11.11(dr. husun bano) mitochondria lysosomes &peroxisomes

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11.11(dr. husun bano) mitochondria lysosomes &peroxisomes

  1. 1. MITOCHONDRIA AND LYSOSOMES HUSAN BANO Assistant Professor Deptt. Physiology. SMC
  2. 2. Mitochondrial Structure (cont.)
  3. 3. MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE <ul><li>Outer layer </li></ul><ul><li>Inner layer </li></ul><ul><li>Contents of outer layer: </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth layer containing various enzymes. </li></ul><ul><li>Acetyl COA </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerol-phosphate-acetyltransferase </li></ul>
  4. 4. Contents of inner layer <ul><li>Have in-foldings called “cristae”. </li></ul><ul><li>Cristae contains “oxidative enzymes” and “protein molecules” involved in respiration and ATP synthesis, so called “Respiratory chain” or “electron transport system” </li></ul>
  5. 5. RESPIRATORY CHAIN INCLUDES: <ul><li>Succinic dehydrogenase </li></ul><ul><li>Dihydro-nicotinamide-adenin dinucleotide </li></ul><ul><li>(NADH). </li></ul><ul><li>Cytochrome oxidase </li></ul><ul><li>Cytochrome-C </li></ul><ul><li>ATP synthetase </li></ul>
  6. 6. MITCHONDRIAL MATRIX <ul><li>Dissolved enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><li>RNA </li></ul>
  7. 7. FUNCTIONS OF MITOCHONDRIA <ul><li>Energy Production </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients CO2 + H2O + Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis of ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Used in: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>b. Muscle contraction </li></ul><ul><li>c. Ionic transport </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cont…. <ul><li>APOPTOSIS : Means “Programmed cell death ” </li></ul><ul><li>Under genetic control. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal phenomena </li></ul><ul><li>Presences of cytochrome-C </li></ul>
  9. 9. If a cell did not have mitochondria, it would be unable to: <ul><li>1. move </li></ul><ul><li>2. produce energy </li></ul><ul><li>3. synthetize protein </li></ul><ul><li>4. synthesize enzyemes </li></ul>
  10. 10. LYSOSOMES <ul><li>STRUCTURE OF LYSOMES </li></ul><ul><li>They are rounded dense bodies. </li></ul><ul><li>They are membrane bounded organalle </li></ul><ul><li>Contains variety of “hydrolytic enzymes” </li></ul><ul><li>Digest the foreign bodies. </li></ul><ul><li>Most abundenly found in lungs,spleen and WBC </li></ul>
  11. 11. LYSOMES AND PEROXISOMES
  12. 12. LYSOSOMES <ul><li>Structure of lysomes: </li></ul>
  13. 13. FORMATION OF LYSOSOMES AND LYSOSOMAL ENZYMES <ul><li>Lysosomal enzymes produced on ribosome. </li></ul><ul><li>They are channel into matrix of endoplasmic reticulum. </li></ul><ul><li>Goes to golgi appratus </li></ul><ul><li>Package in the form of secretory granules or “primary lysosomes” </li></ul>
  14. 14. FORMATION OF LYSOSOMES
  15. 15. FUNCTIONS OF LYSOSOMES <ul><li>It act as digestive system of single typical cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Play an important role in removal of damage portion of cell, if the cell damage by heat, cold, trauma or chemical </li></ul>
  16. 16. FUNCTIONS OF LYSOSOMES Cont ….. <ul><li>It has bactericidal action . </li></ul>
  17. 17. PEROXISOMES <ul><li>It is membrane bounded organalle. </li></ul><ul><li>Also called micro bodies. </li></ul><ul><li>It is formed by pinched off from ER. </li></ul><ul><li>Contain “Oxidative enzymes” such as CATALASE, URATE OXIDASE and </li></ul><ul><li>D-AMINO ACID OXIDASE </li></ul>
  18. 20. FUNCTIONS OF PEROXISOME <ul><li>Detoxification </li></ul><ul><li>Form the site of oxygen utilization in the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Breakdown the excess fatty acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerate gluconeogensis from fats. </li></ul><ul><li>Degrade purine to uric acid. </li></ul><ul><li>Participate in the formation of myelin and bile salts. </li></ul>
  19. 21. THANKS

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