11.20 (dr. nand lal) terminologies anatomical positions anatomical planes terms of positions
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11.20 (dr. nand lal) terminologies anatomical positions anatomical planes terms of positions

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  • THE reference point from which all parts of the body are named - Standing erect - Eyes direct straight forward (and level) - Feet positioned slightly apart with heels close together, the toes directly laterally - Hands at sides -- Palms facing forward -- Thumbs directed laterally -- Fingers extended

11.20 (dr. nand lal) terminologies anatomical positions anatomical planes terms of positions 11.20 (dr. nand lal) terminologies anatomical positions anatomical planes terms of positions Presentation Transcript

  • General Anatomy Terminologies: Anatomical positions Anatomical Planes Terms of position. By Dr Muhammad Altaf Hussain Lecturer Anatomy Department SMC ( DUHS).
  • Objectives
    • To understand the basic terminologies used in anatomy.
    • To describe the anatomical position of the body.
    • To know the different anatomical planes and terms of positions.
  • Why Study Anatomy?
    • Communication within the health professions.
    • In order to understand the pathology of the human body, one must understand the normal.
    • Learn the interaction between body systems.
    • Define the significance between structure and function.
  • Why Study Anatomy?
    • Provides an education rather than training.
    • ie: you can train a monkey to do surgery but the monkey cannot fix a problem when it arises.
    • Terminology allows clear communication between medical professionals.
  • GROSS ANATOMY
    • REGIONAL
    • UPPER LIMB
    • LOWER LIMB
    • THORAX
    • ABDOMEN
    • PELVIS & PERINIUM
    • HEAD& NECK
    • BRAIN & SPINAL CORD
    • SYSTEMIC
    • OSTEOLOGY
    • MYOLOGY
    • ARTHROLOGY
    • ANGIOLOGY
    • NEUROLOGY
    • SPLANCHNOLOGY
  • Terminologies
    • Many terms provide information about a structure’s shape, size, location, or function or about the resemblance of one structure to another.
    • For example:
      • Deltoid muscle, is triangular , like the symbol for delta.
      • Suffix – oid means ‘ like’ therefore deltoid means like delta.
    • Anatomical Terminology applies logical reasons for the names of muscles and other parts of the body.
    • If you learn their meanings and think about them as you read and dissect , it will be easier to remember their names.
    • ANATOMICAL POSITION
    • The anatomical position is a standardized method of observing or imaging the body that allows precise and consistent anatomical references.
    ANATOMICAL POSITION
  • ANATOMICAL POSITION
    • In an anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are placed at the sides, the palms of the hands are turned forward, and the feet are flat on the floor .
    • THE
    • ANATOMICAL
    • POSITION
  • Anatomical positions
    • SUPINE
    • PRONE
    • COMMONLY USED POSITIONS
  • PLANES USED TO DESCRIBE POSITIONS
    • MEDIAN / MIDSAGITTAL
    • SAGITTAL / PARAMEDIAN
    • CORONAL / FRONTAL
    • TRANSVERSE / HORIZONTAL
    • OBLIQUE
    Median plane Coronal plane Transverse plane
  • Anatomical Planes
    • Anatomical descriptions are based on four imaginary planes that intersect the body in anatomical position.
    • These are:
      • Median
      • Sagittal
      • Frontal
      • Transverse
  • Median Plane
    • Median Plane / midline:
    • Vertical plane passing longitudinally through the body , divides the body into right and left halves.
  • Sagittal Plane
    • Sagittal Plane:
    • Vertical planes passing through the body parallel to the median plane.
    • Plane parallel and near to the median plane is paramedian plane.
    • (Medial and lateral)
  • Frontal ( coronal ) planes:
    • Frontal ( coronal ) planes :
    • Vertical planes passing through the body at right angles to the median plane, divides the body into anterior ( front) and posterior (back) parts.
  • Transverse Planes:
    • Transverse Planes:
    • Horizontal plane passing through the body at right angles to the median and frontal planes, dividing the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) parts.
  • Longitudinal Section:
    • Main use of anatomical planes is to describe sections.
    • Longitudinal Section:
      • Runs lengthwise or parallel to the long axis of the body.
      • Median, sagittal and frontal planes are the standard longitudinal sections
  • Transverse sections
    • Transverse sections or cross sections :
      • Slices of the body or its parts that are cut at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the body or of any of its parts.
      • Transverse section of the foot lies in the frontal plane, because the long axis of the foot runs horizontally.
  • Oblique sections
    • Diagonal cross section attained by slicing, actually or through imaging techniques, the body, in any plane that neither longitudinal (vertical) nor transverse (horizontal).
    • In practice, many radiographic images and anatomical sections do not lie precisely in sagittal, frontal or transverse planes; often they are slightly oblique.
  • Terms Of Relationship and comparison
    • Superior refers to a structure that is nearer the vertex , topmost point of the cranium.
    • Inferior refers to a structure that is situated nearer the sole of the foot .
  • Terms Of Relationship and comparison
    • Cranial relates to the cranium and is a useful directional term, meaning towards the head or cranium.
    • Caudal means towards the feet or tail region, represented in humans by the coccyx ( tail bone), the small bone at the inferior end of the vertebral column
  • Terms Of Relationship and comparison
    • Posterior ( dorsal) denotes the back surface of the body or nearer to the back.
    • Anterior ( ventral ) denotes the front surface of the body.
  • Terms Of Relationship and comparison
    • Proximal (proximus = nearest)
      • Near to the attachment of a limb
      • where the appendage joins the body
    • Distal (to stand away from)
      • Farther from the attachment of a limb.
  • Terms Of Relationship and comparison
    • Medial indicates a structure nearer to the median plane of the body.
    • For example, 5 th digit of the hand (little finger) is medial to other digits.
    • Lateral stipulates a structure is away
  • Terms Of Relationship and comparison
    • Rostral is often used instead of anterior when describing parts of the brain, means towards the rostrum. In humans, it denotes nearer the anterior part of the head.
    • Towards the tip of the frontal lobes.
    • ( frontal lobe of the brain is rostral to the cerebellum).
  • Terms Of Relationship and comparison
    • Ipsilateral (Latin ipse ; self/same): on the same side as another structure
    • left arm is ipsilateral to the left leg.
    • Contralateral (Latin contra ; against): on the opposite from another structure.
    • Left arm is contralateral to the right arm, or the right leg.
  • Terms Of Relationship and comparison
    • Superficial ( Latin = at the surface or face ): near the outer surface of the organism. Thus, skin is superficial to the muscle layer.
    • Deep : further away from the surface of the organism. Thus, the muscular layer is deep to the skin, but superficial to the intestines.
  • SKIN SUPERFICIAL – toward the surface DEEP – away from the surface
  •  
  • Terms Of Relationship and comparison
    • Visceral (Latin = internal organs , flesh ): associated with organs within the body's cavities. The stomach is a viscra within the abdominal cavity, and is covered with a lining called the visceral peritoneum.
    • Parietal (Latin "wall"): pertaining to the wall of a body cavity. The parietal peritoneum is the lining on the inside of the abdominal cavity.
  • TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE
    • What is the relationship?
    • knee to thigh
    • Nipple to belly button
    • Chin to eyes
    • Little toe to big toe
  • References
    • KLM clinical anatomy correlation.
    • Gray’s human anatomy.
    • B.D . Chaurasia’s General anatomy.
  • Thank you
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  • Example of how planes would cut the brain
  •  
  • BRANCHES OF ANATOMY
    • CADAVERIC / GROSS / MACROSCOPIC
    • LIVING
    • MICROCOPIC / HISTOLOGY
    • DEVELOPMENTAL / EMBRYOLOGY
    • SURFACE
    • RADIOGRAPHIC
    • APPLIED
  • WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND BY ANATOMY?