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In the Name of the Most High The First Post-Graduate Conference Azar 30, 1385 (December 21, 2006) The Effect of Portfolio Assessment on Reading Comprehension Performance of Iranian High school sophomores By: Fatemeh Nikui Nezhad M.A. in TEFL
Portfolio: “a narrative that tells a coherent story of your learning experiences in the program, and highlights thoughtful reflection on, and analysis of, those experiences. It is not simply an accumulation of pieces and products. It is an unfolding of your understanding about learning” (Darling, 2001, p.111).
CLT has undergone many changes in how second language teaching is conducted and conceived (Richard and Rodgers, 2001).
The significance of the communicative competence and process learning. (Moya & O'Malley, 1994)
The incompatibility of process learning and product assessment (Shaaban, 2001)
Portfolio assessment. …allows for self-directed work, self-correction, greater autonomy and greater time frames. Students can work outside the time constraints of the school timetable. Students are free to select topics in which they have personal interests, thus portfolios have the potential for encouraging greater motivation (Moore, 1994, p.632).
Portfolios as powerful tools can be used so as to facilitate the learning process, enhance self-directed learning, encourage learner autonomy, and raise learners’ awareness about learning strategies, (Moore, 1994; Barnhardt et al., 1998; Yang, 2003; Banfi, 2003).
There are many gaps in the research on the innovative assessment methods such as portfolios (Johnston, 2004)
2) Reading Log for each passage used as self-assessment tool
3) Portfolio Assessment Marking Sheet in which the teachers and raters graded students’ portfolio pieces
Student’s Reading Log کارنامه خواندن دانش آموز سعی می کنم متن را واضح و با تلفظ صحیح بخوانم وضبط کنم . متن را خلاصه می کنم . سوالاتی در مورد متن می نویسم . ایده اصلی متن را می نویسم . بعد از هر خواندن پیشرفت خود را ارزیابی می کنم و نظر خود را در مورد متن و میزان یادگیری بیان می کنم . خواندن R1 Yes=1 No=0 R2 Yes=1 No=0 R3 Yes=1 No=0 R4 Yes=1 No=0 R5 Yes=1 No=0 نمره دانش آموز نمره معلم
Portfolio Assessment Marking Sheet per lesson 10.Student reads with correct pronunciation and intonation 9.Student reads with a suitable speed Audio Tape in Portfolio (Total required number of audio tapes: 5 ) Yes (1) No (0) 8. Portfolio is clear and neat. 7.Student writes summary of readings 6.Student makes questions after reading 5.Student writes main ideas 4.Student Initiates own reading 3.Student shows creativity in tasks 2.Portfolio contains student comments and feedback after each task 1. Portfolio includes all the required items. Reading (Total required readings: 5 ) Yes (1) No (0)
2. Portfolio Assessment 3. Evaluating Portfolios Traditional vs. Reading Portfolio Assessment
Table1:T-Test for the control and portfolio group’s performance on Nelson test at the pretest stage P<.05 N=30 df=58 t-critical=2.000 2.15 30.56 30 Control .86* 2.02 31.3 30 Portfolio t-observed SD Mean N Groups
Table 2 The t-value and descriptive statistics for the posttests of the two groups P<. 05 N=30 df=58 t-critical=2.000 2.17 16.66 30 Control 2.66* .62 17.76 30 Experimental (portfolio) Reading t- observed SD Mean N Groups Test
Benefits of portfolio creation: Learners’ own words (positive)
I’m so happy with this assessment method.
It helps me a lot to answer reading comprehension exercises.
It was a good experience for me and so helpful.
I really liked this kind of assessment since I read more passages and learnt more.
I enjoyed taping my reading aloud.
It improved my reading ability a lot.
I read the passages faster and comprehend them more .
Portfolio creation: Learners’ own words (negative)
It’s Time-consuming and Complicated
Sometimes it gets boring and tiresome.
It proves useful if implemented for a long time rather than one semester.
Portfolio assessment used by Rafferty (1994) in a teacher education course “Teaching Reading in the Content Areas”;
portfolio application by Staehler (1994) in adult basic education and English as a second language;
development and implementation of portfolio management strategies by Newman et al. (1995) for his students;
investigating the studying and reading processes of limited-English-Speaking Hmong university using think-aloud protocols, reading journals, and study skills portfolios by Starks-Martin (1996);
using portfolio to implement an innovative ESL workplace program (ESLWP) by Schwarzer et al. (2002);
Empirical studies on Portfolio Assessment (continued)
Barnhardt et al. (1998) research, a 3- year portfolio assessment project in elementary through higher education foreign language classrooms;
integrating portfolios into a learning strategy-based EFL course by Yang (2003);
and compilation of second language portfolios as part of pre-service French teachers’ professional development in a university in Western Canada conducted by Christiansen and Laplante (2004).
integration of portfolios and technology (e-mail) into a writing class among Iranian undergraduates of English at Allameh Tabatabaii University by Marefat (2004).
Concluding Remarks Portfolios engage students. Help teach reflection and self-evaluation skills. Help teachers document learning in areas not covered in traditional assessment. Portfolio assessment increases learners’ involvement in the assessment and monitoring of their own learning. Benefits of portfolio assessment clearly outweigh the negative aspects.