Technology in education

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Technology in education

  1. 1. The Effectiveness and Usefulness of Integrating Modern Technologies in Education Action research By Fathi Nimrawi Contents Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 Chapter One Problem statements …………………………………………………………………………………………… 2 Purpose ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2 Community Description ………………………………………………………………………………………..2 Chapter Two A design for action research …………………………………………………………………………………3 Problem description ……………………………………………………………………………………………..3 Research tools and data collection ……………………………………………………………………….4 Procedures …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4 Questioner Model A……………………………………………………………………………………………..5 Questioner Model B……………………………………………………………………………………………..7 Questioner Model C……………………………………………………………………………………………..8 Data analysis Stage one………………………………………………………………………………………..9
  2. 2. Data analysis Post- training Stage Two…………………………………………………………………11 Literature review………………………………………………………………………………………………..14 Causative analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………….15 Chapter Three Discussion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………17 Recommendations……………………………………………………………………………………………..18 References …………………………………………………………………………………………………………21
  3. 3. Introduction Technology Integration is, in fact, one of the controversial issues that has been thoroughly discussed and investigated at all levels almost all over the world. In the UAE, many conferences are held every year to highlight the importance of technology integration in our educational system; they all come with the same recommendation which is , full integration should be a must in the near future .They build their argument on the fact that technology engulfs our life and since technology has to do with almost every aspect of our everyday life ,we should teach our children how to take advantage from it . The latest conference was held on Wednesday the 3rd of October 2012 in Abu Dhabi entitled with (Information Technology and the Future of Education in the UAE). At the end of the conference Dr Jamal Al Suadi emphasized on the importance of technology as key of progress to the educational system. Make use of educational technology progression in all aspect to be able to provide our children with the best knowledge that is based on technology. In my school community, questions concerning the effectiveness and efficiency of technology integration and teacher training created controversy among teachers who no doubt reached conviction that says technology integration is something imperative and it will eventually prevail, still you find others who strongly fight against it. Those skeptics believe that the educational system will not be able to cope with the nonstop flow of technology that the gigantic companies are trying to flood the world with their endless products. Before the technological revolution educational systems could produce scholars, scientist, and pioneers who were brilliant in all fields of science, and who even led world to the discovery of so many important inventions that contributed a lot to the world. They added that, governments especially in the Arab world are not serious about it this why they still produce and develop guided and monitored curriculum that deliver a certain message. Training courses, workshops seminars, conferences are considered to be a waste of time, money, and effort although some of them do not know the basics of educational technology Believers on the other hand say that there is no harm of trying since the whole world is changing its direction towards the intensive use of technology in education; they believe that training could be of a great value for both teachers and students. Technology can be a helpful factor in teaching and explaining certain school subjects. Moreover, students these already know much about technology since they are seriously involved in using technology at home or even in the streets when they use their smart cell phones, I pads and other sophisticated equipments. So teaching those
  4. 4. using technology will not be something new for them on the contrary, this technique will motivate them and will give them a reason to explore and know more. For that reason I conducted this research in which I will try to focus on that issue from the perspective of my school community and number of teachers and students from other secondary schools in the east coast. The study sample will express their attitude towards technology integration through answering a questioner which I think will give a clear idea about how teachers and students in these communities think of technology integration and training. Chapter I Problem Statement The problem is some high school teachers are not implementing technology in a fully integrated manner. They are also against any sort of training on this field. Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine why segments of the high school teachers oppose training and technology integration in their classrooms. Description of the Community For the purposes of this Action Research Project, teachers and students form Mohammed Bin Hamad and Saif bin Hamad Secondary schools collaborated to achieve the target. With the help of professional high tech trainers who will supervise and monitor the Performance of the study sample and the educational zone in Fujairah, I could limit the number of my study subjects to reach seventy teachers with different backgrounds and various subjects; they all share the same idea of rejection to the idea of integration and fifty students of different levels For this study, the sample of teachers was divided in to two groups that will answer the same questioner ,one group will be a subject for a week long intensive training on technology integration during which they will attend conferences, seminars ,workshops and training sessions. In addition to me, as a team leader the administrations in both schools hired a team of three full-time technology team positions, including an Instructional Technology Facilitator, a School Library Media Coordinator, and a Technology Assistant/Technician. This team will work closely with each of the teachers to provide individualized instruction in the mechanical use of technology as well as instruction in best practices for integration. The other group will remain untrained. When training is over the two groups will be asked to answer the questioner again to see if there is any change. As for the students sample there will be no training for any of them; they will only give their
  5. 5. opinion of the study subject so that the researcher can enforce the principle that says, in one way or another most secondary school students are for the idea of integration. This initial tentative research will take place at Mohammed Bin Hamad secondary school, since it is the focus of the educational zone as well as the ministry of education since it witnessed so many improvements in the field of technology integration in such a short time. Chapter II A Design of Action Research Proposal (The effectiveness and usefulness or integrating technology in education ) Problem The problem is that some school teachers do not believe in implementing technology in a fully integrated manner; they are also against any sort of training on this field. Problem Description This problem indicates that, technology use is very shallow or even does not exist on the agenda of a large number of teachers who were not previously trained and refuse to be exposed to any sort of training to technology integration either. Properly because they fear change or they don’t have the desire to learn. This by all means does not apply on new teachers as it does for teachers with long experience, because newly appointed teachers are still young, enthusiastic and technology is part of their daily life; they know how to employ it to serve the educational purpose. Since technology is in a constant change, you find them eager to be updated. Technology is booming in astonishing way which makes it difficult for most teachers to cope with such advancements; in addition, teachers have no or very little time to deal with or explore the options and benefits that the new technologies offer since they have many other duties to attend to. (Rakes et al, 2006, p. 412) says that technology is used superficially by many teachers who focus on using technology itself than focusing on the use of technology as a supportive agent for the teaching learning process. This problem contradicts with the pedagogical system of teachers who believe that students are the core of their career. Those teachers are more likely to prioritize technology integration and use it successfully. Moreover, (Levin & Wadmany, 2006, p. 160) says In addition to the primitive use of technology,
  6. 6. evidence also suggests that up to 80% of teachers use computer technology less than 50% of the time in classroom instruction (Bauer & Kenton, 2005, p. 535). Bauer and Kenton found that a common teacher complaint tied to this is that the time of the period is insufficient to be consumed or wasted trying to integrate technology; teachers need that time to finish the curriculum. Evidence suggests that when the quality of technology integration is not ensured, time spent with technology may do students more harm than Research tools and data collection 1 – Observation 2 – Teachers' records 3 - Questioners 4 – Interviews Procedures In order to reach the required credibility and precision in this action research, the researcher selected a number of teachers from tow schools in the east coast who share the same view concerning technology integration in education and a number of secondary students. Teachers will be divided into two groups of approximately thirty five teachers each; they will all be interviewed first, then they will be asked to answer a tow part Questioner the first part consists of twenty statements were as the second part consists of twenty four questions . Students will be asked to respond to fourteen statements. Data will be analyzed, and then group two will be a subject of a full week intensive training. After the training group two will be asked to answer the questioner a second time and data will be analyzed again to see if any changes occurred.
  7. 7. Planning Definition of the problem and research approach Action Definition of the problem and research Observing and analyzing data collection On the impact of action Critical reflection developing revised action on the bases of observation
  8. 8. Dear colleague please respond to the following statements to the best of your knowledge; your careful answers will help us measure the effectiveness of modern technology integration in education. Y = yes N= no DN= don’t know (Module A) DNNyStatementN Iam unable to produce educational multimedia.1 Iam unable to employ technology in education.2 I don’t feel like integrating in education.3 I feel that technology integration is not necessary.4 The school administration does not provide any training for teachers.5 Iam not trained enough on the use of technology.6 The classroom does not contain any sort of technology.7 Students do not bear the use of technology.8 The school administration careless about education technology.9 The technological equipments need maintenance10 I don’t understand the language of instructions.11 The time of the lesson is not enough.12 Iam over loaded with extra duties that prevent me from using technology.13 I feel that PowerPoint presentations do not add anything to education.14 students use computers for chatting ,playingMost15 Students lack the motive to learn, even when modern technology is involved. 16 The community is not aware of the importance of integration17 We still need time and effort to reach full technology integration.18 Our educational system is not yet ready for full technology integration19 .Technology can never be a replacement for teachers.20
  9. 9. Dear colleague please answer the following question to the best of your knowledge; your careful answers will help us measure the effectiveness of modern technology integration in education. Y = yes N= no DN= don’t know (Module B) DNNy Are you a secondary school teacher?1 Do you like being a teacher?2 Do you see you self as an experienced teacher?3 Do think that full technology integration in education is necessary?4 Do you find it difficult to use modern technology in the classrooms?5 Have you ever attended training sessions or conferences on integration? 6 Would you like to know more about technology integration in education 7 Do you use computers efficiently? 8 Do you use a desk top or a lap top to prepare your lessons? 9 Do you find it difficult to deal with technological equipments? 10 Do think that the using of the above equipment is easier than using a computer? 11 Have you ever used a T.V or a cassette recorder in your lessons? 12 Have you ever used an overhead projector? 13 Is there a computer or a data show in your classroom? 14 Do you usually refer to any websites for further information? 15 Do you use the internet to intercommunicate with your students or your superiors? 16 Does school provide the necessary training for teachers 17 Are you willing to integrate new technologies in your classroom? 18 Does the school administration encourage technology integration 19 Do you need training in technology integration 20 Is there a computer lab in your school? 21 If the answer is yes , do often make use of this lab in education 22 Do you use the curriculum as a main source of information? 23 Are you ready to do whatever necessary to help your students? 24
  10. 10. Dear student please respond to the following statements to the best of your knowledge; your careful answers will help us measure the effectiveness of modern technology integration in education Y = Yes N = no DN = don’t know (Module c) DNNYQuestionN Technology based lessons are more attractive1 I care more when the teacher uses technology to explain the lesson.2 I can surf the web easily.3 I have my own lap top and a free access to the net.4 Teachers explain lessons using technology in a regular bases.5 Teachers need more training on modern technology.6 I do my homework and research study using the internet.7 Teachers encourage students to surf the internet8 The ordinary curriculum is boring9 The school provides the necessary technology for teachers and students 10 I can use my smart phone efficiently.11 Students get enough technology lessons.12 The school administration allows students to access the web anytime. 13 Technology information is necessary for your future career.14
  11. 11. Data Analysis (Stage 1) Analyzing teachers responses to the first part of the questioner that includes twenty statements; the research team could reach the results shown in the table below S Y N DN S Y N DN S1 40% 60% - S11 96% 4% - S2 70% 30% - S12 90% 5% 5% S3 80% 20% - S13 96% 4% - S4 90% 7% 3% S14 97% - 3% S5 50% 35% 15% S15 98% - 2% S6 90% 10% - S16 95% 5% - S7 75% 20% 5% S17 90% 6% 4% S8 5% 10% 85% S18 85% 5% 10% S9 45% 35% 20% S19 90% 7% 3% S10 5% - 95% S20 100% - - Table 1
  12. 12. As for the second part of the questioner that includes twenty four question; teachers answers were to some extant similar to their answers in the first part, and they were as follows Q Y N DN Q Y N DN 1 100% - - 13 95% 5% - 2 75% 25% - 14 85% 15% - 3 100% - - 15 - 95% 5% 4 - 95% 5% 16 - 95% 5% 5 80% 15% 5% 17 _ 75% 25% 6 5% 95% - 18 25% 65% 10% 7 35% 40% 25% 19 25% 50% 25% 8 85% 15% 5% 20 40% 50% 10% 9 45% 35% 20% 21 90% - 10% 10 75% 25% - 22 20% 80% - 11 35% 30% 35% 23 99% 1% - 12 99% 1% - 24 97% - 3% Table 2
  13. 13. Data Analysis Post –training stage 2 Thirty five teachers of the research community were subjected to a week intensive training through which they had to attend PPD sessions, training courses, and lectures in technology integration. Then they were asked to answer the questioner a second time; result showed a dramatic change in their attitude towards technology integration in education; they realized that using technology is something different than integrating it in education .They turned from teachers who opposed and rejected the idea of integration to supporters who preach in favor of the idea. Analyzing their answers the results came as follows S Y N DN S Y N DN S1 5% 95% - S11 54% 46% - S2 2% 85% 13% S12 73% 15% 2% S3 23% 77% - S13 92% 8% - S4 10% 90% - S14 66% -32 2% S5 - 95% 5% S15 96% - 4% S6 _ 100% - S16 89% - 11% S7 75% 20% 5% S17 85% 11% 4% S8 16% 10% 74% S18 80% 5% 15% S9 13% 70% 16% S19 90% 7% 3% S10 25% 35% 40% S20 100% - -
  14. 14. Q Y N DN Q Y N DN 1 100% - - 13 95% 5% - 2 81% 19% - 14 85% 15% - 3 100% - - 15 - 95% 5% 4 75% 20% 5% 16 - 90% 10% 5 10% 85% 5% 17 80% 15% 5% 6 100% - - 18 82% 7% 11% 7 75% 20% 5% 19 65% 30% 5% 8 90% 10% - 20 75% 20% 5% 9 55% 25% 20% 21 90% - 10% 10 15% 85% - 22 20% 80% - 11 17% 20% 63% 23 90% 10% - 12 97% 3% - 24 95% - 5%
  15. 15. Students' questioner data analysis Statistics show that students are aware of the importance of technology integration in their educational system; they also show that students are to a great extant involved in this sort of technology in their everyday life through using various kinds of technological equipments such as smart phones, laptops, iPods and I pads .Moreover the majority of the students' community have access to the internet inside the, at home or even in their personal devices. So technology integration in education should be priority for all those who work in the Ministry of Education; teachers are on the top of this list. S Y N DN S Y N DN 1 75% 10% 15% 8 25% 70% 5% 2 79% 9% 12% 9 85% 10% 5% 3 97% 3% - 10 90% - 10% 4 95% 5% - 11 100% - - 5 22% 78% - 12 27% 73% - 6 24% 15% 61% 13 85% 13% 2% 7 35% 20% 45% 14 95% - 5%
  16. 16. Literature review Studies show that Technology Integration in the educational system in the UAE is affected by many factors. These factors range from confusion between the simple use of technology versus true integration to professional development and training issues, teacher pedagogical decisions based on both their own previous training as well the duties placed upon them to address standardized assessments and standards-based expectations on their classroom performance. Most teachers do not differentiate between using technology for personal purposes such as, surfing the net or chatting with friends and using technology for pure educational purposes, so a distinction needs to be made between ‘use’ and ‘integration . It seems that it is difficult to reach full integration, since a large number of teachers believe in the insignificance of this integration in education. So as to reach full integration, we need to change teachers' thoughts and beliefs regarding this subject. The use of technology for itself does not lead to successful integration (Koehler & Mishra, 2005, p. 132). Proper integration involves use of a technology in a way that makes the technology a seamless, almost invisible part of the over-all learning environment, similar to blackboards and chalk. It should be highlighted that technology is a mean to facilitate the educational process and make more attractive and enjoyable, and not a target, so if the focus of learning is on the technology itself then proper integration has not taken place. The improper use of technology in the classroom might lead to undesired result such students' distraction and poor achievement. It is that technology shapes the twenty first in every aspect; still we didn’t reach the full and proper integration in education. Not because we don’t possess the right tools, but because decision Makers Lake the determination and some teachers lake motivation and desire. Some teachers were Unwilling to adapt their classroom practices to more fully integrate technology (Bai & Ertmer, 2008, pp. 94-95). Since integrating new technology requires exploring new ways of learning. Teachers who are unwilling to modify their classroom methods will experience difficulties in integration. The literature suggests that many new technologies such as computers and the Internet are best integrated through student-centered methods, and teachers with more traditional beliefs face greater degrees of change in their classroom practices when facing technology integration (Levin & Wadmany, 2006, p. 160). If teachers are to accept new ways of thinking about education they may need to be convinced hoping that they will modify their negative attitude towards the usefulness and effectiveness of technology.
  17. 17. Careful assessment of each teacher must be used to assure his or her readiness to learn these new skills. Their awareness of having the skills, knowledge, and training is essential for success in learning new ways of teaching. Whatever reasons that might determine some teachers classroom practices, ideologies, or beliefs that require loyalty and conformity by its adherents (Knowles et al, 2005, p. 68). One factor may hinge on the way that technology is viewed is that , some teachers might see technology simply as a means to deliver his or her instructions and might lack the pedagogical sophistication to address technology as “tools to solve problems” (Morrison & Lowther, 2005, p. 25). Finding ways to help these teachers grow in their instructional practice is essential to proper technology integration. Causative Analysis The literature suggests several interrelated causes behind these integration problems. A perceived lack of time for teachers to fit technology into their already time-crunched classes exists (Bauer & Kenton, 2005, p. 534). If a teacher already has their hands full trying to assure that their students are learning all they need to and are meeting the standards set for them, how can they possibly add learning about technology to their student’s curriculum? The literature shows that a lack of teacher's skill level in the use of technology is a strong factor in incomplete integration (Rakes et al, 2006, p. 412). Moreover, some teachers simply do not want to learn about and use technology, and may even fight all attempts to have computers or other technology in their classroom. Often these teachers possess a strongly traditional transmission model of classroom practices and an inflexible pedagogy, which the literature shows can be a major cause of lack of meaningful integration by individual teachers (Matzen & Edmunds, 2007, p. 427). Often a lack of adequate technology support staff exists, which leads to improper or incomplete integration (Bauer & Kenton, 2005, p. 536). If a teacher has no one to go to with technology questions, and no one to help them learn more about how to integrate new technology, they will be less likely to succeed at full integration. Often this is because of a fixation on ‘technology as the message’, instead of seeing technology as only the medium for their own message, which the literature shows is a detriment to integration (Lei & Zhao, 2007, 20).
  18. 18. Reviewing the questioner results and depending on interviews with the research community, stage one and two, reasons behind integration rejection can be summarized as follows 1- The absence of training for a large fraction of the community. 2- Most of them think that technology integration in education will be insignificant. It would add nothing to the educational system components 3- Most teachers are satisfied with their traditional way of teaching and presenting the curriculum. 4- The time of the lesson is too short to be wasted trying to adjust or fix the technological equipments. 5- To maintain the necessary human interaction between teachers and students. 6- Classes are not designed to fit with the integration. 7- Teachers mix between FTI and the simple use of technology 8- From a psychological point view , teachers are humans ,and humans fear change it impossible for them to digest the idea of a new teaching technique after a long time of implementing a completely different one. 9- Technology integration means extra work and extra training courses which they believe they are too to handle 10-Technology can be taught as a separate subject.
  19. 19. Chapter III: Problem Statement The problem is that some school teachers do not believe in implementing technology in a fully integrated manner; they are also against any sort of training on this field. Discussion Proper use of a new technology will be an important factor in assuring teacher confidence in the use of technology and will also enforce the idea of technology integration in education. The analysis of the data in one study revealed that a large number of teachers reject the idea of integration. Each and every one of them has his own reasons that prevent him from integrating or even think of it. Some of the reasons are justifiable and convincing such reasons are out of control because they are related to the technological readiness of the school they work for, the absence of training during their professional life, and above all those teachers are too old to get PPD training on new technologies. Nevertheless, some teachers who are relatively new in the field of education and who have good technological knowledge decline the idea because they don’t know the difference between the simple every day use of technology and the use of technology for educational purposes. They believe the curriculum as it is is quit enough because students are unwilling to handle the sophistication of new technologies. On the other hand, they believe that the curriculum is too ridged to be merged with technology. Reasons behind the rejection are too many; the most important reasons are mentioned in this research. The overall goal is to have useful technology fully integrated into the classroom in a manner that enhances student learning and elevate the educational system that was for a long time dependent on the traditional ways of teaching. Several expected outcomes can be determined through exploring teachers' technology integration within their classroom practice. The first goal is to determine why some classroom teachers gain benefits from technology while others do not. Classroom teachers and their teacher educators can better understand a classroom teacher’s needs after proper documentation of current practices. The classroom teacher’s observed level of technology integration, personal computer usage, and current instructional practices assessments that will provide meaningful data about their current practices (Rakes et al, 2006, p. 412). Secondly, the project will seek to provide training in technology integration that
  20. 20. can engage the flow of student learning and motivates student achievement. Some of the literature indicated that “a focus shift from quantity to quality in educational technology policy and standards can help create necessary conditions for technology uses that have positive student impacts” (Lei & Zhao, 2007, Implications). The third goal of this project is to use technology as a change agent, provide opportunities for teachers to grow in knowledge and professional practice by helping the individual teacher to see how Constructivist teaching methods can be used to improve student learning of the specific subject matter in his or her own classroom. Evidence suggests that well-integrated technology tends to conform to a Constructivist educational model, and that appropriate use of technology can reinforce higher cognitive skill development and complex thinking skills as promoted through the use of Constructivist teaching practices (Rakes et al, 2006, p. 421). Even for the most dedicated supporters of the transmission model of learning, evidence suggests that increasing classroom teachers' technology integration, in Constructivist ways will have a positive impact on students' achievements regardless the teacher’s other teaching practices (Matzen & Edmunds, 2007, p. 427). Recommendations As a quick remedial procedure, an intensive four week training course should be carried out in the school premises to educate teachers of the importance of integrating technology in the classrooms and how will this integration impact the teachers' performance and the students' achievement. The purpose of this training course is modifying and adjusting teachers' thoughts and beliefs concerning technology integration. After teachers' prospective is changed, yearlong Training should be conducted in a school. Work Plan should consist of all the IT basics that teachers need in their classrooms to reach full technology integration Training sessions should include Whiteboard Basics, Word Processing, Blogging, PowerPoint, Internet Research, YouTube/Video, Spreadsheet and many other different topics that might be helpful for teachers to reach a reasonable level of technological knowledge that enables them integrate easily. Photoshop, Graphics and Subject Area Educational Software can be a good example. The first training sessions the teacher-learners will attend are the four-week intensive, that include training on the use of technology in integration model that goes a long with the school's policy in teacher training program of the
  21. 21. professional development goals of the school. These training sessions must be held on a daily bases for 2 hours and should include condensed exams of the process that are required in developing lesson plans model to assure the integration of both technology and subject area content, and help develop the underlying and understanding of the overall process of technology integration. This includes an understanding of when technology is appropriate and when one should cease. The training then continues throughout the year with a new topic every two weeks. Most of the time, topics are determined upon the participants' request The first week should include a teacher-learner hour-long meeting during which the trainee and the mentor discuss the progress achieved and the challenges that the trainee might face during the PPD sessions and how to overcome them. The main aim of these sessions is to provide trainees with instructions in the use of various technologies, and ways to integrate that technology into their classroom. Based on the trainees performance , their responses to the training courses, and the trainers assessments , trainers should adjust their techniques to meet the trainees' needs. Sessions should focus on how to use the identified technologies within the teacher’s classroom setting ;they should concentrate on exploring the use of technology within the teacher’s own content subject and teach them who to combine the proper use of technology and the content so as to reach the effective and useful integration . The second week, trainees are required to present a demonstration lesson during which the mentor will provide direct support for the teacher to integrate materials and content from the Internet or other electronic sources and will assist him in sessions will be technologically mentored. the session is to be held in the school’s computer lab, media library or other technology facilities such as the video production studio. The sessions are planned for specific classroom areas because the sessions will be video recorded for later review and assessment for each session. Collaborative interaction with the technology mentor and the videotaping provides the trainees with the necessary feedback on instructional practices and integration while working alongside with both their own classroom students and the technology mentor in developing these best practices for technology use.
  22. 22. The technology team’s teacher-educators will follow these six underlying Constructivist principles for our technology curriculum, as adapted from Lebow’s Five Constructivist Principles (Lebow 1993, p. 5-12). 1. Acknowledge that the classroom teacher faces the challenge of comparing and contrasting their existing rooted model with a new model with which they have little or no experience (Perkins, 1992, p. 162). 2. Some teachers-learners are better prepared for technology integration than others. Guide the learner slowly from practices that are similar to their existing practices along a scale toward those that are more in line with the models of fully integrated practices. (Matzen & Edmunds, 2007, p. 419). Research indicates that “teacher education needs to begin with these traditional beliefs and subsequently challenge them through activity, reflection, and discourse in both coursework and field work throughout the duration of the program” (Fosnot, 2005, p. 264). 3. The course of each lesson should model the technology as supporting the classroom teacher’s specific needs and course materials. 4. The technology that is being learned is used to model its own best practice usage and encourages exploration of the technology’s capabilities. Technology should be Modeled as the medium for learning another subject, and not as the subject of learning itself. 5. Support student-centered learning by helping the classroom teacher develop skills and attitudes that enable him or her to assume increased ownership for the developmental restructuring process. The teacher-educator must constantly pay close attention to which aspects of the new technology attract the learner’s interest and facilitate the learner’s pursuit of knowledge through exploring that interest. 6. Encourage the exploration of errors. It helps for the technology mentor to explain to the teacher-learner that they cannot break anything within the technology while exploring, and to model common mistakes and how to recover from them.
  23. 23. References Asselin, M. (2003). Assessment Issues and Recommendations. Teacher Librarian, 30(5), pgs. 52-53. Bai, H., & Ertmer, P. (2008). Teacher Educator’s Beliefs and Technology Uses as Predictors of Preservice Teachers Beliefs and Technology Attitudes. Journal of Technology & Teacher Education, Bauer, J., & Kenton, J. (2005). Toward Technology Integration in the Schools: Why It Isn’t Happening. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13(4), 519-546. Retrieved October 15, 2007, Bradburn, F. B. (2007). A Program With Impact. T H E Journal, 34(1), 55-52. Retrieved August 28, 2007, from EBSCO. Christensen, C., Horn, M., & Johnson, C. (2008). Disrupting Class: How Disruptive Innovation Will Change the Way the World Learns. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. DuFour, R., DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & Many, T. (2006). Learning by Doing: A Handbook for Professional Learning Communities at Work. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree. Fosnot, C. T. (2005). Teachers Construct Constructivism: The Center for Constructivist Teaching/Teacher Preparation Project. Glazer, E., & Hannafin, M. (2008). Factors That Influence Mentor and Teacher Interactions During Technology Integration Collaborative Apprenticeships. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education Higgins, B., Miller, M., & Wegmann, S. (2006). Teaching to the test … Howard, P. (2006). The Owner’s Manual for The Brain: Everyday Applications from Mind-Brain Research. Austin, TX: Bard Press. Knowles, M., Holton, E., & Swanson, R. (2005). The Adult Learner. Burlington, MA: Elsevier. Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2005). What Happens When Teachers Design Educational Technology?
  24. 24. Lebow, D. (1993). Constructivist Values for Instructional Systems Design: Five Principles Toward a New Mindset. Lei, J., & Zhao, Y. (2007). Technology uses and student achievement: A longitudinal study. Computers & Education, Levin, T., & Wadmany, R. (2006). Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices in Technology-based Classrooms: A Developmental View. Journal of Research on Technology in Education Matzen, N., & Edmunds, J. (2007). Technology as a Catalyst for Change: The Role of Professional Development. Journal of Research on Technology in Education Morrison, G., & Lowther, D. (2005). Integrating Computer Technology into the Classroom (Third Edition). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall. National Business Education Alliance (http://www.loticonnection.com/DETAILS.html National Business Education Alliance. (2006). Handout Modules. The LoTi Connection. Retrieved December 16, 2007, from http://www.loticonnection.com/freehandouts.html NC DPI Instructional Technology Division. (2006). Technology Facilitator Job Description. http://www.ncwiseowl.org/kscope/impact/positions/tech_facilitators.html Perkins, D. N. (1992). What Constructivism Demands of the Learner Rakes, G., Fields, V., & Cox, K. (2006). The Influence of Teacher’s Technology Use on Instructional Practices. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, Solomon, G., & Schrum, L. (2007). Web 2.0: new tools, new schools. Washington, DC: International Society for Technology in Education.

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