11.13 (dr. saleem) overview of metabolism & bioenergetics ii oidative phosphorylation & electron transport chain
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11.13 (dr. saleem) overview of metabolism & bioenergetics ii oidative phosphorylation & electron transport chain

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11.13 (dr. saleem) overview of metabolism & bioenergetics ii oidative phosphorylation & electron transport chain 11.13 (dr. saleem) overview of metabolism & bioenergetics ii oidative phosphorylation & electron transport chain Presentation Transcript

  • We have indeed created man in the best shape (Holy Quran) Lecture # 2 Biochemistry Foundation Module November-2010
  • Growth and reproduction and all other vital process depend on Hundreds of planned chemical reactions called metabolic reactions
  • Energy is fundamental requirement of living systems
    • Energy can be produced by actual burning of organic substances in air (Oxidation or Combustion).
    • Such energy is not suitable for living systems because:
    • Can not be controlled.
    • Can not be stored.
    • Requires drastic conditions.
  • In living system energy is generated by precise chemical methods
    • Energy produced by such chemical methods:
      • Is Precisely controlled and regulated according to requirements.
      • Can be stored for use at a proper time.
      • Do not require drastic conditions of Temperature, Pressure and pH.
  • Bioenergetics (Biochemical thermodynamics)
    • Study of the energy changes accompanying biochemical reactions.
    • Study of generation, storage and utilization of energy in living system.
  • Sources of Energy In Human cells
    • Free or useful energy is released during catabolic reactions:
      • Oxidation of energy-rich organic compounds (Cellular respiration):
          • Glucose
          • Fats (Glycerol & Fatty acids).
          • Amino acids.
  • Storage of energy in living system
    • Free or useful energy is released during catabolic reactions.
    • This energy is captured and stored as high energy phosphate bonds.
    • Compounds having high energy bonds are called high-energy compounds.
  • Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is the most commonly used Energy Storing Molecule Adenine | Ribose_______P Adenosine Monophosphate ~ P ~ P High Energy Phosphate Bonds
  • Capture of Energy as ATP Adenine | Ribose_______P ~ P ~ P Energy generated by oxidation of food stuffs is utilized for the formation of High- energy phosphate bonds. ADP is converted to ATP
  • Release of energy by ATP Adenine | Ribose_______P ~ P ~ P Hydrolysis of terminal  Generates 7300 Calories. ATP is Converted to ADP
  • Release of energy by ATP
    • Phosphate bond splits to release free energy Approximately 7300 cal/mol. for each of two terminal phosphate groups.
    • Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) are formed respectively.
    • Phosphate bond of AMP is a low-energy bond.
  • Release of energy by ATP Adenine | Ribose_______P ~ P + Pi Energy generated is utilized for: 1. Metabolic Reactions. 2. Muscle Contraction. 3. Heat.
  • An Overview of Energy Storage Adenine | Ribose__P Adenosine Monophosphate Adenine | Ribose__P __P Adenosine Diphosphate Adenine | Ribose__P __P __P Adenosine Triphosphate Catabolism of Nutrients CO2 + H2O Energy
  • ATP / ADP Cycle Adenine | Ribose — P ~  ~  ATP Adenine | Ribose — P ~  ADP 7300 cal/mol
    • ATP as energy currency
    • -----------------------
    • ATP acts as currency
    • of energy, when energy
    • is gained from high-energy
    • molecules, is stored in
    • this form and it pays it to
    • low-energy molecules,
    • when required.
  • Organic molecules (Nutrients Such as Glucose & Fats) contain energy, stored in their molecular structure
    • Catabolism of these molecules generate the energy to synthesize High-energy Phosphate bonds (ATP)
  • Generation and utilization of energy in human tissues is an important concern in medical science
    • Medical problems due to energy imbalance:
      • Starvation
          • Unavailability of Energy
      • Obesity
          • Excess Storage of Energy
      • Marasmus
          • Energy imbalance due to Malnutrition
      • Hormonal Disorders
          • Diabetes mellitus, Diseases of Thyroid
  • Cellular Respiration is the Main Source of Energy
    • The overall process of energy generation by breakdown of food is called Cellular Respiration.
    • The process by which the chemical energy of food molecules (Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins) is released and captured in the form of ATP.
  • Cellular respiration is a complex biochemical phenomena backed up by:
    • Feel the difference between breathing and respiration!
    • Merely inhalation of Oxygen and expulsion of carbon dioxide is not respiration.
    • Respiratory System
    • Digestive System.
    • Blood circulatory System.
  • To generate energy through Cellular respiration a cell must have:
    • Required amount of Oxygen.
    • Sufficient quantity of energy generating molecules.
    • Required enzymes in cytosol and Mitochondria.
    • Certain derivatives of vitamins such as Thiamin, Niacin and Riboflavin).
  • Role of Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins Cellular Respiration Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Glucose Amino acids Fatty acids Glycerol CO2 + H2O + ATP (Energy)
  • Breakdown (Catabolism) of molecules generate the energy to synthesize ATP
    • Direct At Substrate Level:
      • At the time of reaction ADP is converted to ATP.
    • Indirect Through Biological Oxidation:
      • Hydrogen atoms generated during reaction go through a complex process of biological oxidation.
  • Metabolic Processes Involved In Cell Respiration
    • Glycolysis ; occurs in cytosol.
    • Oxidation of Fatty acids and Krebs Citric acid Cycle occur in Matrix of Mitochondria.
    • Biological Oxidation occurs in Inner Membrane of Mitochondria.
  • Two types of Cellular Respiration
    • Aerobic Respiration.
    • Anaerobic Respiration.
  • Aerobic Respiration
    • Final Oxidizing agent (Electron Acceptor) is Oxygen.
    • The most Important Metabolic Source of Energy in Living cells (Exceptions?)
    • Contributes approximately 90% of total energy generated in cell.
    • Net result is CO2, H2O and Energy (ATP & Heat)
  • Anaerobic Respiration
    • Final Oxidizing agent (Electron Acceptor) is Other than Oxygen.
      • Important Source of Energy in cells Not Having Mitochondria (RBC).
      • Cells Deprived of Oxygen (Exerting Muscles & Ischeamic Tissues)
  • A number of NAD and FAD molecules are reduced by H + generated during Glycolysis, Oxidation of Fatty acids and Krebs Citric acid Cycle
    • In various reactions of Glycolysis, Citric acid cycle and Oxidation of Fatty acids Hydrogen atoms are removed from the substrate and accepted by co-enzyme NAD and FAD.
  • Biological oxidation in the mitochondria is the final and most important step of cellular respiration
    • Reduced NAD (NADH) and Reduced FAD (FADH) ultimately pass their Hydrogen to Oxygen to form water
    • During this complex process elctron of hydrogen atom is seprated and takes part in genertaion of energy in the form of ATP
  • Cellular Respiration Glycolysis, Oxidation of Fatty acids and catabolism of Amino acids Citric Acid Cycle NADH FADH2 Biological Oxidation ADP ATP
  • The Final Stage of Cellular Respiration called Biological Oxidation
    • The Oxidation of NADH 2 & FADH generates as high as 90% of total energy generated by complete setup of Cellular Respiration.
  • Biological Oxidation
    • Biological mechanism for the synthesis of ATP, Takes place in Inner Mitochondrial Membrane.
    • Includes two integrated mechanisms
      • Respiratory Chain, extracts energy from electrons of Hydrogen.
      • Oxidative Phosphorylation, utilizes extracted energy for the formation of high-energy bond.
    1. 2.