Deciding the SoftwareDevelopment Life Cycle Procedure (According to ISO12207) ISO/IEC 12207 Software life cycle processes Fatih ALGUN Bogazici University Istanbul firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction• Scope: Management of software development projects• Software projects have a poor success record – YET ! The problems can be solved.• Concepts from the ISO/IEC 12207 standard can help the software project manager achieve greater success.
Project Failure Reasons Annual expenditures on software projects in the USA is $ 250BCanceled - 31% Successful - 16% ($ 80B) ( $ 40B) Over Schedule & Budget - 53 % ( $ 120B) Ref: Standish Group data
Major Issues• PLANNING – Software requirements - not clear – Cost & schedule estimation - difficult – Projects function - not planned • Control Management, Quality Assurance – Planning viewed as “non-productive”• CONTROL – poor methods for tracking progress – poor indicators to measure productivity, quality
Two types of software projects ( ISO/IEC 12207)– Development • Developing or modifying a software-intensive system to meet contractual requirements (satisfies user needs )– Acquisition • Contractually obtaining from a group ( supplier), a software-intensive system for use by another group (user)
What is ISO/IEC 12207 ?– The major world-wide standard for software related processes – activities and tasks– Tailored for any organization or project– High level process architecture • An ‘inventory’ of processes from which to chooseFor the first time - a world-wide agreement onwhat activities make up a software project.
What is ISO/IEC 12207 ?Concepts from the ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207 standard can help the software director and the business in general to achieve greater success with their employees.
12207 ConceptsProcess Architecture – Modular: Handle all types of projects – Cohesion: One process for one major function – Responsibility: One process for one party
Defining the Project Strategy• The first step is to choose/tailor a project life cycle by choosing the appropriate set of processes defined in ISO/IEC 12207 – Waterfall, – Iterative, – Rapid Application Development, – Incremental
Initiation - Selecting a Project• Requirements• Organization policy & Methods • Project Life Cycle• Legal Needs TAILORING • Project Plan• Time • Contract• Process Standard• Life Cycle Model START PROJECT
A simple project - 12207 Processes MANAGEMENTDEVELOPMENT OPERATIONS MAINTENANCEREQUIREMENTS DESIGN CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT CODE TEST JOINT REVIEW INSTALL VERIFICATION ACCEPTANCE
Major Parties Provides the product to Acquires the product the acquirerDefines and develops the product Maintains the software product
The Acquisition Process• Defines the activities of the acquirer, – the organization that acquirers a system, software product or software service 1. Initiation 2. RFP ( tender) preparation 3. Contract preparation and update 4. Supplier monitoring 5. Acceptance and completion
Organizational Processes •Management •Improvement •Infrastructure •Training PROJECT LIFE CYCLEEmployed by organization to establish andimplement an underlying structure of ..Processes and personnel, and continuouslyimprove the structure and processes.
Management process• “The purpose of the management process is to organize, monitor and control the initiation and performance of any processes or functions within the organization to achieve their goals and the business goals of the organization in an effective manner”Activities:• Initiation and scope definition• Planning• Execution and control• Review and evaluation• Closure
Infrastructure process• “The purpose of the infrastructure process is to maintain a stable and reliable infrastructure that is needed to support the performance of any other process. .. May include hardware, software, methods, tools, techniques, standards, facilities for development, operation, or maintenance.”Objectives:• establish and maintain a well-defined software engineering environment (SEE)…..• tailor the SEE top the needs of the project...• develop a SEE that supports project team members• implement a defined and deployed strategy for reuse
Supporting processes•Documentation •Verification•Configuration management •Validation•Quality assurance •Joint review•Problem resolution •Audit PROJECT LIFE CYCLE Employed by any Primary process or another supporting process
Quality Assurance (QA)• “The purpose of the quality assurance process is to provide assurance that work products and processes comply with their specified requirements and adhere to their established plan”.Objectives:• identify, plan and schedule QA activities• identify quality standards, methods and tools identify resources and responsibilities• establish and guarantee independence of those..• perform the QA activities• apply organizational quality management systems
Configuration Management• “The purpose of configuration management is to establish and maintain the integrity of the work products of a process or product”.Objectives:• identify, define and control all relevant items• control modifications• record and report status• ensure completeness of items• control storage handling , release and delivery
Making a project a success• “There are NO Silver bullets “• Implement the 11 techniques below rigorously on a software project for every chance for success
11 Silver bullets - Planning1. Requirements engineering – documented – traceability2. Task, cost and schedule determination based on requirements3. Risk management, with – problem tracking4. Incremental development
11 Silver bullets - Control5. Work packages with visible progress measurement - WBS, Work package specifications - Earned value tracking6. Software metrics; - size, efforts, schedule, quality7. Software configuration management8. Software quality assurance and standards
Conclusions– 12207 provides a reference point for all types of IT projects containing software– It demands good PM practices– A basis for establishing a mature process and successful– A roadmap for process and project improvements