Growth and Reproduction are based on Chemical Compounds and Reactions
Proportional arrangement of specific chemical compounds.
Synthesis of necessary compounds.
Production of necessary energy.
Biological Concept of Life
Life is a biologic phenomena in which:
Certain specific chemical compounds are present in a definite proportion and in a planned manner.
Still further hundreds of planned reactions are involved in growth and reproduction.
Basis of Health - Disease - Death
So long the chemical reactions are not disturbed system remains healthy.
Alterations within certain limit doesn’t kill the system but make it abnormal (disease).
Changes beyond a limit ceases whole process and the system is dead.
Aim of studying Biochemistry?
Understanding the normal pattern of life:
To get a sound knowledge of chemical compounds and reactions related to life.
Understanding the diseases:
To know what, when, how & why abnormal changes takes place (Environmental, Nutritional, Genetic).
Diagnose & Treatment of diseases:
To know how these changes can be prevented & corrected.
Hundreds of planned chemical reactions are involved in life process
Oxidation of compounds to generate energy e.g., Glucose, Fats etc.
Synthesis of compounds necessary for life e.g., Proteins, Nucleic Acids Hormones, Cholesterol etc.
A Chemical Reaction Taking Place In Living Cell is Called Metabolic Reaction.
Two types of metabolic reactions On the basis of final outcome:
Anabolic Reactions build up the tissues
Synthesis of higher and complex biological compounds from smaller molecules e.g., synthesis of proteins from Amino acids.
Result in synthesis of complex molecules and build up of tissues.
Energy consuming reactions.
Dominant during growth and development period.
Catabolic Reactions generate energy
Breakdown of higher and complex biological compounds to simple smaller molecules e.g., Oxidation of Glucose to Water and Carbon dioxide.
Energy generation during catabolism of nutrients (Glucose, Fats etc.).
Dominant during chronic debilitating disease (TB, Cancer etc.) and old age.
In a living cell both Anabolic and Catabolic reactions take place simultaneously according to the requirements and demands
A particular setup of metabolic reactions in a cell is called the Metabolism of the cell .
Anabolic reactions are collectively called Anabolism .
Catabolic reactions are collectively called Catabolism .
During life time balance of Anabolism and Catabolism shifts according to circumstances
Anabolism is dominant.
Anabolism and Catabolism run parallel and remains balanced.
Old age and prolonged diseases:
Catabolism is dominant.
Energy is fundamental requirement of living systems
For synthetic reactions.
For contraction of muscles.
For maintenance of temperature.
Energy can be produced by actual burning of organic substances in air (Oxidation or Combustion).
Such energy is not suitable for living systems because:
Can not be controlled.
Can not be stored.
Requires drastic conditions.
In living system energy is generated by precise chemical methods
Energy produced by such chemical methods:
Is Precisely controlled and regulated according to requirements.
Can be stored for use at a proper time.
Do not require drastic conditions of Temperature, Pressure and pH.
Bioenergetics (Biochemical thermodynamics)
Study of the energy changes accompanying biochemical reactions.
Study of generation, storage and utilization of energy in living system.
Sources of Energy In Human cells
Free or useful energy is released during catabolic reactions:
Oxidation of energy-rich organic compounds (Cellular respiration):
Fats (Glycerol & Fatty acids).
Storage of energy in living system
Free or useful energy is released during catabolic reactions.
This energy is captured and stored as high energy phosphate bonds.
Compounds having high energy bonds are called high-energy compounds.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is the most commonly used Energy Storing Molecule Adenine | Ribose_______P Adenosine Monophosphate ~ P ~ P High Energy Phosphate Bonds
Capture of Energy as ATP Adenine | Ribose_______P ~ P ~ P Energy generated by oxidation of food stuffs is utilized for the formation of High- energy phosphate bonds. ADP is converted to ATP
Release of energy by ATP Adenine | Ribose_______P ~ P ~ P Hydrolysis of terminal Generates 7300 Calories. ATP is Converted to ADP
Release of energy by ATP
Phosphate bond splits to release free energy Approximately 7300 cal/mol. for each of two terminal phosphate groups.
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) are formed respectively.
Phosphate bond of AMP is a low-energy bond.
Release of energy by ATP Adenine | Ribose_______P ~ P + Pi Energy generated is utilized for: 1. Metabolic Reactions. 2. Muscle Contraction. 3. Heat.
An Overview of Energy Storage Adenine | Ribose__P Adenosine Monophosphate Adenine | Ribose__P __P Adenosine Diphosphate Adenine | Ribose__P __P __P Adenosine Triphosphate Catabolism of Nutrients CO2 + H2O Energy
Organic molecules (Nutrients Such as Glucose & Fats) contain energy, stored in their molecular structure
Breakdown (Catabolism) of these
molecules generate the energy to
synthesize High energy Phosphate
Generation and utilization of energy in human tissues is an important concern in medical science
Medical problems due to energy imbalance:
Unavailability of Energy
Excess Storage of Energy
Energy imbalance due to Malnutrition
Diabetes mellitus, Diseases of Thyroid
Cellular Respiration is the Main Source of Energy
The overall process of energy generation by breakdown of food is called Cellular Respiration.
The process by which the chemical energy of food molecules (Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins) is released and captured in the form of ATP.
ATP / ADP Cycle Adenine | Ribose — P ~ ~ ATP Adenine | Ribose — P ~ ADP 7300 cal/mol