Parts of adult & young bone, 123

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Parts of adult & young bone, 123

  1. 2. BONE & FUNCTIONS OF SKELETAL SYSTEM By Dr Muhammad Altaf Hussain Lecturer Anatomy SMC (DUHS)
  2. 3. Objectives <ul><li>To know the division and functions of the skeletal system. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the methods to classify the bones. </li></ul><ul><li>To discuss the different ways to classify the bones. </li></ul><ul><li>To Identify the gross structures of the adult and young long bones. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Introduction
  4. 7. What is Bone? <ul><li>rigid connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrates. </li></ul><ul><li>Ct 1/3 rd, impregnated with calcium salts 2/3 rd . </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness and rigidity is mainly due to the presence of calcium phosphate , partly from calcium carbonate, & traces of other salts. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility is because of organic CT ie collagen fibres. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly vascular . </li></ul><ul><li>Greater regenerative power . </li></ul><ul><li>It can show atrophy & hypertrophy. </li></ul>
  5. 8. Functions of Bone <ul><li>Mechanical  protection , shape , movements . </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic  haematopoiesis </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic  storage , detoxification . </li></ul><ul><li>It also gives immune response . </li></ul>
  6. 9. Table. 6.2
  7. 10. CLASSIFICATION of BONES <ul><li>According to shape </li></ul><ul><li>1. long bones = length is greater than breadth </li></ul><ul><li>= consists of shaft (diaphysis) & </li></ul><ul><li> two extremities (epiphysis) </li></ul><ul><li>diaphysis = filled with yellow marrow </li></ul><ul><li>= cylindrical, large space or canal at the center </li></ul><ul><li> = periosteum </li></ul><ul><li>epiphysis = made up of cancellous tissue </li></ul><ul><li>e.g.: femur, humerus, tibia, fibula, radius, ulna, phalanges </li></ul><ul><li>Membranes : 1. periosteum </li></ul><ul><li>2. endosteum </li></ul>
  8. 11. CLASSIFICATION of BONES cont’n. <ul><li>According to shape </li></ul><ul><li>2. short bones = cuboidal in shape </li></ul><ul><li>= spongy bone with thin coat of compact bone. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g.: carpals (wrist), tarsal (ankle) bones </li></ul><ul><li>3. flat bones = broad or elongated flat plates </li></ul><ul><li>= for protection & muscle attachments </li></ul><ul><li>composition: 2 thin layers of compact tissues. Enclosing a thin layer of spongy bone. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g.: bones of the skull, sternum, ribs, scapula </li></ul>
  9. 12. CLASSIFICATION of BONES <ul><li>4 Irregular bones  </li></ul><ul><li>5 pneumatic bones  </li></ul><ul><li>6 sesamoid bones  </li></ul><ul><li>7 accessory bones. </li></ul>
  10. 13. CLASSIFICATION of BONES <ul><li>Regional classification: </li></ul><ul><li>axial skeleton. </li></ul><ul><li>Appendicular skeleton. </li></ul>
  11. 15. Bone growth <ul><li>The increases in the length of the bone is due to growth plates made of cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage is continually formed and turned into bone (ossified) </li></ul><ul><li>The growth plate ceases to function when the person becomes an adult. </li></ul>The location of growth plates in a bone
  12. 16. CLASSIFICATION of BONES <ul><li>According to development </li></ul><ul><li>1) membrane (dermal) bone. </li></ul><ul><li>2) cartilaginous bones. </li></ul><ul><li>3) membrano-cartilaginous bones. </li></ul>
  13. 17. CLASSIFICATION of BONES <ul><li>Structural classification:- </li></ul><ul><li>Macroscopically; </li></ul><ul><li>Compact bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Cancellous spongy or trabecular bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Microscopically; </li></ul><ul><li>Lamellar bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrous bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Dentine bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Cement. </li></ul>
  14. 18. To be continued in next class <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>
  15. 19. young and adult long bone
  16. 20. Blood Supply of Long Bone <ul><li>Nutrient artery. </li></ul><ul><li>Periosteal arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Epiphysial arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysial arteries. </li></ul>
  17. 21. Blood Supply of Long Bone
  18. 22. Radiographs
  19. 31. ANY QUESTION
  20. 32. THANK YOU
  21. 40. Introduction <ul><li>Skeleton :- The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments , tendons , muscles and cartilage . It serves as a scaffold which supports organs, anchors muscles, and protects organs such as the brain , lungs and heart . The biggest bone in the body is the femur and the smallest is the stapes bone in the middle ear . In an adult, the skeleton comprises around 14% of the total body weight, [1] and half of this weight is water. </li></ul><ul><li>Fused bones include those of the pelvis and the cranium . Not all bones are interconnected directly: There are three bones in each middle ear called the ossicles that articulate only with each other. The hyoid bone , which is located in the neck and serves as the point of attachment for the tongue , does not articulate with any other bones in the body, being supported by muscles and ligaments. </li></ul>
  22. 41. <ul><li>Bones have eleven main functions: </li></ul><ul><li>[ edit ] Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>Protection — Bones can serve to protect internal organs, such as the skull protecting the brain or the ribs protecting the heart and lungs . </li></ul><ul><li>Shape — Bones provide a frame to keep the body supported. </li></ul><ul><li>Movement — Bones, skeletal muscles , tendons , ligaments and joints function together to generate and transfer forces so that individual body parts or the whole body can be manipulated in three-dimensional space. The interaction between bone and muscle is studied in biomechanics . </li></ul><ul><li>Sound transduction — Bones are important in the mechanical aspect of overshadowed hearing . </li></ul><ul><li>[ edit ] Synthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Blood production — The marrow , located within the medullary cavity of long bones and interstices of cancellous bone, produces blood cells in a process called haematopoiesis . </li></ul><ul><li>[ edit ] Metabolic </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral storage — Bones act as reserves of minerals important for the body, most notably calcium and phosphorus . </li></ul><ul><li>Growth factor storage — Mineralized bone matrix stores important growth factors such as insulin-like growth factors, transforming growth factor, bone morphogenetic proteins and others. </li></ul><ul><li>Fat Storage — The yellow bone marrow acts as a storage reserve of fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>Acid-base balance — Bone buffers the blood against excessive pH changes by absorbing or releasing alkaline salts. </li></ul><ul><li>Detoxification — Bone tissues can also store heavy metals and other foreign elements, removing them from the blood and reducing their effects on other tissues. These can later be gradually released for excretion. [ citation needed ] </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine organ - Bone controls phosphate metabolism by releasing fibroblast growth factor - 23 (FGF-23), which acts on kidney to reduce phosphate reabsorption. </li></ul>
  23. 43. The skeleton and muscles
  24. 44. The Human Skeleton
  25. 46. Functions of the skeleton <ul><li>Frame work </li></ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacture of blood cells </li></ul>
  26. 47. The Human Skeleton
  27. 49. Parts of the axial skeleton <ul><li>Consists of the skull, vertebrae, ribs and sternum </li></ul>
  28. 51. Lesson objectives <ul><li>By the end of this lesson you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the macroscopic anatomy of a long bone: medullary cavity, compact bone, spongy bone, and cartilage. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the function of the following: cartilage, compact bone, spongy bone (include red and yellow marrows). </li></ul><ul><li>HIGHER LEVEL </li></ul><ul><li>Understand osteoblast role in bone growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Terminating development of adult height. </li></ul><ul><li>Role of osteoblasts in bone cell replacement. </li></ul><ul><li>Bone renewal. </li></ul><ul><li>Role of calcium in bone. </li></ul>
  29. 53. Bone growth (HL) <ul><li>The increases in the length of the bone is due to growth plates made of cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage is continually formed and turned into bone (ossified) </li></ul><ul><li>The growth plate ceases to function when the person becomes and adult </li></ul>The location of growth plates in a bone
  30. 55. Types of bone <ul><li>There are 3 types of bone </li></ul><ul><li>Compact bone </li></ul><ul><li>Spongy bone </li></ul><ul><li>Bone marrow </li></ul>
  31. 57. Compact bone <ul><li>Osteoblasts enclosed in a matrix </li></ul><ul><li>The matrix consists of 70% inorganic salts (such as calcium carbonate and phosphate) and 30% organic material (such as the protein collagen) </li></ul><ul><li>Compact bone contains blood vessels and nerve fibres </li></ul>
  32. 59. Ribs <ul><li>12 pairs of ribs </li></ul><ul><li>Are attached to the spine </li></ul><ul><li>There are 3 types of ribs depending on where they attach to at the front of the body </li></ul>
  33. 60. Spongy bone <ul><li>Found in the epiphyses </li></ul><ul><li>Mixture of compact bone with pockets of bone marrow (looks like aero chocolate) </li></ul><ul><li>Spaces contain bone marrow </li></ul><ul><li>Strength and rigidity but not heavy </li></ul>
  34. 61. Bone marrow <ul><li>Medullary cavity contains a soft fatty material called bone marrow </li></ul><ul><li>In young people bone marrow is full of active red marrow (makes blood components) </li></ul>
  35. 63. Bone Deformation Rickets can result from insufficient vitamin D in the diet or from insufficient amounts of ultraviolet radiation from the sun. It can lead to skeletal deformation, such as vertebral or leg curvature.
  36. 64. Functions of the Bones <ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Hematopoiesis </li></ul>
  37. 65. <ul><li>A stretching force (tension) pulling at both ends of a component or structure along its length. </li></ul>
  38. 66. Table. 6.1
  39. 67. 2 Types of Bone <ul><li>Compact bone </li></ul><ul><li>Spongy bone </li></ul>
  40. 69. CLASSIFICATION of BONES <ul><li>According to structure </li></ul><ul><li>1. compact = solid mass; dense & hard </li></ul><ul><li>= forms the outer layer of bone structure </li></ul><ul><li>= functional unit --- Haversian system </li></ul><ul><li>2. cancellous or spongy = contain spaces filled with bone marrow </li></ul><ul><li>= incomplete Haversian system </li></ul>
  41. 70. young and adult long bone
  42. 71. Blood Supply of Long Bone <ul><li>Nutrient artry. </li></ul><ul><li>Periosteal arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Epiphysial arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysial arteries. </li></ul>
  43. 74. CLASSIFICATION of BONES <ul><li>According to shape </li></ul><ul><li>1. long bones = length is greater than breadth </li></ul><ul><li>= consists of shaft (diaphysis) & </li></ul><ul><li> two extremities (epiphysis) </li></ul><ul><li>diaphysis = filled with yellow marrow </li></ul><ul><li>= cylindrical, large space or canal at the center </li></ul><ul><li> = periosteum </li></ul><ul><li>epiphysis = made up of cancellous tissue </li></ul><ul><li>e.g.: femur, humerus, tibia, fibula, radius, ulna, phalanges </li></ul><ul><li>Membranes : 1. periosteum </li></ul><ul><li>2. endosteum </li></ul>
  44. 76. CLASSIFICATION of BONES cont’n. <ul><li>According to shape </li></ul><ul><li>2. short bones = cuboidal in shape </li></ul><ul><li>= spongy bone with thin coat of compact bone </li></ul><ul><li>= sesamoid bone -- short bone embedded in a </li></ul><ul><li> tendon e.g.: patella </li></ul><ul><li>e.g.: carpals (wrist), tarsal (ankle) bones </li></ul><ul><li>3. flat bones = broad or elongated flat plates </li></ul><ul><li>= for protection & muscle attachments </li></ul><ul><li>composition: 2 thin layers of compact tse. enclosing </li></ul><ul><li>a thin layer of spongy bone </li></ul><ul><li>e.g.: bones of the skull, sternum, ribs, scapula </li></ul>
  45. 77. CLASSIFICATION of BONES cont’n. <ul><li>According to shape </li></ul><ul><li>4. Irregular bones = all other bones not assigned to the previous groups </li></ul><ul><li>e.g.: vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>pelvic bones </li></ul><ul><li>bones of the base of the skull </li></ul>
  46. 78. CLASSIFICATION of BONES cont’n. <ul><li>According to development </li></ul><ul><li>1. Membranous = starts as fibrous membrane, </li></ul><ul><li>calcium gradually deposited until structure </li></ul><ul><li>becomes ossified  intramembranous ossification </li></ul><ul><li>e.g.: bones of the skull, mandible </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cartilagenous = starts as cartilage, gradually ossified </li></ul><ul><li>enchondral or intracartilagenous ossification. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g.: long bones </li></ul>
  47. 79. CLASSIFICATION of BONES cont’n. <ul><li>According to location </li></ul><ul><li>A X I A L </li></ul><ul><li>skull 22 </li></ul><ul><li>hyoid 1 </li></ul><ul><li>ossicles 6 </li></ul><ul><li>vertebrae 26 </li></ul><ul><li>ribs & sternum 25_ </li></ul><ul><li>80 </li></ul>
  48. 80. CLASSIFICATION of BONES cont’n. <ul><li>According to location </li></ul><ul><li>A X I A L </li></ul><ul><li>skull 22 </li></ul><ul><li>hyoid 1 </li></ul><ul><li>ossicles 6 </li></ul><ul><li>vertebrae 26 </li></ul><ul><li>ribs & sternum 25_ </li></ul><ul><li>80 </li></ul>
  49. 82. CLASSIFICATION of BONES cont’n. <ul><li>According to location </li></ul><ul><li>APPENDICULAR </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Extremities Lower Extremities </li></ul><ul><li>clavicle 2 hip bone 2 </li></ul><ul><li>scapulae 2 femur 2 </li></ul><ul><li>humerus 2 patella 2 </li></ul><ul><li>radius 2 tibia 2 </li></ul><ul><li>ulna 2 fibula 2 </li></ul><ul><li>carpals 16 tarsals 14 </li></ul><ul><li>metacarpals 10 metatarsals 10 </li></ul><ul><li>phalanges 28__ phalanges 28__ </li></ul><ul><li> 64 62 </li></ul>
  50. 84. Table. 6.2
  51. 87. Muscles <ul><li>Involuntary (smooth) muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary ( skeletal or striped) muscle </li></ul>
  52. 88. The action of an antagonistic pair

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