11.11(dr. husun bano) mitochondria lysosomes &peroxisomes

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  • 1. MITOCHONDRIA AND LYSOSOMES HUSAN BANO Assistant Professor Deptt. Physiology. SMC
  • 2. Mitochondrial Structure (cont.)
  • 3. MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE
    • Outer layer
    • Inner layer
    • Contents of outer layer:
    • Smooth layer containing various enzymes.
    • Acetyl COA
    • Glycerol-phosphate-acetyltransferase
  • 4. Contents of inner layer
    • Have in-foldings called “cristae”.
    • Cristae contains “oxidative enzymes” and “protein molecules” involved in respiration and ATP synthesis, so called “Respiratory chain” or “electron transport system”
  • 5. RESPIRATORY CHAIN INCLUDES:
    • Succinic dehydrogenase
    • Dihydro-nicotinamide-adenin dinucleotide
    • (NADH).
    • Cytochrome oxidase
    • Cytochrome-C
    • ATP synthetase
  • 6. MITCHONDRIAL MATRIX
    • Dissolved enzymes
    • DNA
    • RNA
  • 7. FUNCTIONS OF MITOCHONDRIA
    • Energy Production
    • Nutrients CO2 + H2O + Energy
    • Synthesis of ATP
    • Used in:
    • a. Protein synthesis
    • b. Muscle contraction
    • c. Ionic transport
  • 8. Cont….
    • APOPTOSIS : Means “Programmed cell death ”
    • Under genetic control.
    • Normal phenomena
    • Presences of cytochrome-C
  • 9. If a cell did not have mitochondria, it would be unable to:
    • 1. move
    • 2. produce energy
    • 3. synthetize protein
    • 4. synthesize enzyemes
  • 10. LYSOSOMES
    • STRUCTURE OF LYSOMES
    • They are rounded dense bodies.
    • They are membrane bounded organalle
    • Contains variety of “hydrolytic enzymes”
    • Digest the foreign bodies.
    • Most abundenly found in lungs,spleen and WBC
  • 11. LYSOMES AND PEROXISOMES
  • 12. LYSOSOMES
    • Structure of lysomes:
  • 13. FORMATION OF LYSOSOMES AND LYSOSOMAL ENZYMES
    • Lysosomal enzymes produced on ribosome.
    • They are channel into matrix of endoplasmic reticulum.
    • Goes to golgi appratus
    • Package in the form of secretory granules or “primary lysosomes”
  • 14. FORMATION OF LYSOSOMES
  • 15. FUNCTIONS OF LYSOSOMES
    • It act as digestive system of single typical cell.
    • Play an important role in removal of damage portion of cell, if the cell damage by heat, cold, trauma or chemical
  • 16. FUNCTIONS OF LYSOSOMES Cont …..
    • It has bactericidal action .
  • 17. PEROXISOMES
    • It is membrane bounded organalle.
    • Also called micro bodies.
    • It is formed by pinched off from ER.
    • Contain “Oxidative enzymes” such as CATALASE, URATE OXIDASE and
    • D-AMINO ACID OXIDASE
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20. FUNCTIONS OF PEROXISOME
    • Detoxification
    • Form the site of oxygen utilization in the cell.
    • Breakdown the excess fatty acids.
    • Accelerate gluconeogensis from fats.
    • Degrade purine to uric acid.
    • Participate in the formation of myelin and bile salts.
  • 21. THANKS