11.10 (dr. husun bano)transport of substances across cell membrane
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11.10 (dr. husun bano)transport of substances across cell membrane

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  • 1. TRANSPORT OF SUBSTANCES THROUGH CELL MEMBRANE (PASSIVE DIFFUSION) Husn Bano Assistant Professor Deptt Physiology Sindh Medical College ,DUHS
  • 2. TRANSPORT THROUGH CELL MEMBRANE
    • TYPES:
    • PASSIVE TRANSPORT
      • Simple diffusion
      • Facilitative diffusion
      • Osmosis
  • 3. 2. Active Transport
    • Primary active transport
      • e.g. Co-transport
      • Na + -K + pump
      • Secondary active transport
      • (Counter transport)
      • Na + -H +
  • 4. continue
    • 3. Endocytsis:
    • Pinocytosis
    • Phagocytosis
    • 4 . Exoytsis
    • 5. Bulk Flow
  • 5. STRUCTURE OF CELL MEMBRANE
  • 6. PASSIVE DIFFUSION
    • DEFINATION:
    • It is the process through which both solute and solvent molecules move from higher conc. to lower concentration.
    • TYPES OF PASSIVE DIFFUSION:
    • Simple diffusion
    • Facilitated diffusion
  • 7. 1: SIMPLE DIFFUSION
    • Simple diffusion means that molecules move from higher concentration to lower conc. through “PORES” or “INTERCELLULAR SPACE” of cell membrane.
    • OR
    • Random movement of molecules from higher to lower concentration.
  • 8. SIMPLE DIFFUSION
  • 9. A: SIMPLE DIFFUSION THROUGH LIPID BILAYER
    • CO 2
    • O 2
    • N 2
    • ALCOHOL
    • H 2 O……? (molecular size 0.3nm)
  • 10. TRANSPORT OF H 2 O AND OTHER LIPID INSOLUBLE SUBSTANCES
    • H 2 O……? (molecular size 0.3nm)
    • Like H 2 O other lipid insoluble substances passes through lipid bilayer, if their molecular size is very small.
  • 11. B: SIMPLE DIFFUSION THROUGH PROTEIN CHANNAL
    • All the water soluble substances except charged particles (electrolytes) passes through protein channels , not through lipid bilayer.
  • 12. Reason of impermeability of charge particles
    • They are hydrated ions.
    • Outer pole of lipid bilayer have negative charge………
    • Hydrated Cl - (molecular size 3.6nm)
  • 13. Protein Transporters 1) Channels 2) Carriers a) open b) gated
  • 14. TRANSPORT THROUGH GATED PROTEIN CHANNELS.
    • Sodium (Na + )
    • Potassium (K + )
    • Calcium (Ca ++ )
    • Chloride (Cl - )
    • ACTUAL MOLECULAR SIZE / Hydrated Size
    • Na + 0.34nm 5.2nm
    • K + 0.36nm 3.9nm
    • Cl - 0.32nm 0.36nm
  • 15. MODEL OF SODIUM CHANNEL
  • 16. FLOW OF POTASSIUM IONS
  • 17. 2: FACILITATED DIFFUSION
    • Definition : is the transport mechanism which require “CARRIER PROTEIN”
    • Mechanism:
    • Molecule + CARRIER PROTEIN
    • Conformational change in carrier protein
    • Molecule detached from carrier
    • No energy or ATP requried
  • 18. FACILITATED DIFFUSION
    • Glucose
    • Amino acids Other simple carbohydrates such as :
    • Glactose
    • Mannose
    • Arabinose
    • Xylose.
    • All require “carrier protein” for their transport, so called “carrier mediated diffusion”
  • 19.  
  • 20. FACILITATED DIFFUSION verses SIMPLE DIFFUSION
    • Facilitated diffusion require “CARRIER”
    • Facilitated diffusion always have Vmax
    • Simple diffusion Facilitated diffusion
  • 21. Factors affecting rate of diffusion
    • 1 Permeability of membrane
    • 2 Concentration difference
    • 3. Pressure difference
    • 4 Electrical difference
  • 22. Factors Affecting On Permeability of membrane
    • 1.Thickness of membrane
    • 2. Lipid solubility
    • 3 Numbers of protein channels.
    • 4 Temperature
    • 5 Square root of molecular weigh
    • 6 Crossectional area of membrane
  • 23. Special categories of transport
    • 1. BULK TRANSPORT :
    • It is the transport mechanism in which large quantity of substances transported from high pressure to low pressure e.g Gases exchange through respiratory membrane
  • 24. ENDOCYTOSIS
    • Large molecule or macromolecules transported by endocytosis.
    • Endocytosis are of 3 types
    • a. Pinocytosis
    • b. Phagocytosis
    • c. Receptor mediated endocytosis
  • 25. PINOCYTOSIS (Cell drinking)
    • 1. Large bacteria or antigen( in the form of droplet fluid) bind with outer surface of membrane.
    • 2 Cell memb. Evaginate arround the droplets
    • 3 It is detached from cell memb.,forms ENDOSOME.
  • 26. PINOCYTOSIS (Cell drinking) Cont..
    • 4. Primary lysosomse attach with edosome ,converted into secondry lysosomes.
    • 5. Hydrolytic enzymes present in secondary lysosome becomes activated and digest the content of endosome
  • 27. PINOCYTOSIS (Cell drinking)
  • 28.  
  • 29. PHYGOCYTOSIS (Cell eating)
  • 30.  
  • 31. RECEPTOR MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS
  • 32.
    • The End
    THANK YOU