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# Machines

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• Pulley are wheels and axles with a groove around the outside.
• ### Machines

1. 1. Simple Machines
2. 2. Objectives Explain how machines make work easier Calculate Mechanical Advantage of a machine Calculate Efficiency of a machine
3. 3. Key Words Simple Screw Machines Lever Inclined Plane Fulcrum Wedge
4. 4. What is a Simple Machine?A simple machine has few or no moving parts. Simple machines make work easier
5. 5. 3 types of simple machines The inclined plane The Wedge The Screw
6. 6. What is an inclined plane?A sloped surface An inclined plane allows you to exert your input force over a longer distance Ideal Mechanical Advantage =
7. 7. Inclined Planes An inclined plane is a flat surface that is higher on one end Inclined planes make the work of moving things easier
8. 8. Increase Force Increase distance When the output  When the output force is greater force is less than than the input force the input force the the mechanical mechanical advantage is advantage is less greater than 1. than 1. • If only the direction changes, both the input force and output force will be the same
9. 9. What is efficiency? Output Work / Input work x 100%
10. 10. EFFICIENCY Theefficiency of a machine compares output work to input work Output Work 100 Input Work
11. 11. Inclined Planes How do Inclined Planes work?
12. 12. WedgesCan your teeth be machines?
13. 13. Wedges Two inclined planes joined back to back. Wedges are used to split things.
14. 14. Ideal Mechanical AdvantageInclined Plane Wedge Divide the length  Length of the plane of the incline by divided by its width the height  Longer and thinner the wedge is, greater the mechanical advantage
15. 15. ScrewsA screw is an inclined plane wrapped around a shaft or cylinder. The inclined plane allows the screw to move itself when rotated.
16. 16. Mechanical Advantage ofScrew length of thread around the screw by the height of the screw
17. 17. LEVERS
18. 18. Objectives How are levers classified
19. 19. What is a Lever?A lever is a rigid bar that is free to pivot, or rotate on a fixed pointThe fixed point that the lever pivots around is called the fulcrum
20. 20. Levers-First Class In a first class lever the fulcrum is in the middle and the load and effort is on either side Think of a see-saw
21. 21. Levers-Second Class In a second class lever the fulcrum is at the end, with the load in the middle Think of a wheelbarrow
22. 22. Levers-Third Class In a third class lever the fulcrum is again at the end, but the effort is in the middle Think of a pair of tweezers
23. 23. Ideal Mechanical Advantage IdealMechanical Advantage = Distance from fulcrum to the input force Distance from fulcrum to the output force
24. 24. Putting Machines Together
25. 25. Key Words Pulley Wheeland Axle Compound Machine