DR HEMANT KUMAR LECTURER  ANATOMY DEPT: SINDH MEDICAL COLLEGE & DOW UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARACHI .
MICROSCOPY <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>MICROSCOPE </li></ul><ul><li>PARTS </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES </li></ul>
MICROSCOPY <ul><li>OBSERVATIONS BY MEANS OF MICROSCOPE IS CALLED MICROSCOPY. </li></ul><ul><li>MICROSCOPY IS THE USE OF MI...
MICROSCOPY <ul><li>MICROSCOPY DATES FROM THE 17 TH  CENTURY WHEN HOOKE AND MALPIGHI EMPLOYED SIMPLE LENSES IN THE STUDY OF...
MICROSCOPE <ul><li>IT IS THE INSTRUMENT USED TO SEE THE MINUTE OBJECT WHICH WE CANT SEE WITH NAKED EYE. </li></ul><ul><li>...
MICROSCOPE <ul><li>IN MOST GENERAL USE IS THE LIGHT (OPTICAL) MICROSCOPE USING VISIBLE LIGHT. </li></ul><ul><li>MODIFICATI...
MICROSCOPE <ul><li>MICROSCOPES THAT UTILIZE A NON-VISIBLE LIGHT SOURCE ARE: </li></ul><ul><li>1. ULTRA-VIOLET MICROSCOPE <...
MICROSCOPE <ul><li>THE USEFULNESS OF ANY TYPE OF MICROSCOPE DEPENDS NOT ONLY UPON ITS ABILITY TO MAGNIFY BUT, MORE IMPORTA...
MICROSCOPE <ul><li>MAGNIFYING POWER: ABILITY TO ENLARGE THE IMAGE. </li></ul><ul><li>RESOLVING POWER: IT IS A MEASURE OF T...
MICROSCOPE <ul><li>PARTS OF MICROSCOPE: </li></ul><ul><li>1. OCULAR OR EYE PIECE </li></ul><ul><li>2. COARSE ADJ SCREW </l...
MICROSCOPE <ul><li>LIGHT OR OPTICAL MICROSCOPE: BASICALLY THE LIGHT MICROSCOPE ACTS AS A TWO-STAGE MAGNIFYING DEVICE. </li...
MICROSCOPE <ul><li>AN ADDITIONAL CONDENSING LENS IS EMPLOYED BENEATH THE STAGE OF THE MICROSCOPE TO CONCENTRATE THE LIGHT ...
MICROSCOPE <ul><li>THE OCULAR OR PROJECTOR LENS COMMONLY USED HAS A MAGNIFICATION OF X 10, ALTHOUGH MANY MICROSCOPES ARE E...
MICROSCOPE <ul><li>THE FOUR OBJECTIVES ROUTINELY USED HAVE MAGNIFICATIONS OF X 4, X 10, X 40, AND X 100. </li></ul><ul><li...
MICROSCOPE <ul><li>THE X 4 OBJECTIVE LENS WHEN COMBINED WITH X 10 OCULAR LENS, GIVES A TOTAL MAGNIFICATION OF X 40. </li><...
THANKS…….
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11.20 (dr. hemant kumar) introduction to microscopy

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11.20 (dr. hemant kumar) introduction to microscopy

  1. 1. DR HEMANT KUMAR LECTURER ANATOMY DEPT: SINDH MEDICAL COLLEGE & DOW UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARACHI .
  2. 2. MICROSCOPY <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>MICROSCOPE </li></ul><ul><li>PARTS </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES </li></ul>
  3. 3. MICROSCOPY <ul><li>OBSERVATIONS BY MEANS OF MICROSCOPE IS CALLED MICROSCOPY. </li></ul><ul><li>MICROSCOPY IS THE USE OF MICROSCOPE WITH THE HELP OF WHICH WE CAN SEE THE OBJECTS WHICH CANT BE SEEN WITH NAKED EYE. </li></ul>
  4. 4. MICROSCOPY <ul><li>MICROSCOPY DATES FROM THE 17 TH CENTURY WHEN HOOKE AND MALPIGHI EMPLOYED SIMPLE LENSES IN THE STUDY OF VARIOUS STRUCTURAL FEATURES. </li></ul><ul><li>BETWEEN 1673 AND 1716, LEEUWENHOEK DEVELOPED COMPOUND LENSES, AND BY THE EARLY 19 TH CENTURY, THE COMPOUND MICROSCOPE HAD BECOME HIGHLY SOPHISTICATED. </li></ul><ul><li>IN THE LATTER PART OF THE 19 TH CENTURY, THE MICROTOME (AN INSTRUMENT FOR PREPARING SECTIONS OF TISSUE FOR STUDY) WAS DEVELOPED. </li></ul><ul><li>THEN CAME THE DEVELOPMENT OF FIXING, EMBEDDING, AND STAINING TECHNIQUES. </li></ul>
  5. 5. MICROSCOPE <ul><li>IT IS THE INSTRUMENT USED TO SEE THE MINUTE OBJECT WHICH WE CANT SEE WITH NAKED EYE. </li></ul><ul><li>AN INSTRUMENT USED FOR MAGNIFYING SMALL OBJECTS BY MEANS OF LENS TO REVEAL DETAILS INVISIBLE TO NAKED EYE. </li></ul><ul><li>SEVERAL TYPES OF MICROSCOPES ARE AVAILABLE FOR THE STUDY OF BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL. </li></ul><ul><li>BASICALLY, THEY MAY BE CLASSIFIED BY THE TYPE OF LIGHT SOURCE USED. </li></ul>
  6. 6. MICROSCOPE <ul><li>IN MOST GENERAL USE IS THE LIGHT (OPTICAL) MICROSCOPE USING VISIBLE LIGHT. </li></ul><ul><li>MODIFICATIONS OF THIS TYPE INCLUDE: </li></ul><ul><li>1.POLARIZING MICROSCOPE </li></ul><ul><li>2.PHASE-CONTRAST MICROSCOPE </li></ul><ul><li>3.INTERFERENCE MICROSCOPE </li></ul><ul><li>4.DARK-FIELD MICROSCOPE </li></ul>
  7. 7. MICROSCOPE <ul><li>MICROSCOPES THAT UTILIZE A NON-VISIBLE LIGHT SOURCE ARE: </li></ul><ul><li>1. ULTRA-VIOLET MICROSCOPE </li></ul><ul><li>2. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE </li></ul><ul><li>THEY ARE MORE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS. </li></ul>
  8. 8. MICROSCOPE <ul><li>THE USEFULNESS OF ANY TYPE OF MICROSCOPE DEPENDS NOT ONLY UPON ITS ABILITY TO MAGNIFY BUT, MORE IMPORTANT, UPON ITS ABILITY TO RESOLVE DETAIL. BEYOND CERTAIN LIMITS, MAGNIFICATION ADDS NO NEW DETAIL. </li></ul><ul><li>THE USEFUL MAGNIFICATION OF AN ORDINARY LIGHT MICROSCOPE IS ABOUT 1500 TIMES (1500 X). </li></ul>
  9. 9. MICROSCOPE <ul><li>MAGNIFYING POWER: ABILITY TO ENLARGE THE IMAGE. </li></ul><ul><li>RESOLVING POWER: IT IS A MEASURE OF THE CAPACITY OF THE MICROSCOPE TO CLEARLY SEPARATE TWO POINTS THAT LIE CLOSE TOGETHER. </li></ul><ul><li>BEYOND THE RESOLVING POWER OF ANY MICROSCOPE, TWO POINTS WILL APPEAR AS ONE. </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS ALSO CALLED RESOLUTION OF MICROSCOPE. </li></ul><ul><li>THE RESOLUTION WITH LENS SYSTEMS IS LIMITED BY THE WAVELENGTH OF THE LIGHT AND BY THE NUMERICAL APERTURE, OR LIGHT-GATHERING CAPACITY, OF THE OBJECTIVE LENS. </li></ul><ul><li>SHORTER THE WAVE LENGTH, GREATER THE RESOLVING POWER. </li></ul><ul><li>THE RESOLVING POWER OF A WELL-CONSTRUCTED LIGHT MICROSCOPE IS ABOUT 0.2 MICROMETER(MICRON). </li></ul>
  10. 10. MICROSCOPE <ul><li>PARTS OF MICROSCOPE: </li></ul><ul><li>1. OCULAR OR EYE PIECE </li></ul><ul><li>2. COARSE ADJ SCREW </li></ul><ul><li>3. FINE ADJ SCREW </li></ul><ul><li>4. NOSE PIECE </li></ul><ul><li>5. ARM </li></ul><ul><li>6. OBJECTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>7. STAGE </li></ul><ul><li>8. CONDENSER </li></ul><ul><li>9. MIRROR </li></ul><ul><li>10. BASE </li></ul>
  11. 11. MICROSCOPE <ul><li>LIGHT OR OPTICAL MICROSCOPE: BASICALLY THE LIGHT MICROSCOPE ACTS AS A TWO-STAGE MAGNIFYING DEVICE. </li></ul><ul><li>AN OBJECTIVE LENS PROVIDES THE INITIAL MAGNIFICATION, AND AN OCULAR OR (PROJECTOR) LENS IS PLACED SO AS TO MAGNIFY THE PRIMARY IMAGE A SECOND TIME. </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL MAGNIFICATION IS OBTAINED BY MULTIPLYING THE MAGNIFYING POWER OF THE OBJECTIVE AND OCULAR LENSES. </li></ul>
  12. 12. MICROSCOPE <ul><li>AN ADDITIONAL CONDENSING LENS IS EMPLOYED BENEATH THE STAGE OF THE MICROSCOPE TO CONCENTRATE THE LIGHT FROM ITS SOURCE INTO A VERY BRIGHT BEAM ILLUMINATING THE SPECIMEN, THUS PROVIDING SUFFICIENT LIGHT FOR THE INSPECTION OF THE MAGNIFIED IMAGE. </li></ul><ul><li>ALTHOUGH THE CONDENSER LENS DOES NOT CONTRIBUTE TO THE TOTAL MAGNIFICATION, IT DOES INFLUENCE THE QUALITY OF THE IMAGE OBSERVED. </li></ul>
  13. 13. MICROSCOPE <ul><li>THE OCULAR OR PROJECTOR LENS COMMONLY USED HAS A MAGNIFICATION OF X 10, ALTHOUGH MANY MICROSCOPES ARE EQUIPPED WITH ALTERNATIVE EYE-PIECES THAT PROVIDE DIFFERENT MAGNIFICATIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>GENERALLY, THE OBJECTIVE LENS ASSEMBLY CONSISTS OF SEVERAL DETACHABLE LENSES MOUNTED ON A REVOLVING DISC AT THE LOWER END OF THE MICROSCOPE TUBE. THESE LENSES CAN BE INTERCHANGED AS REQUIRED BY ROTATING THE DISC THROUGH PART OF A TURN. </li></ul>
  14. 14. MICROSCOPE <ul><li>THE FOUR OBJECTIVES ROUTINELY USED HAVE MAGNIFICATIONS OF X 4, X 10, X 40, AND X 100. </li></ul><ul><li>X 4 LENS IS CALLED SCAN LENS. </li></ul><ul><li>X 10 LENS IS CALLED LOW POWER LENS. </li></ul><ul><li>X 40 LENS IS CALLED HIGH POWER LENS. </li></ul><ul><li>X 100 LENS IS CALLED OIL IMMERSION LENS. </li></ul>
  15. 15. MICROSCOPE <ul><li>THE X 4 OBJECTIVE LENS WHEN COMBINED WITH X 10 OCULAR LENS, GIVES A TOTAL MAGNIFICATION OF X 40. </li></ul><ul><li>THE X 10 OBJECTIVE LENS WHEN COMBINED WITH X 10 OCULAR LENS, GIVES A TOTAL MAGNIFICATION OF X 100. </li></ul><ul><li>THE X 40 OBJECTIVE LENS WHEN COMBINED WITH X 10 OCULAR LENS, GIVES A TOTAL MAGNIFICATION OF X 400. </li></ul><ul><li>SIMILARLY X 100 OBJECTIVE LENS WHEN COMBINED WITH X 10 OCULAR LENS, GIVES A TOTAL MAGNIFICATION OF X 1000. </li></ul>
  16. 16. THANKS…….

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