Race, ethnicity, and migration


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Race, ethnicity, and migration

  1. 1. Race, Ethnicity, and Migration Society and Culture
  2. 2. Your island has a population of 10 million people. • What is the cultural background, welfare background, religious background and political background of your island? • How many immigrants should you allow each year? • What types of visas will you give? • What will the immigrants be expected or allowed to wear? • How will they be allowed to practise their religious or social beliefs? • How much access to welfare will immigrants be allowed? • How will you encourage integration? • What will you do when the laws, traditions and cultures of the native countries of the immigrants contradict with the laws, traditions and cultures of your island?
  3. 3. Today ‘Us and them’: the processes of prejudice and discrimination • Is it possible to be prejudiced without actually discriminating? • How might an unprejudiced person find themselves acting in a way which discriminates? Models of integration • Is assimilationism a form of ethnocentrism? • What would an individual gain and lose from living in a melting‐pot culture? • Is the hybridization of cultures and identities inevitable in the modern world? Ethnicity and inequality • Why do we need to understand history to understand contemporary patterns of ethnic antagonism? • What are the advantages and disadvantages of thinking of ethnic minorities as a single social group? • Should there be limits on immigration? If ‘yes’, what should they be? • How do inequalities of race relate to social class inequalities? • How is the experience of ethnicity shaped by gender?
  4. 4. Key terms • Race – Humans can’t be easily separated into races (despite numerous attempts to) – Scientific theories (late 18th, 19th Cs) used to justify social orders • Joseph Arthur de Gobineau (1816-82) – White (Caucasian) – superior intelligence; Black (Negroid) – animal nature, emotional instability; Yellow (Mongoloid) – sly, cunning
  5. 5. Race does not exist • The genetic diversity within populations is as great as the diversity between populations – ‘Race’ is an ideological construct (Miles 1993) • Myth 1 - Idea That Any Race is Superior – Historical, exploitative relationships • Myth 2 - Idea that Any Race is Pure – Human Characteristics Flow Endlessly Together – Mixture of DNA between ethnicities • If ‘race’ has no scientific basis, why does the concept keep recurring? Perhaps we should stop using the word ‘race’?
  6. 6. Race as a label for identity • Asian gay men more likely to define race as master status, compared to black gay men, or gay men of mixed race – Many felt equally gay, male and the member of an ethnic group • ‘on the street, people see my blackness before knowing I’m gay, so all of the time my race comes first, but I would hate for you to think I don’t think my sexuality is important’. • How others act towards you: ‘I can’t forget I’m black, but I can forget I’m gay’. • (Fisher et al, 1997) • However; feminist critique. People also see ‘woman’, ‘woman of colour’ (Davis, 1981)
  7. 7. Key Terms • Racialization: – Certain groups of people come to be labelled as distinct biological groups on the basis of naturally occurring physical features: • From 15th Century, Europeans came into contact with others, attempts were made to categorize • These attempts have taken codified, institutionalized forms (e.g. apartheid) • Social institutions have become racialized; CJS, education • ‘Race’ may be disregarded, but remember W.I. Thomas’s theorem: ‘if men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences’ (1928)
  8. 8. Key terms • Ethnicity – purely social in meaning – Cultural practices and outlook of given community of people which distinguishes them from others – Members may see themselves as culturally distinct, and others may see themselves as culturally distinct. – Ethnic differences are learned – Produced and reproduced over time: maintained by tradition – Exclusionary devices: • Prohibition of intermarriage
  9. 9. Key Terms • Minority groups – Members of groups which are disadvantaged when compared with the dominant group according to power, wealth and prestige – Have some sense of group solidarity (belonging together) • Minorities draws attention to inequalities: – Homosexuals and Pakistanis are both minority groups: do they experience subordination equally?
  10. 10. Figure 11.3 The Rainbow Coalition, US Census 2000: percentages of population by race and Latino categories Source: Adapted from US Bureau of the Census (2000)
  11. 11. Critical thinking • What’s the difference between discrimination and prejudice?
  12. 12. Prejudice • opinions or attitudes held by members of one group towards another. • Internalised Norms: learned (learned from where?) • Often: stereotypes: – ‘All black men are good at sport’ /‘All Chinese students are hard working.’ – Displacement psychoanalytic idea; projection of negative feelings towards self to outside object – Scapegoating: two ethnic minorities competing for economic position; blame others for position. – Simpson & Yinger (1986) black males thought to be highly dangerous to white women, when virtually all criminal sexual contact was initiated by white men against black women
  13. 13. Discrimination • Actual behaviour: – Disqualify members of one group from opportunities open to others – May rest on prejudice; but not necessarily • Bertrand & Mullainathan (2003) • White names receive 50 percent more callbacks for interviews. • Race affects the benefits of a better CV. – White names, gets 30 % more • Applicants living in better neighborhoods receive more callbacks but: – this effect does not differ by race. • Amount of discrimination is uniform across occupations and industries. • Federal contractors and employers who list “Equal Opportunity Employer” in their ad discriminate as much as other employers. Bertrand & Mullainathan (2003), ‘Are Emily and Greg more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A field experiment on labor market discrimination’Working Paper 9873, National Bureau of Economic Research http://www.nber.org/papers/w9873
  14. 14. Figure 11.1 Prejudice and discrimination: the vicious cycle Macionis & Plummer (2008)
  15. 15. Critical thinking • Is it possible for people to be prejudiced but not discriminatory? • Are there any examples of this from your experiences? • Is prejudice acceptable, as long as is it unaccompanied by discrimination ?
  16. 16. BREAK
  17. 17. Sociological theories of racism and integration
  18. 18. Three Broad Sociological Theories of Racism 1. Ethnocentrism a suspicion of outsiders; tendency to evaluate culture against your culture’s terms: • Outsiders = barbarian, aliens, morally, mentally inferior 2. Group closure: process. Boundaries are formed and maintained through exclusion devices (Barth 1969); • limiting intermarriage • restriction on social contact, economic restriction (e.g. trading) • Physical separation/ghettoisation (e.g. ethnic ghettos) 3. Resource allocation one ethnic group dominates by occupying position of power: institutes inequalities in wealth distribution, materials goods
  19. 19. • Conflict theories racism is product of capitalism , ruling classes use slavery, colonization and racism to exploit labour (Cox 1959) • Too rigid? Hall et al (1982) racism is more than oppressive ideas enacted by powerful elites: – Complex, multifaceted – Interplay of identities: working- class, ethnic minority
  20. 20. Ethnic Integration • Most developed societies have ethnic diversity The questions sociologists and politicians ask: • How can ethnic diversity be accommodated? • What should be the relation between ethnic minority groups and the majority population?
  21. 21. Models of ethnic integration • Assimilation : – Abandon original customs, traditions, practices – Pressure – Attempts difficult if racialized or rejected • Melting pot – different cultures/patterns brought in: chicken tikka – Diversity created through adaption – Most desirable outcome? – Constantly transforming social milieu
  22. 22. Models of ethnic integration • Cultural pluralism – Separately but participate in economy, politics – Strongly related: • Multiculturalism policies that encourage ethnic groups to live peacefully
  23. 23. Greater London poster Promoting an image of London's multicultural diversity Source: Equality and Human Rights Commission. This poster was originally published by the Commission for Racial Equality, which is now part of the new Equality and Human Rights Commission: www.equalityhumanrights.com
  24. 24. Support for multiculturalism • Parekh (2000:67) ‘the cultural identity of some groups (minorities) should not have to be confined to the private sphere while the other language, culture and religion of others (the majority) enjoy a public monopoly and are treated as the norm.’ • Sen (2007) Solitarism (nationality or religion to be primary form of identity) is dangerous, leading to conflict
  25. 25. I am • A UK citizen • English • An Essex Girl • Australian • A liberal • A woman • …etc and I see myself as each of these without any problem... Which subject positions do you identify with?
  26. 26. Of course... • The debate of political multiculturalism: • Discourses/ media – local authorities in the UK ‘cancel’ Christmas? – A cross to be removed from a van? – Fear of militant Islam – Fear of rising immigration – Political turn against multiculturalism
  27. 27. Differentiate Cultural diversity • Is not multiculturalism naive ? • Implies groups can follow whatever norms they want Sophisticated multiculturalism • Emphasizes importance of national identities and national laws • Emphasizes fostering of connections between groups • Equality of status does not mean accepting uncritically
  28. 28. The Cut • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qDJyZIPvExY • Taylor (1992): – If people have rights and respect, they also have responsibilities – One responsibility is to follow the law • The difficulty is when we reach issues which are not as clear cut: – France has banned burkhas. This is a assimilationist approach. • Critical thinking: Why do some forms of identification (e.g. national or religious) seem more powerful than others?
  29. 29. Ethnic diversity or solidarity? David Goodhart (2004) • Trade off between diversity and solidarity – welfare state • People will pay higher taxes for those considered to share common values and assumptions • Sweden; Denmark • Tipping point: Britain and the USA Bernard Crick (2004) • ‘Solidarity of what?’ • Britain or UK? • Historically a multinational and multi ethnic state • Dual status: British- Scottish; British –English = accepted • It’s not about solidarity or loss of identity: identity is being a member of more than one group Ask your partner: Whose opinion do you find more convincing?
  30. 30. Conclusions • Us and Them • Models of integration • Ethnicity and inequality
  31. 31. Homework • Forum ‘Make Bradford British’: – log on to 4od – Watch the episodes of Make Bradford British – Take notes according to the questions on the forum. – Write up notes and upload them. • Seminar preparation
  32. 32. Extra reading • Davis, A. Women, Race and Class New York: Random House, 1981. • Fisher, K, ‘A Study of the Sexual Behaviour of Gay Men from Ethnic Minority Groups in the United Kingdom’. Working Paper 6