Effects of crop establishment methods and irrigation schedules on productivity and quality of rice

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Rice is the staple food for more than half of the global population. In India, it is grown on an area of about 43.97 m ha with total production and productivity of about 104.32 mt and 2.37 t/ha respectively (Anonymous 2013). In Punjab, it occupied an area of 2.82 m ha with production and productivity of 10.54 mt and 3.74 t/ha respectively and in Haryana, it was grown on an area of 1.24 m ha with production and productivity of 3.76 mt and 3.02 t/ha respectively (Anonymous 2013).
The most common practice for establishing rice in rice wheat system of indo-gangatic plains region is puddling before transplanting. Alternative to traditional method direct seeding may be adopted because it does not require that heavy amount of labour, water and capital input initially and also crop mature earlier (7-10 days) than transplanted crop allowing timely sowing of succeeding wheat crop. Recent research suggests that new methods of rice establishment, viz zero till rice, bed planting and SRI has potential to reduce cost and increase sustainability of irrigated rice culture while maintaining yield.
Irrigation plays a pivotal role in increasing productivity of rice. The efficiency and productivity of irrigation water is quite low owing to percolation losses and high water requirement. There is an urgent need to save water and increase its efficiency in rice production. Various agronomic practice like proper land levelling, proper transplanting time, selection of suitable variety and increasing interval between successive irrigation can play a lead role in water saving and to obtain sustainable yield of the crop. The sustainability of rice production in north-west India is threatened by scarcity of water. So there is need to increase water use efficiency in rice production.
Gangwar and Singh (2010) resulted that among different crop establishment methods, highest yield and yield attributing characters of rice was obtained with drum seeding wet bed method. Gill et al (2006) revealed that dry matter accumulation, leaf area index, effective tillers and grain yield were significantly more in direct seeding than transplanted rice. Water productivity in direct seeded rice was higher as compared to transplanted rice clearly showing the more water use efficiency in DSR. Jagtap et al (2013) concluded that the crop established by transplanting recorded significantly higher growth as well as yield attributes resulting in to significantly more grain and straw yield. Grain yield found to be highest in Japanese manual transplanted rice followed by dry drilling (30 kg/ha), dry drilling (15 kg/ha) and drum seeding (Dixit et al 2010). Singh et al (2005) found that mechanical transplanting of rice resulted in highest grain and straw yield which was at par with manual transplanting but significantly higher than both direct seeding methods.

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  • Direct sown rice @ 100 kg/ha seed rate, in SRI, 11 day old seedlings were transplanted singly at 25 x25 cm spacing. For conventional method, 21 day old seedlings 2-3 per hill were transpalnted at 25x 20 cm spacing.
  • Effects of crop establishment methods and irrigation schedules on productivity and quality of rice

    1. 1. Effects of crop establishment methods and irrigation schedules on productivity and quality of Rice 1
    2. 2. INDIA* (Rice) Area: 43.97 Million ha Production: 104.32 Million tonnes Productivity: 2.37 t/ha PUNJAB** (Rice) Area: 2.82 Million ha Production: 10.54 million tonnes Productivity: 3.74 t/ha Haryana** (Rice) Area: 1.24 Million ha Production: 3.76 million tonnes Productivity: 3.02 t/ha *www.indiastat.com **Package of Practices (Kharif 2013) 2
    3. 3. Transplanting Random Straight rows Direct seeding Broadcasting Drilling 3
    4. 4. Chinese planter Japanese planter Manual random transplanting Manual Line transplanting 4
    5. 5. Wet Bed Dry Bed Mat type nursery  Wet-bed method: The beds slightly raised and 1- 1.5 m broad are prepared with drainage channels in between them after well puddling . This type of beds are prepared in the areas with assured irrigation facilities.  Dry bed method: In this method raised beds 1-1.5 m are prepared with drainage channels but without puddling as it is adopted in areas with high rainfall so water logging is an anticipated problem.  Modified Dapog method (MAT type): This method is used to raise seedlings to be used in mechanical transplanting. In this method soil is sieved through 3-5 mm sieve so that stones or other hard material may not interrupt working of transplanter. 5
    6. 6. Drum seeder Mechanical Seeder Manual Manual 6
    7. 7. Constraints Remedies a) Carry over effects of puddling DSR has positive effect on succeeding crops such as wheat, gram, mustard b) Low plant population: Under Punjab condition, plant population varies from 16-21 hills/m2 (Gill et al 2006) Mechanical transplanting, as it ensures not only optimum number of hills/m2 but also number of seedlings/hill and placement at optimum depth. c) Delay in sowing of rice and succeeding crops DSR not only reduce labour requirement but also shortens crop duration by 7-12 (Gill 2008) days with comparable yield to transplanted rice. d) Lower water productivity due to high irrigation water applied DSR saves 10-15% of irrigation water and hence increases water productivity. Gill et al 2006 recorded an increase of 25% in water productivity of DSR over transplanted rice. 7
    8. 8. Advantages: It can help overcoming weed problem by facilitating mechanical and manual weeding and hence reduce need for herbicide application.  It is less prone to lodging because more light reaches the canopy and strengthens the straw, and the soil around the base of the plant stays drier.  It can save about 25% of irrigation water without affecting yield.  It increase fertilizer use efficiency by facilitating band application at planting. In Bed planting, 30 days old seedlings are Transplanted on the middle of slopes of the Beds prepared with wheat bed planter by maintaining a plant to plant distance of 9 cm to ensure 33seedling/m2 . Two rows of transplanted rice on the slope of beds 67.5cm 37.5cm 8
    9. 9. System of rice Intensification (SRI) It is a method of increasing rice yield and was developed in 1983 in Madagascar KEY FEATURES OF SRI: Transplanting of young seedlings: In SRI 8-12 days old seedlings are transplanted to preserve subsequent growth potential . Wider Spacing: Transplanting one seedlings per hill in a square pattern (25x25cm) with reduced seed rate @ 2kg/acre. Water Management : Soil is kept moist, but not continuously saturated, so that mostly aerobic soil conditions prevail in field as irrigation 5 days after disappearance of ponded water or helps in saving 30-40% of irrigation water .  Compost: Instead of chemical fertilizers , FYM or compost should be applied as a source of nutrients Weeding: Control weeds with frequent weeding by a mechanical hand weeder (rotating hoe or cono weeder) that also aerates the soil . 9
    10. 10. Higher Yield In SRI More number of Phyllocrons (It is the time taken by a rice plant to form a new tiller with leaf and root.) Normal Rice SRl Rice Profuse Roots growth and activity Increased Grain filling Light utilizationNormal Rice SRl Rice 10
    11. 11. Effects of crop establishment methods on yield of hybrid rice and wheat in rice - wheat cropping system (pooled data of 4 years) Treatments Panicle/m2 Grains/ panicle 1000- grain Wt. (g) Crop yield (t/ha) Dry direct seeding 363 132 27.1 8.29 Wet direct seeding (Drum seeding) 383 141 27.7 8.50 Mechanical transplanting (Puddled) 354 131 26.7 8.20 Mechanical transplanting (Unpuddled) 300 113 26.3 7.63 Manual transplanting (Puddled) 333 122 26.5 7.72 CD (p=0.05) 11.0 9.0 0.9 0.73 Soil type: Sandy loam Avg annual rainfall: 863 mm Cultivar: PHB 71 Gangwar and Singh (2010), Modipuram Indian j of Agric. Sci. 80 (1): 24-28. 11
    12. 12. Effect of rice crop establishment methods on succeeding wheat crop Treatments Ears/m2 Grains/ ear 1000- grain Wt. (g) Crop yield (t/ha) Dry direct seeding 295 49.7 37.8 5.71 Wet direct seeding (Drum seeding) 285 48.1 37.5 5.59 Mechanical transplanting (Puddled) 272 41.4 36.9 4.86 Mechanical transplanting (Unpuddled) 283 46.5 37.3 5.55 Manual transplanting (Puddled) 276 41.7 37.0 5.00 CD (p=0.05) 4.0 1.0 0.3 0.68 Cont... 12
    13. 13. Effect of different methods of establishment on grain yield and yield attributes of rice (mean data of 2 seasons) Treatments Effective tillers/m2 Filled grains /panicle 1000- grain Wt. (g) Grain yield (t/ha) Direct Seeding 245 115.8 22.7 4.83 Manual Transplanting 200 128.9 22.6 4.28 CD (p=0.05) 4.0 3.8 0.1 0.25 Soil type: Loamy sand Annual rainfall (847 mm and 332.7 mm) Gill et al (2006), Ludhiana Indian J. of Agron. 51(2): 123-27. 13
    14. 14. Water productivity of Direct seeded and Transplanted rice. Gill et al (2006), Ludhiana Indian J. of Agron. 51(2): 123-27 Soil type: Loamy sand Annual rainfall (847 mm and 332.7 mm) 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 TPR DSR Waterproductivity(kg/m3) 132 cm 108 cm >25% 14
    15. 15. Effects of crop establishment methods on yield and yield attributes on rice and on following wheat. Treatments RICE Wheat Effective tillers/m2 Filled grains/ panicle Grain Yield (t/ha) Effective tillers/m row length Grains /ear Grain yield (t/ha) Puddling and Transplanting 277 114 5.32 73 36.2 2.98 Line sowing of Sprouted Seeds (Puddled) 276 112 5.14 76 35.9 3.03 Line sowing of Sprouted Seeds (Unpuddled) 269 105 4.76 79 36.4 3.23 CD (p=0.05) 6.0 7.0 0.31 4.0 NS 0.23 Parihar (2004), Bilaspur Indian J of Agron. 49 (1): 1-5. Soil type: Clay loam Cultivar: Mahamaya 15
    16. 16. Yield and yield parameters of rice under different methods of establishment Treatments Panicle/ hill Panicle length (cm) 1000-Grain Wt. (g) No. of filled grain/ panicle Grain yield (q/ha) Straw Yield (q/ha) Transplanting 10.7 25.20 25.96 148.05 52.58 61.98 Pre monsoon dibbling 8.37 22.66 25.66 108.39 46.99 57.27 Dibbling of seeds on the onset of monsoon 7.05 21.01 25.66 97.95 43.42 54.48 Thomba method 10.38 24.46 25.85 141.72 52.05 61.39 SRI technique 10.58 24.36 25.84 134.28 50.62 61.02 CD (p=0.05) 1.4 1.69 .095 20.32 3.95 4.11 Jagtap et al (2013), Bioinfolet 10 (1B) : 327-332 16
    17. 17. Effect of stand establishment technique on yield and economics of lowland irrigated rice Treatments Effective tillers/hill Filled grains /panicle 1000- grain Wt. (g) Grain yield (t/ha) B: C Transplanting 11.1 92.3 16.3 6.00 2.10 Throwing of seedling 10.4 81.7 15.2 4.94 2.01 Wet seedling (Manual broadcasting) 10.5 75.8 16.9 6.11 2.51 Wet seeding (Drum seeder) 11.0 92.6 16.6 6.08 2.48 CD (p=0.05) NS 1.8 0.7 0.13 ----- Soil type: Sandy loam Cultivar : ADT 43 Budhar and Tamilselvan (2001), Paiyur Madras Agric. J. 88(4-6): 365-66. 17
    18. 18. Effects of different establishment methods on initial plant stand, weed dry matter, yield and yield attributing characters Treatments Initial Plant stand at 15 DAS (Plants/m2) Weed dry matter at 15 DAS (g/m2) Plant heigh t (cm) Panicle /m2 Grain s/pan icle 1000- grain Wt. (g) Grain yield (t/ha) Direct Drilling @ 30 Kg/ha 81 11.2 100 332 162 25.7 7.79 Direct Drilling @ 15 Kg/ha 53 19.1 105 274 129 25.7 7.23 Drum seeding (Puddled) 25 52.4 89 230 173 24.0 6.10 Japanese Manual tansplanter 32 8.5 111 306 198 28.0 7.85 CD (p=0.05) 11.0 22.8 5.0 42.0 NS 1.8 1.05 Soil type: Loamy sand Cultivar: PAU 201 Dixit et al (2010), Ludhiana Indian J. of Agric. Sci. 80 (10): 884-87. 18
    19. 19. Effect of different planting methods on growth parameters, yield and yield attributes (pooled data of 3 years) Treatments Dry matter (g/m2) Effective tillers/m2 1000- grain Wt. (g) Grain yield (t/ha) Straw Yield (t/ha) B:C Direct dry seeding 739 313 20.4 5.00 5.65 2.17 Sprouted rice seeding 677 304 19.1 4.82 5.81 2.14 Manual transplanting 998 366 21.7 5.80 6.78 1.97 Mechanical transplanting 1034 398 22.8 6.25 6.94 2.34 CD (p=0.05) 108 35.0 2.1 0.71 0.78 ------ Soil type: Sandy loam Singh et al (2005), Modipuram Indian J. of Agric. Sci. 75 (7): 396-99 19
    20. 20. Grain yield and ancillary characters of rice as affected by different methods of crop establishment Treatments Panicle/ m2 Grains/ panicle Grain wt. /panicle (g) Grain yield (t/ha) Per cent decrease in yield Puddling and Transplanting 424 188 4.0 5.97 ----- Puddling and broadcasting of sprouted seeds 403 174 3.7 4.52 24.2 Line sowing of sprouted seeds without puddling 391 159 3.6 4.33 27.4 CD (p=0.05) NS NS 0.2 0.49 ----- Soil type: Loamy sand Cultivar: PR 106 Samra and Dhillon (2000), Ludhiana Indian J. of Agron. 45(1): 21-24. 20
    21. 21. Effect of direct seeding and transplanting treatments on weed dry matter, yield and yield attributes of rice. Treatments Weed dry matter at harvest (q/ha) Plant height (cm) Effective tillers/m2 Panicle length (cm) Grain yield (t/ha) Broadcast (Puddled) 2.71 (9.86) 63.7 240 22.0 4.14 Line sowing (Zero tillage) 3.23 (14.85) 62.4 173 19.6 3.59 Broadcast (Zero tillage) 3.42 (16.81) 60.8 190 22.0 3.82 Transplanting 1(0) 64.9 258 22.0 5.49 CD (p=0.05) 0.28 2.4 37 1.3 0.89 Soil type: Loamy sand Cultivar: PR 115 Walia et al (2006), Ludhiana J. Res Punjab Agric. Univ.43 (2): 94-97 21
    22. 22. Effect of yield contributing character of rice as influenced by crop establishment methods Treatments Plant height (cm) Effective tillers/m2 Panicle length 1000- grain Wt. Grain yield (t/ha) Unpuddled direct seeded rice 109 71.5 27.6 22.8 4.90 Transplanted puddled rice 111 72.1 27.8 23.2 4.93 CD (p=0.05) NS NS NS 0.1 NS Soil type: Sandy loam Sharma et al (2005), Modipuram Indian J. of Agron. 50(4): 253-55. 22
    23. 23. Effect of planting methods on growth, yield and economics of paddy Treatments Plant height (cm) Tillers/m2 Grain yield (t/ha) Straw Yield (t/ha) B:C Transplanting (6 row manual transplanter) 109 199 2.54 1.75 0.61 Line transplanting 107 193 2.93 1.92 0.76 Transplanting by SRI (25 25 cm) 112 259 3.50 2.29 1.34 CD (p=0.05) 4.0 20 0.20 0.36 ------ Soil type: Silty loam Din et al (2008), Port blair Indian J. of Agric. Sci. 78 (8): 702-05 23
    24. 24. Growth and yield parameters of paddy as influenced by establishment methods Treatments No. of tillers/ m2 Panicle length (cm) Grains / panicle Plant dry wt (g/m2) Test wt (g) Grain yield (q/ha) Straw yield (q/ha) Direct seeding 243.91 22.68 67.46 673.25 19.05 32.48 42.66 Drum seeding 254.91 23.77 84.81 737.91 19.82 38.50 51.67 Transplanting 262.16 23.63 95.25 777.66 20.41 40.18 53.04 CD (p=0.05) 9.36 0.49 3.71 16.10 0.062 0.88 4.35 Soil type: Sandy loam Yadav et al (2013), Indian J. of Agric. Sci. 83 (7) 24
    25. 25. Effect of crop establishment methods on yield and yield attributes of aromatic rice Crop establishme nt methods Weed population (No./m2) Effective tillers/m2 Filled Grains/ panicle 1000- grain weight (g) Straw yield (t/ha) Grain yield (t/ha) Harvest index (%) DS 3.84 203.4 85.3 21.87 9.13 2.57 21.9 SRI 2.65 230.8 97.8 22.82 9.52 3.23 25.3 CTR 3.42 228.1 88.1 22.07 10.44 2.70 20.6 CD (p= 0.05) 0.29 17.7 3.63 0.27 0.5 4.43 2.7 Mandal et al (2013), West Bengal Indian J Weed Sci 45: 166-70 DS- Drum seeding SRI- System of rice intensification CTR- Conventional transplanting Var. Basmati 370
    26. 26. Performance of SRI and Conventional rice cultivation under Punjab 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Panicle/m2 Grains/panicle SRI Conventional transplanting 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Tillers/plant Grain wt./panicle(g) Grain yield (t/ha) SRI Conventional transplanting Number of irrigations applied System of rice intensification (SRI) Conventional Transplanted rice Saving of irrigation water 13 (2.5 cm depth- intermittent wetting and drying) 25 (5 cm depth and standing water) Saves 12 irrigation i.e. > 40-45% of water 60% (167) 45% (125) 60% (10) 55% (4.25) 45% (3.6) 26 Singh (2007) 2nd National symposium on SRI in India Cultivar: PAU 201
    27. 27. Need for Irrigation Scheduling In Rice  In Punjab, total water requirement for rice-wheat system is estimated to vary from 1382 to 1838 mm of which more than 80% is used by only Rice (Jat et al 2006)  Rice occupies 2.82 m ha in Punjab and 72 % of this area is irrigated by tubewells (12.7 lakh) which shows heavy dependence on Groundwater resources and this has led to decline in water table @ 25-30 cm/year (Irrigation and drainage department, Punjab) Status for Ground water development in Punjab Category 1992 1999 2005 Over exploited (%age development >100 63 73 103 Dark blocks (critical) %age of development 85-100 7 11 5 Grey blocks (Semi critical) %age of development 65-85 15 16 4 White blocks (safe) %age of development < 65 33 38 25 (Central Ground Water Board and Development of irrigation, Punjab)27
    28. 28. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 cubickm/year US W.Europe Spain Mexico China India Pakistan Bangladesh Sri Lanka Vietnam Ghana South Africa Tunisia  Ground water utilization in India exceeded 250 Km3 /year  India has over 20 million irrigation wells. We add 0.8 million/year.  Every fourth cultivator owns an irrigation well www.irri.org/irric/ssnm India is the largest user of ground water in the world Trends of Groundwater utilization in world India 28
    29. 29. Rice irrigation scheduling Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD)  Field water tube: The threshold of 15 cm water depth (below the surface) before irrigation is called ‘Safe AWD” as this will not cause any yield decline and water savings are in the order of 15-30%. Submergence (Continuous or fixed interval) Field water tube Safe AWDFlooded field  Soil matric suction: It may be the ideal criteria for irrigations as it indicate most precise irrigation time based on atmospheric evaporativity, soil texture and water saving can be up to 30-40% (Kukal et al 2005).  Fixed interval : It may be after 2,3,4 or 5 days after disappearance of ponded water 29
    30. 30. Water expense, grain yield and straw yield of basmati rice under different irrigation schedules. Treatments Grain yield (t/ha) Straw yield (t/ha) Water expense (cm) WEE (Kg/ha- cm) Initial Submergence durations 5 days 2.59 8.29 109.2 23.9 10 days 2.79 8.85 124.3 22.5 15 days 2.91 9.26 139.5 20.8 20 days 2.94 9.34 160.8 18.7 CD (p=0.05) 0.04 0.10 ---- ---- Subsequent Irrigation schedules (Days after disappearance of ponded water) 2 days 2.91 9.36 141.7 20.6 4 days 2.70 8.51 125.2 22.2 CD (p=0.05) 0.07 0.19 ----- Soil type: loamy sand Bali and Uppal (1995), Ludhiana Indian J. of Agron. 40(2): 186-92 30
    31. 31. Effect of soil water regimes on yield and yield attributes of rice under upland conditions Treatments Panicle/m2 Grains /Panicle 1000-Grain Wt. (g) Grain yield (t/ha) 1997 1998 1997 1998 1997 1998 1997 1998 Rainfed 190 200 112 117 21.5 23.6 2.66 2.59 Continous submergence (5 cm) 253 263 153 149 27.7 28.1 4.93 4.83 Irrigation of 7.5 cm days after disappearance of ponded water 1 day 226 236 145 137 27.6 27.5 4.71 4.60 3 days 203 217 123 116 26.0 26.6 4.12 3.85 CD (p=0.05) 34 36 15.0 19.0 2.7 1.5 0.33 0.36 Soil type: loamy sand Avg. rainfall: 1433.4 mm Rai and Kushwaha (2005), Pantnagar Indian J. of Agric. Sci. 78 (8) 31
    32. 32. Yield and yield attributing characters of rice under different AWD treatments Treatments irrigation scheduling Plant height (cm) Effective tiller/ meter row Leaf area index Panicle length (cm) Dry matter (g/hill) Grain yield (q/ha) 7 cm irrigation 1 DADPW 107.7 65.5 4.64 21.82 26.57 36.13 7 cm irrigation 4 DADPW 96.42 60.86 4.35 19.64 25.00 31.35 7 cm irrigation 7 DADPW 93.86 54.81 3.88 16.97 21.86 23.87 C D (p=0.5) 10.31 6.33 0.45 2.05 2.57 3.28 DADPW: days after disappearance of ponded water Vijay pal et al (2013), Bioinfolet. 10(4 C): 1528-1530 32
    33. 33. Grain yield, water expense and WEE of basmati rice under different irrigation schedules (mean of 2 years) Treatments Grain yield (t/ha) Water expense (cm) WEE (Kg/ha- cm) Irrigation Days after disappearance of ponded water 2 days 2.45 141.1 17.4 4 days 2.07 123.3 16.8 CD (p=0.05) 0.80 ----- ---- Withdrawal of irrigation (Days after 50% flowering) 7 days 1.85 125.9 14.7 14 days 2.38 131.4 18.1 21 days 2.57 139.2 18.5 CD (p=0.05) 0.41 ----- ---- Soil type: loamy sand Cultivar: Basmati 370 Rainfall: 309 mm, 238 mm Bali and Uppal (1999), Ludhiana Indian J. of Agric. Sci. 69 (5): 325-28 33
    34. 34. Yield and yield attributes of basmati rice as influenced by cut-off time of last irrigation Treatments Effective tiller/m2 Panicle length (cm) Grains/ Panicle 1000- Grain Wt. (g) Grain yield (t/ha) Straw Yield (t/ha) 2005 Days after flowering (DAF) 21 DAF 221 22.7 81.3 19.9 2.21 7.78 28 DAF 228 24.9 87.5 23.5 2.67 8.47 35 DAF 230 25.5 88.6 24.1 2.75 8.57 CD (p=0.05) NS 2.5 6.1 2.1 0.44 0.64 2006 Days after flowering (DAF) 21 DAF 218.2 23.1 82.2 20.4 2.32 8.11 28 DAF 231.9 25.3 89.2 23.4 2.85 8.72 35 DAF 232.8 26.4 91.0 24.6 2.94 8.96 CD (p=0.05) NS 2.0 2.3 2.3 0.40 0.60 Soil type: loamy sand Cultivar: Basmati 386 Brar et al (2009), Ludhiana Indian J. of Agric. Sci. 79 (3): 215-17 34
    35. 35. Grain yield and Water expense efficiency (WEE) of basmati rice as affected by cut off time of last irrigation 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 7 DAF 14 DAF 21 DAF Grain yield (q/ha) WEE (Kg/ha-cm) % water saved a 0 10 20 30 21 DAF 28 DAF 35 DAF Grain yield (q/ha) WEE (Kg/ha-cm) % water saved a a a CD (p=0.05) = 4.1 CD (p=0.05) = 4 Brar et al (2009) Bali and Uppal (1999) 35
    36. 36. Grain yield and irrigation water applied in relation to different soil matric potential values (SMP) 36
    37. 37. Effect of irrigation scheduling and crop establishment methods on grain yield, straw yield, milling quality and protein content SRI irrigation scheduling Plant height (cm) Grain yield (t/ha) Straw yield (t/ha) Milling percentage Protein content (%) 1 DADSW 120.0 6.32 9.64 74.6 7.40 3 DADSW 119.2 6.16 9.72 73.9 7.42 5 DADSW 114.4 5.82 8.80 72.6 7.29 CD (p=0.05) 3.87 0.26 0.47 1.54 NS Crop establishment methods Transplanting 106.5 5.22 8.61 71.0 7.10 SRI 117.9 6.10 9.38 73.7 7.37 CD (p=0.05) 5.93 0.38 0.69 2.36 0.73 DADSW: days after disappearance of standing water Dass and Chandra (2012) Indian J. of Agron. 57 (3): 250-25437
    38. 38. Effect of crop establishment methods on quality parameters and protein content of aromatic rice Treatments Hulling % Milling % Head rice recovery % L:B ratio before cooking L:B ratio after cooking Protein content % Broadcast 76.1 67.9 51.2 4.18 5.16 8.46 Zero till 77.3 68.2 51.5 4.19 5.06 8.41 Bed planting 76.7 67.0 51.4 4.24 5.15 8.50 CD (P=0.05) NS NS NS NS NS NS Kumar et al (2007) Indian J. of Agric Sci. 77 (3): 179-183 38
    39. 39. Quality characters of basmati rice under 3 cut off-time of last irrigation Treatments Brown rice recovery Milled rice recovery Head rice recovery L:B Minimum cooking time 2005 Days after flowering (DAF) 21 DAF 76.7 68.6 54.2 4.22 16.0 28 DAF 77.8 69.1 56.9 4.30 16.1 35 DAF 78.6 69.2 57.1 4.33 16.1 CD (p=0.05) NS NS 1.9 NS NS 2006 Days after flowering (DAF) 21 DAF 74.9 67.5 53.6 4.37 3.45 28 DAF 75.1 69.1 56.1 4.39 3.47 35 DAF 76.2 70.3 57.0 4.44 3.50 CD (p=0.05) NS NS 2.0 NS NS Soil type: loamy sand Cultivar: Basmati 386 Brar et al (2009), Ludhiana Indian J. of Agric. Sci. 79 (3): 215-17 39
    40. 40. Interaction effect of crop establishment methods and irrigation schedules on grain yield of rice Irrigation levels Crop establishment methods Puddling and Transplanting Line sowing of Sprouted Seeds (Puddled) Line sowing of Sprouted Seeds (Unpuddled) Mean 1 DAD 5.69 5.46 5.20 5.45 3 DAD 5.53 5.34 5.01 5.29 5 DAD 5.20 5.08 4.61 4.96 7 DAD 4.87 4.69 4.22 4.59 Mean 5.32 5.14 4.76 CD (p=0.05) for Methods (0.31) , for Irrigation (0.20) and for I*M (0.41) Parihar (2004), Bilaspur Indian J of Agron. 49 (1): 1-5. Soil type: Clay loam 40
    41. 41. Interaction effect of crop establishment methods and irrigation scheduling on grain yield (t/ha) 41 DAWD: days after water disappearance Sandhu et al (2012), Ludhiana Agricultural Water Management 104: 32-39 Treatments Grain yield 2009 2010 fresh bed Puddled flat fresh bed Puddled flat 1 DAWD 7.16 b 7.28 b 6.71 b 6.80 b 2 DAWD 7.05 b 7.22 b 6.51 b 6.69 b 3 DAWD 6.53 a 7.12 b 5.75 a 6.59 b At soil suction of 150 cm 7.04 b 7.21 b 6.44 b 6.72 b LSD 0.245 0.364
    42. 42. Conclusions: 42  Direct seeding of rice can be a cost effective and water saving method to replace conventional transplanting without significant reduction in yield.  Mechanization of transplanting ensures optimum plant population and reduce heavy dependence on labour for transplanting.  Transplanting of young seedlings under SRI can increase yield up to 50% with saving 40% of irrigation water.  Irrigation scheduling based on soil matric suction is superior over irrigation after a fixed interval of time with saving 30% irrigation water.  Application of irrigation with alternate wetting and drying method may be beneficial which can save up to 20-30% irrigation water without reduction in yield.  Irrigation scheduling and crop establishment methods have no significant effect on quality of rice.

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