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  • 1. RESEARCH PROPOSAL Integrating Technology in Education In Mohammed Bin Hammed Secondary School for Boys Views and Opinions of Teachers , Students, Administrators and Parents Fathi Nimrawi- 2012
  • 2. Contents Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 Purpose of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………1 Methodology …………………………………………………………………………………….…2 Data Analysis (Stage 1)........................................................................5 Students' questionnaire data analysis………………………………………………….7 Problems the Researchers faced…………………………………………………..…….9 Research Question…………………………………………………………………………..…11 Literature Review……………………………………………………………………………....11 Lewbow"s Five Constructive Principles ………………………………………………11 Recommendations …………………………………………………………………………….12 References ………………………………………………………………………………………..14
  • 3. Introduction It obvious that our world is witnessing a technological revolution that affects all aspects of our lives, but in so many cases this revolution turned to be a Curse, because of the misusage. Technology of education is defined as tools that might help in promoting student learning and may be measured in how and why individuals behave. Educational Technology relies on a broad definition of the word "technology." Technology can refer to material objects of use to humanity, such as machines or hardware, but it can also include broader themes, such as systems, methods of organization, and techniques. Some modern tools include but are not limited to overhead projectors, laptop computers, and calculators. Newer tools such as "smart phones" and games (both online and offline) are beginning to draw serious attention for their learning potential. Media psychology is the field of study that applies theories in human behavior to educational technology. Although so many people are trying to prove the opposite, technology can never replace teachers. The traditional educational technology that teachers used to use in the classrooms such as real objects, cassettes, videos, drawings and pictures proved to be effective in the hands of good teachers the modern technology on the other hand, made things more complicated. This controversy among those who believe in the intensive use of technology on the one hand and those who believe that over using technology especially the most recent one is a waste of time for both teachers and students. The first category believes that modern technologies provide greater opportunities to access information, collaborate with peers and teachers, and create new types of content; students are more engaged and have a stronger voice in their own education. Teachers are able to use actionable information to personalize learning based on individual student's learning needs and styles. Modern technologies provide a strong foundation for these efforts that include professional learning for teachers and administrators, access to the right technology for their school district. The second category believes that over using technology especially the most recent one is a waste of time for both teachers and students, because they think that the educational situation can't handle the use of that much of technology in a regular base. They also believe that these technologies can never be a substitute for teachers. Students need to feel the presences of the teacher's creativity in the classroom. They also think that some teachers tend to use so much of the technology such as power point presentations, because they want to waste time. They strongly believe that technologies are needed outside the classrooms, where students need to surf for further information. In this introduction I tried to present the thought, ideas and opinions of some school teachers and administrators who attended a conference about Educational Technologies entitled with (Educational Technologies Facts and Challenges) that was held in Mohammed Bin Hamad Secondary School for boys in Fujairah on May 2012th 12
  • 4. Purpose of the Study My aim was to narrow the gap between the two controversial groups, because I believe that each group has a point of view to argue for, and I also believe to some extent that both of them are correct .Those who argue for the usage of Educational Technology have Certain points of strength in their argument such as, students as well as teachers have the right to cope with the ever developing age of technology , sending and receiving information became easier and more attractive , students need to be more informed and prepared for universities and above all technology is all around us ,so like it or not we are all now in one way or another part of a global technological system. Those who argue against don’t totally deny the importance of technology in our educational system, but they say that some teachers and students are not mature enough to handle that strong flow of technology. In the early stages students, students are required to know the ABCs of technology to be able to use certain tools such as computers in a monitored and narrow scale. This group focused on the most recent technologies such as laptops, disc tops, note pads and I pads. They also argue that the over use of technology in the classrooms limits students ability to be effective in the classroom, and turn teachers from real teachers in to just a machine operators a job that any normal person can do. stood in the middle because I believe there is a point where the two groups can meeta researcher, IAs and reach an agreement; I also wanted to convince the first group to use Educational Technology only when needed and never let it dominate the whole period so as to leave a space for human interaction. Moderate use of modern technology for certain purposes will be a good addition to the educational process. At the same time I wanted to convince the second group that using modern technology every now and then will change the atmosphere in the classroom; it will give the teaching learning process more depth and a new dimension. This doesn’t mean that teachers are to ignore the traditional Teaching Technology that they used to use in their classrooms such as pictures, real objects, wall charts and so on, Methodology I formed a team five teachers including myself as a group leader, then we designed two questionnaires for students and teachers to know exactly what they think about integrating technology in Education .As for parents we went for teachers- parents meeting that was held in the school theater . The majority of parents show great interest in the idea and expressed their readiness for any help possible financially or morally .Students who are already indulged in technology believe that integrating technology in education is not a matter of choice on the contrary ,it is a must since technology invaded every aspect of their lives.
  • 5. Y = yes N= no DN= don’t know (Module A) Dear colleague please answer the following questions to the best of your knowledge; your careful answers will help us measure the effectiveness of modern technology integration in education. DNNyStatementN Iam unable to produce educational multimedia.1 Iam unable to employ technology in education.2 I don’t feel like integrating in education.3 I feel that technology integration is not necessary.4 The school administration does not provide any training for teachers. 5 Iam not trained enough on the use of technology.6 The classroom does not contain any sort of technology.7 Students do not bear the use of technology.8 The school administration careless about education technology.9 The technological equipments need maintenance10 I don’t understand the language of instructions.11 The time of the lesson is not enough.12 Iam over loaded with extra duties that prevent me from using technology. 13 I feel that PowerPoint presentations do not add anything to education. 14 students use computers for chatting ,playingMost15 Students lack the motive to learn, even when modern technology is involved. 16 The community is not aware of the importance of integration17 We still need time and effort to reach full technology integration.18 Our educational system is not yet ready for full technology integration 19
  • 6. Y = yes N= no DN= don’t know (Module B) .Technology can never be a replacement for teachers.20 DNNy Are you a secondary school teacher?1 Do you like being a teacher?2 Do you see you self as an experienced teacher?3 Do think that full technology integration in education is necessary?4 Do you find it difficult to use modern technology in the classrooms?5 Have you ever attended training sessions or conferences on integration? 6 Would you like to know more about technology integration in education 7 Do you use computers efficiently? 8 Do you use a desk top or a lap top to prepare your lessons? 9 Do you find it difficult to deal with technological equipments? 10 Do think that the using of the above equipment is easier than using a computer? 11 Have you ever used a T.V or a cassette recorder in your lessons? 12 Have you ever used an overhead projector? 13 Is there a computer or a data show in your classroom? 14 Do you usually refer to any websites for further information? 15 Do you use the internet to intercommunicate with your students or your superiors? 16 Does school provide the necessary training for teachers 17 Are you willing to integrate new technologies in your classroom? 18 Does the school administration encourage technology integration 19 Do you need training in technology integration 20 Is there a computer lab in your school? 21 If the answer is yes , do often make use of this lab in education 22 Do you use the curriculum as a main source of information? 23 Are you ready to do whatever necessary to help your students? 24
  • 7. Data Analysis Analyzing teachers responses to the first part of the questioner that includes twenty statements; the research team could reach the results shown in the table below S Y N DN S Y N DN S1 40% 60% - S11 96% 4% - S2 70% 30% - S12 90% 5% 5% S3 80% 20% - S13 96% 4% - S4 90% 7% 3% S14 97% - 3% S5 50% 35% 15% S15 98% - 2% S6 90% 10% - S16 95% 5% - S7 75% 20% 5% S17 90% 6% 4% S8 5% 10% 85% S18 85% 5% 10% S9 45% 35% 20% S19 90% 7% 3% S10 5% - 95% S20 100% - - Table 1
  • 8. As for the second part of the questioner that includes twenty four question; teachers answers were to some extant similar to their answers in the first part, and they were as follows Q Y N DN Q Y N DN 1 100% - - 13 95% 5% - 2 75% 25% - 14 85% 15% - 3 100% - - 15 - 95% 5% 4 - 95% 5% 16 - 95% 5% 5 80% 15% 5% 17 _ 75% 25% 6 5% 95% - 18 25% 65% 10% 7 35% 40% 25% 19 25% 50% 25% 8 85% 15% 5% 20 40% 50% 10% 9 45% 35% 20% 21 90% - 10% 10 75% 25% - 22 20% 80% - 11 35% 30% 35% 23 99% 1% - 12 99% 1% - 24 97% - 3%
  • 9. Dear student please respond to the following statements to the best of your knowledge; your careful answers will help us measure the effectiveness of modern technology integration in education Y = Yes N = no DN = don’t know (Module c) DNNYQuestionN Technology based lessons are more attractive1 I care more when the teacher uses technology to explain the lesson.2 I can surf the web easily.3 I have my own lap top and a free access to the net.4 Teachers explain lessons using technology in a regular bases.5 Teachers need more training on modern technology.6 I do my homework and research study using the internet.7 Teachers encourage students to surf the internet8 The ordinary curriculum is boring9 The school provides the necessary technology for teachers and students10 I can use my smart phone efficiently.11 Students get enough technology lessons.12 The school administration allows students to access the web anytime.13 Technology information is necessary for your future career.14
  • 10. Students' questionnaire data analysis Statistics show that students are aware of the importance of technology integration in their educational system; they also show that students are to a great extant involved in this sort of technology in their everyday life through using various kinds of technological equipments such as smart phones, laptops, iPods and I pads .Moreover the majority of the students' community have access to the internet at home or even in their personal devices. So technology integration in education should be priority for all those who work in the Ministry of Education; teachers are on the top of this list. S Y N DN S Y N DN 1 75% 10% 15% 8 25% 70% 5% 2 79% 9% 12% 9 85% 10% 5% 3 97% 3% - 10 90% - 10 % 4 95% 5% - 11 100 % - - 5 22% 78% - 12 27% 73% - 6 24% 15% 61% 13 85% 13% 2% 7 35% 20% 45% 14 95% - 5%
  • 11. 1 – Based on the data analyses of the two questionnaires , I carried out a staff meeting to shed light on the problem and find an Intersection between the two parties. 2 – I asked the two parties to organize demonstration lessons that include the use of traditional teaching technology and lessons that depend on modern technology 3 – After attending these lessons each group should prepare a feedback report showing the advantages and disadvantages of each type of lessons. 4 – A week later, I conducted a follow up meeting to discuss the reports and write recommendations. Recommendations that were agreed upon in the follow up meeting were. 1 – Teachers who have problems dealing with the modern technologies such as Data show, smart board and note pads etc. are required to join training courses. 2 – These training courses are to be held in the school and given by teachers who have enough experience using this type of technology 3 – Since promoting students achievement is the main target in the whole educational process, student should be involved in framing the way they would like to be taught; in this case student are going to answer a questioner in which they will decide how effective new technologies in the classroom are, and how can teachers and the school administration make the best use of that technologies 4- Share the local community the responsibility in deciding how they want their children to be taught through organizing scheduled visits to the school and choose a number of parents to work with the school board on a regular bases. 5 – The school administration should solve certain technical problems such as electric sockets and connections in the classrooms. Problems that Researchers faced concerns regarding how things should be done, so whenever a new idea a rises, you find people who oppose it and try hard for this idea not to effective. In this particular case I faced problems that I could overcome some of them e.g. 1 – Some employees lack the desire and the motive to develop their abilities in the field of modern educational technology which is considered to be part of their PPD, simply because they believe that it is of no use since it doesn’t add to the teaching learning process. 2 – The school building is not ready enough to cope with this kind of technology and its accessories; relatively old school buildings with old electric connections always face problems that lead to the disconnection of power supply. 3- The continuous collapse of the system itself due to certain technical failure or virus which means that this Technology needs ongoing maintenance and updating which is very expensive. 4 – Lack of awareness and responsibility in some students who tend to sabotage the equipment installed in their classroom. 5 – In certain cases this technology is misused or over used to an extent that the role of the teacher is either cancelled or minimized which affects the interaction between. teachers and students.
  • 12. 6 – Some students and teachers disregard the fact that technology was developed to facilitate the educational process, so they don’t take seriously. 7- The Ministry of Education does not organize training courses for the staff on new technologies; teachers have to attend courses on their own which is an additional financial burden that teachers are trying to avoid. 8 – Lack of experienced people in the field of Educational Technology. Research Questions The research question in this case study is , How do teachers , Students and parents feel about integrating technology in education? Literature review Studies show that Technology Integration in the educational system in the UAE is affected by many factors. These factors range from confusion between the simple use of technology versus true integration to professional development and training issues, teacher pedagogical decisions based on both their own previous training as well the duties placed upon them to address standardized assessments and standards-based expectations on their classroom performance. Most teachers do not differentiate between using technology for personal purposes such as, surfing the net or chatting with friends and using technology for pure educational purposes, so a distinction needs to be made between ‘use’ and ‘integration . It seems that it is difficult to reach full integration, since a large number of teachers believe in the insignificance of this integration in education. So as to reach full integration, we need to change teachers' thoughts and beliefs regarding this subject. The use of technology for itself does not lead to successful integration (Koehler & Mishra, 2005, p. 132). Proper integration involves use of a technology in a way that makes the technology a seamless, almost invisible part of the over-all learning environment, similar to blackboards and chalk. It should be highlighted that technology is a mean to facilitate the educational process and make more attractive and enjoyable, and not a target, so if the focus of learning is on the technology itself then proper integration has not taken place. The improper use of technology in the classroom might lead to undesired result such students' distraction and poor achievement. It is that technology shapes the twenty first in every aspect; still we didn’t reach the full and proper integration in education. Not because we don’t possess the right tools, but because decision Makers Lake the determination and some teachers lake motivation and desire.
  • 13. Some teachers were Unwilling to adapt their classroom practices to more fully integrate technology (Bai & Ertmer, 2008, pp. 94-95). Since integrating new technology requires exploring new ways of learning. Teachers who are unwilling to modify their classroom methods will experience difficulties in integration. The literature suggests that many new technologies such as computers and the Internet are best integrated through student-centered methods, and teachers with more traditional beliefs face greater degrees of change in their classroom practices when facing technology integration (Levin & Wadmany, 2006, p. 160). If teachers are to accept new ways of thinking about education they may need to be convinced hoping that they will modify their negative attitude towards the usefulness and effectiveness of technology. Careful assessment of each teacher must be used to assure his or her readiness to learn these new skills, their awareness of having the “skills, knowledge, and training essential for success” in learning new ways of teaching. Whatever reasons that might determine some teachers ' classroom practices, ideologies, or beliefs that require loyalty and conformity by its adherents (Knowles et al, 2005, p. 68). One factor may hinge on the way that technology is viewed by these teachers who might see technology simply as a means to deliver his or her instructions and might lack the pedagogical sophistication to address technology as “tools to solve problems” (Morrison & Lowther, 2005, p. 25). Finding ways to help these teachers grow in their instructional practice is essential to proper technology integration. Lebow’s Five Constructivist Principles 1. Acknowledge that the classroom teacher faces the challenge of a “conflict- faced” path where-in they are asked to compare and contrast their existing entrenched model with a new model with which they have little or no experience (Perkins, 1992, p. 162). 2. Some teachers-learners are better prepared for technology integration than others. Guide the learner slowly from practices that are similar to their existing practices along a scale toward those that are more in line with the models of fully integrated practices. (Matzen & Edmunds, 2007, p. 419). Research indicates that “teacher education needs to begin with these traditional beliefs and subsequently challenge them through activity, reflection, and discourse in
  • 14. both coursework and field work throughout the duration of the program” (Fosnot, 2005, p. 264). 3. The course of each lesson should model the technology as supporting the classroom teacher’s specific needs and course materials. 4. The technology that is being learned is used to model its own best practice usage and encourages exploration of the technology’s capabilities. Model technology as the medium for learning another subject not as the subject of learning itself. 5. Support student-centered learning by helping the classroom teacher develop skills and attitudes that enable him or her to assume increased ownership for the developmental restructuring process. The teacher-educator must constantly pay close attention to which aspects of the new technology attract the learner’s interest and facilitate the learner’s pursuit of knowledge through exploring that interest. 6. Encourage the exploration of errors. It helps for the technology mentor to explain to the teacher-learner that they cannot break anything within the technology while exploring, and to model common mistakes and how to recover from them.
  • 15. Recommendations As a quick remedial procedure, an intensive four week training course should be carried out in the school premises to educate teachers of the importance of integrating technology in the classrooms and how will this integration impact the teachers' performance and the students' achievement. The purpose of this training course is modifying and adjusting teachers' thoughts and beliefs concerning technology integration. After teachers' prospective is changed, yearlong Training should be conducted in a school. Work Plan should consist of all the IT basics that teachers need in their classrooms to reach full technology integration Training sessions should include Whiteboard Basics, Word Processing, Blogging, PowerPoint, Internet Research, YouTube/Video, Spreadsheet and many other different topics that might be helpful for teachers to reach a reasonable level of technological knowledge that enables them integrate easily. Photoshop, Graphics and Subject Area Educational Software can be a good example. The first training sessions the teacher-learners will attend are the four-week intensive, that include training on the use of technology in integration model that goes a long with the school's policy in teacher training program of the professional development goals of the school. These training sessions must be held on a daily bases for 2 hours and should include condensed exams of the process that are required in developing lesson plans model to assure the integration of both technology and subject area content, and help develop the underlying and understanding of the overall process of technology integration. This includes an understanding of when technology is appropriate and when one should cease. The training then continues throughout the year with a new topic every two weeks. Most of the time, topics are determined upon the participants' request The first week should include a teacher-learner hour-long meeting during which the trainee and the mentor discuss the progress achieved and the challenges that the trainee might face during the PPD sessions and how to overcome them.
  • 16. The main aim of these sessions is to provide trainees with instructions in the use of various technologies, and ways to integrate that technology into their classroom. Based on the trainees performance , their responses to the training courses, and the trainers assessments , trainers should adjust their techniques to meet the trainees' needs. Sessions should focus on how to use the identified technologies within the teacher’s classroom setting ;they should concentrate on exploring the use of technology within the teacher’s own content subject and teach them who to combine the proper use of technology and the content so as to reach the effective and useful integration . The second week, trainees are required to present a demonstration lesson during which the mentor will provide direct support for the teacher to integrate materials and content from the Internet or other electronic sources and will assist him in sessions will be technologically mentored. the session is to be held in the school’s computer lab, media library or other technology facilities such as the video production studio. The sessions are planned for specific classroom areas because the sessions will be video recorded for later review and assessment for each session. Collaborative interaction with the technology mentor and the videotaping provides the trainees with the necessary feedback on instructional practices and integration while working alongside with both their own classroom students and the technology mentor in developing these best practices for technology use. The technology team’s teacher-educators will follow these six underlying Constructivist principles for our technology curriculum, as adapted from
  • 17. References Asselin, M. (2003). Assessment Issues and Recommendations. Teacher Librarian, 30(5), pgs. 52-53. Bai, H., & Ertmer, P. (2008). Teacher Educator’s Beliefs and Technology Uses as Predictors of Preservice Teachers Beliefs and Technology Attitudes. Journal of Technology & Teacher Education, Bauer, J., & Kenton, J. (2005). Toward Technology Integration in the Schools: Why It Isn’t Happening. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13(4), 519-546. Retrieved October 15, 2007, Bradburn, F. B. (2007). A Program With Impact. T H E Journal, 34(1), 55-52. Retrieved August 28, 2007, from EBSCO. Christensen, C., Horn, M., & Johnson, C. (2008). Disrupting Class: How Disruptive Innovation Will Change the Way the World Learns. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. DuFour, R., DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & Many, T. (2006). Learning by Doing: A Handbook for Professional Learning Communities at Work. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree. Fosnot, C. T. (2005). Teachers Construct Constructivism: The Center for Constructivist Teaching/Teacher Preparation Project. Glazer, E., & Hannafin, M. (2008). Factors That Influence Mentor and Teacher Interactions During Technology Integration Collaborative Apprenticeships. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education Higgins, B., Miller, M., & Wegmann, S. (2006). Teaching to the test …
  • 18. Howard, P. (2006). The Owner’s Manual for The Brain: Everyday Applications from Mind-Brain Research. Austin, TX: Bard Press. Knowles, M., Holton, E., & Swanson, R. (2005). The Adult Learner. Burlington, MA: Elsevier. Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2005). What Happens When Teachers Design Educational Technology? Lebow, D. (1993). Constructivist Values for Instructional Systems Design: Five Principles Toward a New Mindset. Lei, J., & Zhao, Y. (2007). Technology uses and student achievement: A longitudinal study. Computers & Education, Levin, T., & Wadmany, R. (2006). Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices in Technology-based Classrooms: A Developmental View. Journal of Research on Technology in Education Matzen, N., & Edmunds, J. (2007). Technology as a Catalyst for Change: The Role of Professional Development. Journal of Research on Technology in Education Morrison, G., & Lowther, D. (2005). Integrating Computer Technology into the Classroom (Third Edition). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall. National Business Education Alliance (http://www.loticonnection.com/DETAILS.html National Business Education Alliance. (2006). Handout Modules. The LoTi Connection. Retrieved December 16, 2007, from http://www.loticonnection.com/freehandouts.html
  • 19. NC DPI Instructional Technology Division. (2006). Technology Facilitator Job Description. http://www.ncwiseowl.org/kscope/impact/positions/tech_facilitators.html Perkins, D. N. (1992). What Constructivism Demands of the Learner Rakes, G., Fields, V., & Cox, K. (2006). The Influence of Teacher’s Technology Use on Instructional Practices. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, Solomon, G., & Schrum, L. (2007). Web 2.0: new tools, new schools. Washington, DC: International Society for Technology in Education.