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(Dr. saleem) overview of metabolism & bioenergetics i

(Dr. saleem) overview of metabolism & bioenergetics i






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    (Dr. saleem) overview of metabolism & bioenergetics i (Dr. saleem) overview of metabolism & bioenergetics i Presentation Transcript

    • We have indeed created man in the best shape (Holy Quran) Lecture # 1 Biochemistry Foundation Module November-2010
    • Aims of Medical Sciences
      • To obtain the Knowledge of:
        • Normal pattern of life.
        • Abnormalities of life (Diseases).
        • Procedures to prevent Diseases.
        • Procedures to treat Diseases.
    • What life means to a Biologist?
      • A variety of thoughts about life.
      • Criteria of life:
        • Definite capability to grow.
          • Increase in size.
          • Increase in weight.
        • Reproduction.
    • Cells are made up of Specific Chemical Compounds
      • Different components of cells such as cytoplasm, nucleus, and cell membrane are made up of specific chemical compounds
    • An uncountable variety of chemical compounds are related to life, e.g., Bacteria may contain over 5000 varieties.
      • Familiar examples in human body:
        • Proteins (Haemoglobin, Collagen, Keratin, Albumin etc.).
        • Carbohydrates (Glucose, Ribose, Chondrotin, Heparin etc.)
        • Nucleic acids.
        • Lipids.
    • Growth and Reproduction are based on Chemical Compounds and Reactions
      • Chemical Compounds:
        • Proportional arrangement of specific chemical compounds.
      • Chemical Reactions:
        • Synthesis of necessary compounds.
        • Production of necessary energy.
    • Biological Concept of Life
      • Life is a biologic phenomena in which:
        • Certain specific chemical compounds are present in a definite proportion and in a planned manner.
        • Still further hundreds of planned reactions are involved in growth and reproduction.
    • Basis of Health - Disease - Death
      • HEALTH
      • So long the chemical reactions are not disturbed system remains healthy.
      • DISEASE
      • Alterations within certain limit doesn’t kill the system but make it abnormal (disease).
      • DEATH
      • Changes beyond a limit ceases whole process and the system is dead.
    • Aim of studying Biochemistry?
      • Understanding the normal pattern of life:
        • To get a sound knowledge of chemical compounds and reactions related to life.
      • Understanding the diseases:
        • To know what, when, how & why abnormal changes takes place (Environmental, Nutritional, Genetic).
      • Diagnose & Treatment of diseases:
        • To know how these changes can be prevented & corrected.
    • Hundreds of planned chemical reactions are involved in life process
      • Oxidation of compounds to generate energy e.g., Glucose, Fats etc.
      • Synthesis of compounds necessary for life e.g., Proteins, Nucleic Acids Hormones, Cholesterol etc.
    • A Chemical Reaction Taking Place In Living Cell is Called Metabolic Reaction.
      • Two types of metabolic reactions On the basis of final outcome:
      • Anabolic Reactions.
      • Catabolic Reactions.
    • Anabolic Reactions build up the tissues
      • Synthesis of higher and complex biological compounds from smaller molecules e.g., synthesis of proteins from Amino acids.
      • Result in synthesis of complex molecules and build up of tissues.
      • Energy consuming reactions.
      • Dominant during growth and development period.
    • Catabolic Reactions generate energy
      • Breakdown of higher and complex biological compounds to simple smaller molecules e.g., Oxidation of Glucose to Water and Carbon dioxide.
      • Energy generation during catabolism of nutrients (Glucose, Fats etc.).
      • Dominant during chronic debilitating disease (TB, Cancer etc.) and old age.
    • In a living cell both Anabolic and Catabolic reactions take place simultaneously according to the requirements and demands
      • A particular setup of metabolic reactions in a cell is called the Metabolism of the cell .
        • Anabolic reactions are collectively called Anabolism .
        • Catabolic reactions are collectively called Catabolism .
    • During life time balance of Anabolism and Catabolism shifts according to circumstances
      • Growing age:
        • Anabolism is dominant.
      • Adulthood:
        • Anabolism and Catabolism run parallel and remains balanced.
      • Old age and prolonged diseases:
        • Catabolism is dominant.
    • Energy is fundamental requirement of living systems
      • Chemical energy
        • For synthetic reactions.
      • Mechanical energy
        • For contraction of muscles.
      • Heat energy
        • For maintenance of temperature.
    • Energy can be produced by actual burning of organic substances in air (Oxidation or Combustion).
      • Such energy is not suitable for living systems because:
        • Can not be controlled.
        • Can not be stored.
        • Requires drastic conditions.
    • In living system energy is generated by precise chemical methods
      • Energy produced by such chemical methods:
        • Is Precisely controlled and regulated according to requirements.
        • Can be stored for use at a proper time.
        • Do not require drastic conditions of Temperature, Pressure and pH.
    • Bioenergetics (Biochemical thermodynamics)
      • Study of the energy changes accompanying biochemical reactions.
      • Study of generation, storage and utilization of energy in living system.
    • Sources of Energy In Human cells
      • Free or useful energy is released during catabolic reactions:
        • Oxidation of energy-rich organic compounds (Cellular respiration):
            • Glucose
            • Fats (Glycerol & Fatty acids).
            • Amino acids.
    • Storage of energy in living system
      • Free or useful energy is released during catabolic reactions.
      • This energy is captured and stored as high energy phosphate bonds.
      • Compounds having high energy bonds are called high-energy compounds.
    • Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is the most commonly used Energy Storing Molecule Adenine | Ribose_______P Adenosine Monophosphate ~ P ~ P High Energy Phosphate Bonds
    • Capture of Energy as ATP Adenine | Ribose_______P ~ P ~ P Energy generated by oxidation of food stuffs is utilized for the formation of High- energy phosphate bonds. ADP is converted to ATP
    • Release of energy by ATP Adenine | Ribose_______P ~ P ~ P Hydrolysis of terminal  Generates 7300 Calories. ATP is Converted to ADP
    • Release of energy by ATP
      • Phosphate bond splits to release free energy Approximately 7300 cal/mol. for each of two terminal phosphate groups.
      • Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) are formed respectively.
      • Phosphate bond of AMP is a low-energy bond.
    • Release of energy by ATP Adenine | Ribose_______P ~ P + Pi Energy generated is utilized for: 1. Metabolic Reactions. 2. Muscle Contraction. 3. Heat.
    • An Overview of Energy Storage Adenine | Ribose__P Adenosine Monophosphate Adenine | Ribose__P __P Adenosine Diphosphate Adenine | Ribose__P __P __P Adenosine Triphosphate Catabolism of Nutrients CO2 + H2O Energy
    • Organic molecules (Nutrients Such as Glucose & Fats) contain energy, stored in their molecular structure
      • Breakdown (Catabolism) of these
      • molecules generate the energy to
      • synthesize High energy Phosphate
      • bonds (ATP)
    • Generation and utilization of energy in human tissues is an important concern in medical science
      • Medical problems due to energy imbalance:
        • Starvation
            • Unavailability of Energy
        • Obesity
            • Excess Storage of Energy
        • Marasmus
            • Energy imbalance due to Malnutrition
        • Hormonal Disorders
            • Diabetes mellitus, Diseases of Thyroid
    • Cellular Respiration is the Main Source of Energy
      • The overall process of energy generation by breakdown of food is called Cellular Respiration.
      • The process by which the chemical energy of food molecules (Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins) is released and captured in the form of ATP.
    • ATP / ADP Cycle Adenine | Ribose — P ~  ~  ATP Adenine | Ribose — P ~  ADP 7300 cal/mol
      • ATP as energy currency
      • -----------------------
      • ATP acts as currency
      • of energy, when energy
      • is gained from high-energy
      • molecules, is stored in
      • this form and it pays it to
      • low-energy molecules,
      • when required.