaul who was not a believer of life after death,both the parties had a hearty discussion on the topic. After theology they shifted their discussiontowards literature. The girls told that they had Read Barbra Cartland, Perry Mason, JamesHadley Chase, Denise Robins, and Harold Robbins. One of the girl was of the outlook that bookof Harold was dirty. On probing about the book named the Mills and Boon Naipaul wasanswered with melting, soft voice of girl “whenever we read, the love is nice because it‟s allfantasy.” The girl also told that she don‘t want to have any such sort of thing happened to herbecause then she will lost her charm.Comparing village life and life in town one girl is of the opinion that “the village is morepeaceful and, I would like living in village” but the other girl held a bit rational yet
  • 7. contradictory idea “I would like to be in the town because it is also the center of the ereligious movements.Problems caused by the immigrants were also discussed during their conversation. “We havetoo many immigrants” mainly Chinese .the girls further told that immigrants cause trouble. It isthe British who brought them here. The British introduced the British system. Before that it wasall Islamic system. Malay was much known as the best business people before the Chineseprowler. Concluding their discussion the girls firmly said To Be Malay Was to Be Muslimwhich was written in the law of new state.BETWEEN MALACCA AND THE GENTING HIGHLANDSAmong the believers is a detailed account of Islamic journey as the title suggests. In thischapter rather throughout the whole novel he has been explicitly biased in his writings becausesociety is made up of both positive and negative elements but he was only able to trace thenegative ones with his preconceived notions in his mind about Muslim society.In this chapter, the narrator is talking about his journey between Malacca and GentlingHighlands. He talked about the weather of Malacca and its harshness. There he met character ofShafi and taxi driver through he told the life of Malaysians. Through these characters he exploresthe faults and materialistic thinking of Malaysian people.In his work, he has mixed or vulcanized history with fiction, anthropology, ethnography,geography etc. Different techniques are used by Naipaul like imagery, historical references,indirect critique etc.Imagery technique is used by V.S Naipaul. Imagery is a fictional technique used by thenarrator V.S Naipaul .In this chapter of Malaysia he has used harsh, hot and dry imagery forexample:“The heat which is in the town was hard to bear. Thetrees, cattle which wouldhave now suffered in the sun.”He also used black imagery and animal imagery for the land of Malacca by saying:
  • 8. “Black mud was dotted with holes of small crabs and marked with the trails ofamphibious creatures, little leaping minnows and the finned black creatures thatwriggled.”He always associated a dusty and rotted image with Malacca land. As when the authorvisited Malacca he forms disgusting image of the land. He referred the soil as black mud havingfilthy creatures in it and the land not having any worth of any vegetation or cultivation as Shafihad told him about the richness as: “You can throw a seed andit will grow”By using historical references he showed his knowledge of historical information. Heread many books and includes minute details and dates in order to convince the reader.“I went to Malacca for the sake of its historical name: the Malacca straits, Malacca cane,and Malacca pepper.”(254)“Portuguese conquered Malacca in 1511 eight years before on the other side of the worldthe Cortes marched on Mexico, twenty two years before Pizarro went to Peru.”And he showed his biasness and prejudice in explaining religion Islam:The west after it many mutations, had remained new, prompting change, promptingdisturbance, as it was doing even now. Islam had aged, had appeared to have become part of aself-contained.He has chosen a character Shafi through his voice he showed dissatisfaction of people with theirreligion. For exampleWhy marriage I even proposed that there should be contract marriages. In the sense that if youlong to have a descendant, you marry the person on the understanding that after you has a childthe contract is over. And the character of Shafi also showed the backwardness of Islam. He saidthe thing I could not find in the person with the same religious background as I am.The theme of chapter is decay, stagnation and pessimism he has used a very sarcastic tone byusing the character of Shafi. We don‘t have technical men, professionals then he depicted boundand restricted society where people are bound culturally religiously,
  • 9. My parents did not allow me to come to Kuala Lumpur with someone unknown to the family.Then he showed the theme of confusion through confused state of mind. First we see he is notsatisfied with religion talking about girls and drinking but now talking about honesty.I tried to start up on my own in the construction business, trying to be honest. It does not pay tobe honest. I got a contract and tried to be honest.But at the very next stage he is devoid of humbleness and said: I accept that there are dedicatedpeople there and good people but I cannot compromise.In short by using two characters in this chapter, he has tried to explore all the evils and negativeimage of Malacca and Genting highlands. Naipaul‘s narrative is not a mere piece of travelwriting but a pure political activity as Naipaul by sticking to the journalistic details, caricaturing,stereotyping and historical perspective has tried to authenticate his work but on the bigger level itconstructs a negative image of the Muslims.ARABYThere was an Islamic community in Kuala Lumpur, especially of young Malays who were sassedto have rejected modern ways and were living like Arabs on farming a little piece of land. Theydid not welcome visitors. Shafi was sympathetic to this idea but never interfered. For many daysnothing happened. At last Khairul telephoned V.S. Naipaul. He was a sharp, clipped member ofcommune. His first question gave goose bumps to Naipaul on asking that ―how do I know youare not KGB or CIA?‖ After a small conversation on his identity Khairul said that he will bringthree men tomorrow.Another burning question raised was “what aspect are you interested in?”The travel reply wasstraight forward ―spiritual, economic‖ but afterwards he realized he must have said justeconomic. But the worry about the choice of subject was needless because Khairul and his mendint come. Instead there was message to meet outside parliament building at ten.
  • 10. One evening some days later, about half past seven Khairul was downstairs of the hotel alongwith his three men. Three of them –including Khairul himself –were quite startling with theturbans and long green gowns .Naipaul was still startled by their appearance that he completelyforgot about the Islamic economy once again. The only thing he was able to say was ―you are alldifferent people‖ to which Khairul answered “we‟re all different.”One of the three men was Baji, who had made the pilgrimage to Mecca. Naipaul asked himwhether he had any romantic feeling for village life. He said no “village life was not Islamic”.the doctor from the three men brought by Khairul said “there are animistic and Hindutraditions” discussing politicians of material world and the one described in Koran ,Baji toldthat he was taught about Napoleon ―napoleon evolved simple and effective laws” . Hewithdraws his forces in order to meet his love. So he cannot be compared to an Islamic politicalleader Khalid.Reviving their memory Naipaul asked them another question ―what was it about village lifeyou disliked as not Islamic?” the answer was Usury .conversing about Chinese and Malays themen said “if the Chinese community became Muslims, the Malay would becomeBuddhists”.Literature was another significant part of their thrash out. The book the mentioned was “underthe flag of revolution”, was read by them. Naipaul took some stuff, explaining that it wastobacco to which Khairul responded as “tobacco is not encouraged in Islam”. Baji interruptedthe conversation sands said most of the tobacco manufacturers‘ are Jews, they are the enemiesof God and in order to destroy them we must not consume their product.The discussion took to a higher aspect of reality; the evolution theory .the writer felt himself lostin the desert of Holiday Inn, when Baji told him more about history of Jews that ―Jews aregenius race.‖ Cooling down their hot banter the writer told us that “we‟ll have a bottleddrink.”Sterilizing the dense fumes of history they shifted their direction to an incident ofAfrican who was helped by a taxi driver. For Naipaul it was something miraculous but for Bajiand all Muslim it was very normal. Baji remarked “it happens every day in Islamic countries.”The Baji further told about the history of Jews during the reign of Moses and about the wrath ofGod upon them. You are not a Muslim if you don‘t believe in the book and the old testaments
  • 11. was another significant information added in the knowledge of Naipaul. As result of wrath ofgod for disobeying their prophet and driving him angry the tribe was converted to apes for sevendays. According to Professor Abu Daud, as a result of being turned to apes, the moralprestige of the Jews declined …they are already degraded. The Jews are now pulling downthe whole society with them. They are dirty and they want others to be dirty.Baji asked the question from Naipaul do you believe that your great -grand fathers wereapes? And the answer was of course no to which Baji smiled and said “that proves thewickedness of Jews‖. Telling more about the situations before and after the advent of Islam,giving brief account of Caliph Omar “the best of men”, Baji again asked him another question“do you believe in creator? –no was the usual answer to which he justified as “it is toodifficult for me,”after we had some discussion “I feel lost if I think too much about theuniverse”. The Baji said “that feeling of loss I would describe as contentment”.Joining more pieces in the picture of Islam, Baji explained that there are five principles thatgovern our dress, green and white colors are desired of our Prophet so we prefer them.Differentiating the difference between mandatory and encourageable, the travel appreciated theirwide range of vocabulary. Men told Naipaul that Islam is a complete code of conduct to governlife even it tells us the rules of coughing and sneezing.When the men finally left and rain had turned the dirt street to mud, Naipaul came out of hisroom to buy sweet potato.The Spoilt PlaygroundDuring his visit in Malaysia Naipaul went to Shafi‘s village Kota Bharu which accordingto Shafi was ―once unpolluted, the people were pious, dignified and not materialistic‖ unlike thepresent situation. When he enters Kota Bharu he designates savage imagery to the place. Hedescribes the village as a rubber estate, a place covered with jungle and with a fusion of nonstopdownpour. The village has ―little low shops, little low houses, tiled roofs, and corrugated iron‖.There he meets Rehman who is a government employee and three head teachers. Among the
  • 12. three men there is a lecturer who is a professor of philosophy, a registrar and an Arabic teacher.During their conversation the lecturer shares his experience with Arabs at the Al-AzharUniversity in Cairo which becomes quite intriguing for Naipaul for his further study on Arabpeople. The lecturer says that the Arabs were undisciplined and unreliable. While soon aftermaking this statement he himself becomes an object of study for Naipaul as he wants to hearmore about The Al-Azhar.Another man who is a registrar shares his three days experience that he spent in England.He builds a negative picture of people living in England. According to him they have absence ofmanners in their lives, no ethics and morality and no sense of decorum. He gives example ofthree things which he finds immoral in England and compares it with people in Malaysia.Registrar says that people in England travel underground; there is a speaker in Hyde Park whichannounces that 60 percent of men are homosexual and men and women don‘t feel ashamed whileembracing in public. For Rehman people in Malaysia don‘t mix their private life with theirdomestic life. There private life in secret and sacred for them. They feel that people living inWest are lost in their own world. During their conversation they are joined by an Arabic teacherwho claims that people are turning to Koran as they are tired of novels because novels are alsowritten by lost people who themselves have no sense of direction in their lives and thus providesno immediate cure to their problems.Naipaul assumes through their discussions that these people are happy and satisfied withtheir lives as they used the word ―content‖ again and again during their conversation. Naipaulsays that here at this part of Malaysia people are optimists, they have a strong belief in theirreligion and they know that God will provide for their sustenance no matter how large their
  • 13. families are or how poor their condition is. Naipaul says that ―Islam for these men is part of theircontentment‖ unlike Shafi‘s Islam which was ―revolutionary, serving no cause‖.The next stop during Naipaul‘s visit in Malaysia was Penang on the West coast. UnlikeKota Bharu the West coast was more developed with the British plantations and factoriesworking under energetic Chinese. Penang being more advance in nature also had an internationalairport. Here Naipaul meets Abdullah, a man of thirty four and Muhammad. They both are unlikeKota Bharu‘s people not at all content with their present situation. Abdullah talks about the city‘sdissolute condition and says that there are ‗international companies but low wages, thecasualness of Malays, their inability to compete and the need for Islam‖ is what Malaysia isnowadays facing.Emphasizing more on the colonial past Naipaul asserts that the people living in Malaysiawith Chinese feel like strangers in their own land. There is a constant rift between Chinese andMalay people which is quite visible in their faces. Naipaul when ask Muhammad about hiscolonial past, Muhammad, says that there has always been a Christian and alien atmosphere.Living under colonial dominance Islam was never been taught to us. Having a Muslimbackground their present was quite unIslamic and their identity fragmented. They were confusedbetween the two schools of thoughts, things which were taught in Christian school and thingswhich they believed throughout generations. Their ideas about life, death, society and naturewere a mixture of Christian and secular beliefs. For instance their idea of conquering nature wasbased on Western concept of ecology and environment. During this process they used to find aneasy solution in Islam and their faith in God which for Naipaul is an abstract belief. These peopleare living their lives with no sense of reformation, they are dependent on other people‘s ideasand thoughts and it is hard for them to get themselves out from these ideas.
  • 14. Naipaul has shown that the Malay people have no account of their history they areaimless people living in a limbo with no sense existence and direction. Their faith has made theman abstract man living in a vague idea of utopian world. To be civilized for them is a matter ofcorrect religious beliefs. The only difference between old and new Malay was the differencebetween Chinese and Malay people. Chinese people were more humble towards modern liferealities. They were more powerful and energetic unlike Malays. Naipaul believes that religion isdiverting Malay people from their true purpose of life, it is the reason they are still retrograde.And for this reason they despise Chinese and call them commercial lovers while they areaesthetic devotees.AnalysisA critical perspective of ‗Conversations in Malaysia‘ from Among the believers by V.S. Naipaulin light of the article ‗V.S. Naipaul Vulcanization of Travel and Fiction Paradigms‘ by SerafinRoldan-Santiago. Travelogue and fiction are two domains of writing. The former throws light onan objective description of people, landscape, geography, ecology, economics, and social detailsof an area. While the latter accounts for subjective narration of a story or an event by employinga fictional or creative style in matters of characterization and themes. However, in some writingsthe features of both travelogue and fiction are mixed together in order to make these works morevaluable.Among the Believer by V.S. Naipaul is book in which the technique with that of elementof fiction writing and strategies of travel writing are vulcanized underlined by Seranfin Roldan –Santiago in his article V.S. Naipaul‘s vulcanization of travel and fiction paradigms. On one handit blends different form sof travel writing such as information oriented, experiential andintellectual analytic. Time and again, the writers own assumptions about any phenomenon can beobserved . the tools of journalism , ethnographic details , historical accoyunts , biogra[phical
  • 15. features and philosophical inquires have been employed in order to gain a narrative authority . onthe other side various themes such as sense of order and unity , poverty, isolation and decayapparent in his fictional work also appear In this book . different images have been used thatprovide a glimpse of his satiric , humorous, ironic, serious and sometimes mockery tones . thereare numerous characters belonging to a number of fields who are conversing with each other. Inshort it is difficult to determine that whether this book is a piece of fiction or it is an account oftravel writing; rather it can be termed novelouge and travelon.‗V.S Naipaul Vulcanization of Travel and Fiction Paradigms‘ by Serafin Roldan-SantiagoMalaysia have been portrayed by selecting a separate section for each country. Conversation inanalysis gives an over view of V.S. Naipaul‟s travel throughout the country .here he visitsdifferent places such as Kotabharu, Kuala Lumpur, Malakaand so on. He meets variouspeople including Shafi, Nasar, Anwar Ibrahim, the leader of ABIM, Rehman, governmentservants, two girls of government schools, registrar, the hajji, doctor, philosophy lecturer,Muhammad and Abdullah. Through various conversations with people of different fields, hegathers information about Malaysian religious, economics, political, social, geographical andhistorical affairs. Thus, where ever he goes he analyses, comments on a particular situation andprovides his own judgment by textualizing the reality with a fictional mask.To the article, there are three types of travel writing. One is information oriented in whichobjective representation of ethnography of any area is given. The other one is experiential whichfocuses the emotional aspects of the life of people that are signified in whatever way the traveleror author perceives them. The last kind is of intellectual analytic where the author performs therole of an intellectual commenting on different matters and drawing his own conclusions.Generally V.S. Naipaul writing belongs to the third category of travelogue. There are numerousfeatures employed by Naipaul in his travel writing.One of the main features of Naipaulian writer is his assumptions about various domains of thelife of people. These assumptions can be clearly observed in Malaysia .according to him Malaypeople are ‗the people of river and forest‘. The development of Kuala Lumpur is the result ofBritish colonization; for they have worked to build factories and mines. Islam, for Naipaul is a„passion‟ with which people are ‗intoxicated‘ by its way of ‗getting with the world‘. It is a‗weapon‘ without any constructive purpose .it is a vehicle that appears the ways against the
  • 16. „shabbiness of materialism‟ and ‗east western imitation‘. Islamic principles have beeninterpreted in negative light. The veil has been called the „mask of aggression‟. In short atdifferent places he observed the reality buit after deep analysis paints this reality with a fictionalcolor.In order to obtain a narrative authority for his text, Naipaul; employs in numerable strategies andtechniques. One of the fundamental tools used in „conversations in Malaysia‟ is journalism.Over and again he uses references from articles, magazines, books and newspaper and so on.While discussing about Islam he mentions the reference from a local magazine and he gives areference of Hadith in which Muslim are forbidden to eat in silver pots and to wear silk brocade.While conversing with hajji, doctor and Khairul, the story about Jews and Moses have beenhighlighted in light of the views of the holy Quran. It has demonstrated that Moses ordered theJews to play on Saturday. But they ignored his commandments and they went to go for fishingon this day. As a result, the wrath of god was imposed upon them and as a punishment they wereturned in to apes . Similarly it has been denoted that in old testaments, the news aboutMuhammad saw arrival is given. The references of book written by Benjamin who later becamea Muslim and got the name of Abu Daud, about Islam have been mentioned. are report fromnews paper has been provided in which African , on airport had lost his ticket, money and othernecessary papers. Than a taxi driver showered mercy on him by arranging ticket and money forhim .the news coming from the other parts of the world in Malaysia has also been given someplace. The preparation of martial law in Pakistan, the crash of an airplane coming back fromMecca to Pakistan and the fight in the holy land of Mecca are some instances of news. Inaddition Muhammad and Abdullah, after their meeting with Naipaul, leave behind two scripts.One is about the Islam as a perfect religion while the other provides an outline for restructuring asociety in light of Islamic views. So, by taking support from in numerable sources, he convinceshis readers toOn one sides his explanations and interpretation and genuine, valuable and authentic on accountof giving an eye witnessed experiences, vivid descriptions with a rhetoric style. In this wayachieving narrative authority becomes a crucial writing for his travel writing. Another recurrenttheme applied by Naipaul for the depiction of Malaysia is ethnography. A vivid portrayal of thecustoms and traditions of Malaysian people have been given. Malaysia is a Muslim country but
  • 17. there are Chinese and Indian too. Its main areas are Kuala Lumpur, Kampong, Kotabharo, andMalaka and so on. Holiday Inn hotel Gardinium coffee house, Muslim college, ABIM, Muslimyouth organization, mosques, and air ports are some of the Malaysian beauty. In view ofagriculture, it is a land producing rubber, tin, palm oil, banana trees and so on. This country isgoverned by Islamic laws in all spheres of life. Through the eyes of different people, Islamicrules have been portrayed. Men usually wear long gowns and turbans while the women are fullycovered except their hands and feet. These people go to mosques to say their prayers five times aday. They read holy Quran and the prayer has great value for them. Cleanliness is considered tobe important. They have strong faith in ones of god controlling the whole universe.Economically they try to earn their living with halal means; for in their view, god never leavesany creature unprovided. Socially, these people live in union with their fellow beings by sharingtheir joys and sorrows with each other. Family life is a source of protection for people .menwomen are not allowed to be involved in a wrong relationship publically, rather they have asacred and secret relationship after being properly married. Even by ABIM, separate schools forboys and girls have been constructed. However, as a result of scientific and industrialdevelopment and due to British colonization this country has been evolved a lot particularlycities like Kuala Lumpur where people have luxuries of life tv , refrigerators and so on .Another factor that has gained some voice in this chapter is a picture of various historicalaccounts. In the beginning it has been signified that religion went in this country with the help ofsub continent. First Hinduism, Buddhism came to this land. Later on, Islam was brought here byPakistani people who have been trained by Islamic institution if Punjab. Different wonders suchas Angkor and Borobudur of Malaysia have been mentioned especially Malaka is famous for itshistorical background. it was colonized by Portugese in 1511. In 1753, a red painted church wasbuilt there. There is also a museum. Around 1970‘s, the ritual of idol smashing was dominant inthis country these historical account give a flavor of history to this book.In conversations in Malaysia, biographical details of some people have been highlighted. It hasbeen denoted that Anwar Ibrahim‘s grand father used to run a small restaurant. Than his fathersent him in school for education, he became aware of Islamic laws. at the age of 16 or 17 he wasa „fiery orator‟ who used to deliver speeches in village. In this way he introduced ABIMMuslim youth organization that has offices and staff at different places in Malaysia and even it is
  • 18. guiding people beyond this country like in Indonesia. Similarly, biographical data about Shafi‘slife has been underlined. he ,for the first time , moved to Kuala Lumpur in company of some ofhis fellows in 1963 for educational purpose . Later on , he graduated and he became connectedwith ABIM . These biographical accounts become a major factor through which Naipaulconvinces his reader. Again and again in conversations in analysis certain philosophical issueshave been raised by Naipaul. He inquires about Islamic philosophies. While conversing with‗brave girls‘, investigates about the value of veil. he asks a number of questions about thepurpose , importance and the benefits of the veil. Similarly during his conversation withRehman, registrar , Arabic and [philosophy teacher in Muslim college , he questions about Godas the soul creator of the universe. At the end, when he is having a meeting with