الرضا الوظيفي-و-علاقته-بالإنتاجية،-دراسة-تطبيقية-لموظفي-جمارك-منطقة-الرياض-–-رسالة-ماجستير-–-علي-بن-يحيى-الشهري
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الرضا الوظيفي-و-علاقته-بالإنتاجية،-دراسة-تطبيقية-لموظفي-جمارك-منطقة-الرياض-–-رسالة-ماجستير-–-علي-بن-يحيى-الشهري

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الرضا الوظيفي-و-علاقته-بالإنتاجية،-دراسة-تطبيقية-لموظفي-جمارك-منطقة-الرياض-–-رسالة-ماجستير-–-علي-بن-يحيى-الشهري الرضا الوظيفي-و-علاقته-بالإنتاجية،-دراسة-تطبيقية-لموظفي-جمارك-منطقة-الرياض-–-رسالة-ماجستير-–-علي-بن-يحيى-الشهري Document Transcript

  • ‫ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫وﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺿﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫دراﺳﺔ‬‫ﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻲ‬‫ﺟﻤﺎرك‬‫اﻟﺮﻳﺎض‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﺟﺴﺘﻴﺮ‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺼﻮل‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت‬ ً‫ﻻ‬‫اﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫رﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮم‬ ‫إﻋﺪاد‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻬﺮي‬ ‫ﻳﺤﻴﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ٤٢٠٠٠٤٨ ‫إﺷﺮاف‬ ‫أ‬.‫د‬.‫اﻟﻜﺒﻴﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﻀﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﺮ‬ ١٤٢٤‫هـ‬-٢٠٠٢‫م‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻳﻒ‬ ‫أآﺎدﻳﻤﻴﺔ‬‫اﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻮم‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺪراﺳﺎت‬ ‫آﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮم‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﺟﺴﺘﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
  • ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺟﺴﺘﻴﺮ‬ ‫رﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻭﺍﻥ‬:‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ‬‫ﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻴﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬:‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﻀﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻨﺔ‬:‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﺸﺭﻓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﻀﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻋﻀﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻬﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻋﻀﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬:١٠/٢/١٤٢٤‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﻫـ‬١٢/٤/٢٠٠٣‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻤ‬‫ﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻤﻥ‬‫ﻏﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺽ‬‫ﺒﻌﻼﻗﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺒﺭﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻌﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﻌﻜﺎﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺒﺈﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺘﻬﻡ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﺘﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬. ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬: ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺍﻨﻁﻼﻗ‬‫ﻜﺨﻁﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻓﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻟﺨﻁﻁ‬‫ﺃﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘـﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻨﺘﻤﺎﺌﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺈﺩﺍﺭﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﻔﺯﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ‬ ‫ﺎﺽ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻮم‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻳﻒ‬ ‫أآﺎدﻳﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺪراﺳﺎت‬ ‫آﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮم‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻢ‬
  • ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺯﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻅـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬‫ﻷﻓﻀل‬.
  • ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬: ١-‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺘﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬. ٢-‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬‫ﺍﻵﺘﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ )‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺭ‬، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻥ‬ ، ‫ﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬. ( ٣-‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼل‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤـﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤـﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬. ‫ﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬: ١-‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬‫؟‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺘﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ٢-‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬‫ﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬‫؟‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ٣-‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﻯ‬‫ﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬‫؟‬ ٤-‫ﻤﺎ‬‫؟‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ٥-‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ‬( ‫؟‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ٦-‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬)‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻅـﺭﻭﻑ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻥ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬(‫ﻓ‬‫؟‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺞ‬‫ﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬: ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬‫ﻟﺠﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﻜـﺄﺩﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺜﺎﺌﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻐﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬)٢٣٣(‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺘﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﺜﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻔﺘﺸ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬. ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬: ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ‬‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺩ‬)٢٨,٩٩٢( ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬٠,٠١‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺭﺴﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﺎﻤل‬٠,٠١‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺄﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺘﻘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺤﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻘﺎﻀﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺘل‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬.‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ‬.‫ﻜﻤ‬‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻗل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻕ‬٠,٠١‫ﻓﺭﻭﻗ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺠﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺫﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬٠,٠١‫ﺍﻷﻗل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬٠,٠١‫ﺍﻟﺩﻨﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺫﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬.
  • ‫ﺙ‬ Naif Arab Academy for Security Sciences College of Graduate Studies Administrative Sciences Department MASTER THESIS ABSTRACT Thesis Title: Functional Satisfaction and its relation to Productivity, Applied study of Customs Employees in Riyadh Region Prepared by:Ali bin Yahia Al-Shehri Supervisor: Professor Dr. Amer Khudhair Al-Kubaisi Thesis Defense Committee ١. Professor Dr. Amer Khudhair Al-Kubaisi Supervisor & Reporter ٢. Dr. Mohammed Abdullah Al-Ghaith Member ٣. Dr. Mohammed Abdullah Al-Harran Member Defense Date: ١٠/٠٢/١٤٢٤H (١٢/٠٤/٢٠٠٣G) Research Problem It lies in the ambiguity of the degree of functional satisfaction of the workers in the customs of Riyadh area and unawareness of its relation to their productivity and its reflection upon their performance; which this study aims to determine, show its importance in order to be considered by the concerned and interested in this vital sector. Research Importance Starting from the great importance and preciseness of the customs role, the importance of this study emerges, as we can view it a step that can be utilized and benefit from in setting and planning policies and plans that help in the good choice and promote the performance of the inspectors employed in Riyadh area customs, along with motivating them and enhancing their level of performance, connection to their departments, their belonging to this sector. Also, what increases its importance is that it assist the officials in the process of developmental issues decision making of the functional and administrative system of the customs in order to motivate employees towards the best.
  • ‫ﺝ‬ Research Objectives: This research aims to achieve the following: ١. Knowing the actual reality of the prevailing functional satisfaction and performance levels of the customs inspectors in Riyadh area. ٢. Knowing the level of the functional satisfaction and productivity in accordance with the following personal and occupational variables (sex, years of service, educational qualification, age, salary, employment security, relationships among supervisors and employees, promotion and advancement in work). ٣. Achieving recommendations that can contribute in improving the level of the functional satisfaction of the customs employees and consequently lead to improving their level of productivity. Research Hypotheses: The research attempted to answer the following: ١. What is the level of the functional satisfaction to the customs inspectors in Riyadh area? ٢. What are the factors that affect the levels of functional satisfaction of the customs inspectors in Riyadh area? ٣. What is the productivity level of the customs inspectors in Riyadh area? ٤. What is the extent of the relation of the functional satisfaction with the productivity for them? ٥. What is the role of some personal factors such as (sex, years of service, educational qualification, age) to the functional satisfaction? ٦. What is the role of some personal factors such as (salary, employment security, relationships among supervisors and employees, promotion and advancement in work) to the reinforcement of the functional satisfaction in customs inspectors? Research Methodology The researcher used the descriptive, documentary and connective-descriptive methodologies. Also, the questioner was implemented as the tool of data collection of the study sample that amounted to (٢٣٣) customs inspectors representing all customs inspectors working in Riyadh area. Main Results The research indicated the existence of a relation between the level of functional satisfaction and productivity level amounted to ٢٨،٩٩٢ at the indicative ٠٫٠٠١ and a correlation of Pierson coefficient at the indicative level of ٠٫٠١; i.e. there is a direct relation between the two variables. In other words, if the functional satisfaction increased, the productivity shall increase too, and vise versa (if the productivity increased, the functional satisfaction shall increase too. Also, promotion was not related to efficiency and mastery, which reduces the cases of functional satisfaction. Moreover, the salary received by the employees was not satisfactory, as it was the last in the sample distribution according to the functional satisfaction measure. In addition, the study showed that there are differences of statistical significance attributed to sex variable, where the functional satisfaction is increased in women. Also, the study revealed that there are some differences of statistical significance attributed to age variable, i.e. with age progression the functional satisfaction decreases. The study, also, revealed that there are differences of statistical significance at the level ٠٫٠١ showing the increased satisfaction among the ones of the least service years. Finally, the study showed that there are differences of statistical significance at the level ٠٫٠١ showing increased satisfaction among the ones of the lowest educational achievements.
  • ‫ﺡ‬ ‫وﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﺴـﻌﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻤﺘﻨﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺸﻜﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﻟﺹ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻷﺴﺘﺎﺫ‬/‫ﻗـﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺌـﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺘﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﻀﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬‫ﻭﺠﻬـﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺩﻋﻤـﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﺘـﺸﺠﻴﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻡ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ‬/‫ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ‬/‫ﺍﻟﻬﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺫ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﻋﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﺭ‬‫ﻤﻌـﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺎﺫ‬/‫ﺤﻤـﺩ‬ ‫ﺒـﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤـﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﺭﻓـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﺠﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﺍﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬/‫ﻤـﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺤﻁﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻅﺎﻓﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﺎﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻭﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻲ‬. ‫ﻭﺃﺘﻀﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺭﺡ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻲ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻔﻭﺘﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‬. ‫ﻗﺩﻤﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺭﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻭﺠﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺍﻟﺩﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﺍﻟﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻤﺘﻨﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺒﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﺠﺯﺍﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻋﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻜل‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺨﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‬.
  • ‫ﺥ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺮس‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬‫اﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺨﺹ‬‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺨﺹ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺸﻜﺭ‬‫ﺝ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺭﺱ‬‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬‫ﺫ‬ ‫اﻷول‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ‬:‫اﻟﺪراﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬:‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬٢ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬٤ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺜﺎﻟﺜ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬٥ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭﺍﺒﻌ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬٧ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺨﺎﻤﺴ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ‬٧ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺴﺎﺩﺴ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬٨ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺴﺎﺒﻌ‬:‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻁﻠﺤﺎﺕ‬٩ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺜﺎﻤﻨ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬١٢ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ‬:‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮي‬ ‫اﻹﻃﺎر‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬:‫ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩ‬٢٤ ‫اﻷول‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺤﺚ‬:‫وﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺗﻪ‬ ‫أهﻤﻴﺘﻪ‬ ، ‫ﻣﺎهﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺿﺎ‬ ١-‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬٢٦ ٢-‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺍﻋﻲ‬٣٣ ٣-‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬٣٥ ٤-‫ﻭﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬٣٩ ‫ﺃ‬–‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬٣٩ ‫ﺏ‬-‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﻓﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬٤٢ ‫ﺝ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬٤٣
  • ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺩ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬٤٨ ‫ﻫـ‬-‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬٥٠ ‫ﻭ‬–‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴ‬‫ﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺔ‬٥١ ‫ﺯ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬٥٢ ‫ﺡ‬–‫ﻭﻟﻭﻟﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺭﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬٥٣ ‫ﻁ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬٥٧ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺤﺚ‬:‫ﺑﺎﻷداء‬ ‫وﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫أهﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬٦٠ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺤﺚ‬:‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫وﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫وﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻤﺎرك‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺄة‬ ١-‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺔ‬٧١ ٢-‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺔ‬٧١ ٣-‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺔ‬٧٢ ٤-‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻭﻥ‬٧٦ ٥-‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺩﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ‬:‫اﻟﻤﻨﻬﺠﻲ‬ ‫اﻹﻃﺎر‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬:‫ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺞ‬.٨٦ ‫ﺃ‬–‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺞ‬٨٦ ‫ﺏ‬–‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ‬٨٧ ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬:‫ﻭﺜﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﺩﻕ‬٨٨ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺜﺎﻟﺜ‬:‫ﻭﻋﻴﻨﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬٨٩ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭﺍﺒﻌ‬:‫ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ‬٨٩ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ‬:‫اﻟﻤﻴﺪاﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪراﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬٩٢ -‫ﻟﻠﺠﻨﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬.٩٢ -‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬.٩٣ -‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺅﻫل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬.٩٤
  • ‫ﺫ‬ -‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬.٩٥ -‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬.٩٦ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴ‬:‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬٩٨ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺜﺎﻟﺜ‬:‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬١٠٢ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭﺍﺒﻌ‬:‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺎﺕ‬١١١ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺨﺎﻤﺴ‬:‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬١١٥ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺴﺎﺩﺴ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬١١٦ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺴﺎﺒﻌ‬:‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺤﻭﺜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺘﺭﺤﺎﺕ‬١١٨ ‫اﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ‬:‫وﻣﻨﺎﻗ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻼﺻﺔ‬‫واﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﺃ‬–‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﺼﺔ‬١٢٠ ‫ﺏ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬١٢٧ ‫ﺝ‬–‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬١٢١ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ‬١٢٩ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻕ‬١٣٩
  • ‫ﺭ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪاول‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫رﻗﻢ‬‫اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬‫اﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ١.‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬٩٢ ٢.-‫ﻟﻠﺠﻨﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬٩٢ ٣.-‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬٩٣ ٤.-‫ﻭﻓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺅﻫل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻘ‬٩٤ ٥.-‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬٩٥ ٦.-‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬٩٦ ٧.‫ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬)‫ﺕ‬(‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ٩٨ ٨.‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬)‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬( ١٠٢ ٩.‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻥ‬(١٠٤ ١٠.‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬(١٠٦ ١١.‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬)‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬(١٠٨ ١٢.‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤل‬( ١٠٩ ١٣.‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬١١١ ١٤.‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬١١٥ ١٥.‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ١١٦ ١٦.‫ﺘـﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺤﻭﺜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺭﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ١١٨
  • ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﻣ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺪﺧﻞ‬ ً‫ﻻ‬‫أو‬:‫ﻣــــــﻘـــــــﺪﻣـــــــــــــﺔ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺛـﺎﻧـﻴــ‬:‫اﻟﺪراﺳــــﺔ‬ ‫ﻣــﺸــﻜﻠـــﺔ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺛـﺎﻟـﺜــ‬:‫اﻟﺪراﺳــــﺔ‬ ‫أهــﻤــــﻴــﺔ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫راﺑـﻌــ‬:‫اﻟﺪراﺳــــﺔ‬ ‫أهـــــــﺪاف‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴ‬:‫اﻟﺪراﺳـــــﺔ‬ ‫ﺗـﺴــﺎؤﻻت‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺳﺎدﺳ‬:‫اﻟﺪراﺳــــــــﺔ‬ ‫ﻣـﺠـﺎﻻت‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺳـﺎﺑﻌ‬:‫واﻟﻤﻔﺎهﻴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎت‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺛﺎﻣﻨ‬:‫اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪراﺳﺎت‬ ً‫ﻻ‬‫أو‬:‫اﻟﻌــﺮﺑــﻴـﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪراﺳــﺎت‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺛـﺎﻧـﻴــ‬:‫اﻷﺟـﻨـﺒـﻴـﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪراﺳــﺎت‬
  • ٢ ‫اﻷول‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺪراﺳﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺧﻞ‬ : ‫ﻭﺘﻌـﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺎﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻁﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻟﺯﺍﻤ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺃﻓـﻀل‬ ‫ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﻁﻨﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻔﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﻭﺩ‬.‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺭﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻅﻰ‬ ‫ﺠﻌﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺭﺒﺎﺏ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺴـﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨـﺏ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴـﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬‫ﻩ‬.‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺭﻏﻡ‬‫ﺘﺒﺫل‬ ‫ﺘﺯﺍل‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺫﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌـﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻴـﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻤﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻹﻴﻀﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻌﺏ‬‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺨﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻗـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﺘﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻁ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺯﺍل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬،‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺎﻥ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺒﻨـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻌـل‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻹﺸﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻁﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻭﺍﺼـﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺯﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﻴﺭﺓ‬ )١( . ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺃ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ‬‫ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹸ‬‫ﺫ‬‫ﻤﻨ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬‫ﺃﺼـﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻴﺘﻨﺎﻭل‬ ‫ﻜﻭﻨﻪ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨـﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻟـﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻹﻨـﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﻁﺭ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ )١(‫ﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬‫ﺒﻥ‬‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺭ‬) .١٩٩٣‫ﻡ‬.()‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨـﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬( ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬‫ﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬،‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬٦٣.
  • ٣ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬.‫ﺒل‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺭﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺂﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺯﺍل‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺤﺭﻜﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺩﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬. ‫ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺭﺠﻊ‬:‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺩﻤﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺒل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ‬‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻠﺭﻀﺎ‬،‫ﻭﺘﺘﻔـﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ‬‫ﻋﻼ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬‫ﻗ‬‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺜﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ )١( . ‫ﺸﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻉ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺅﻩ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻪ‬‫ﻻ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬، ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﺒﻌ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻠﻤﺭﻭﻨﺔ‬‫ﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﺤﺩﺍﺘﻪ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺤﻘﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﺯﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻹﺤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺒﻊ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﺀﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺘﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺴﻠﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻘﻼل‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬.‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﺠﺒﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺼﻴل‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻌﻤل‬‫ﺤﻤﺎﺌ‬‫ﻲ‬‫ﻤﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻁﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻓﺎﻫﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺨل‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ‬‫ﻌ‬‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻴﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻪ‬‫ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬،‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬.‫ﻭ‬‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬‫ﻟﻥ‬‫ﻨﻔﺴﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻅل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺼل‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺎﺌﺴﺔ‬ )١(‫ﻏﺎﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺘﻴﺒﻲ‬) .١٩٩٠("‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬" ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬٦٩‫ﺹ‬ ،٣١.
  • ٤ ‫ﻤﺤﺒﻁﺔ‬‫ﻅل‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺨﻔﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬.‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﻴﺴﺘﻠﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬‫ﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺌﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻲ‬‫ﺘﻨ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻌﻜﺱ‬. ‫ﻭﺘ‬‫ﺴﻌﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻨﻁﻠﻘ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺤﺭ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺴﻠﻭﻜ‬ ‫ﻙ‬‫ﻬﻡ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﻌﻠﻬﻡ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﺼـﻭل‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀل‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻤﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﻤﺎﻟﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬. :‫א‬ ‫א‬ ٌ‫ﺭ‬‫ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ٌ‫ﻡ‬‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﻓـ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻼﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺍﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺩﺍﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻁﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺘﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻨﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﺘﻘﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﺸ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻜﺎﺌﺯﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‬‫ﺄﺕ‬‫ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬. ‫ﻭﺇ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﻤل‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻠـﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﺵ‬‫ﻟﻅـﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬‫ﺘﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻭﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺩ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺒﻌـﻀ‬‫ﻋـﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬ‬ ‫ﻴﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﻬﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬.‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎﻫﻡ‬‫ﻤﻔﺘﺸ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬‫ﻲ‬‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬.‫ﻓ‬‫ﺤﺘـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤـﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﺒﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﻤﻔﺘﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺍﺠﻪ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟﻼﻨـﻀﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻌﻰ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻅل‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﻌﻴل‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺭﺓ‬)١( ‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘـﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﺯﺩﻴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻁﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻅل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩل‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺸﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﻭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﻭل‬. )١(‫ﻋﺎﻴﺽ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻴﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺭﻱ‬)٢٠٠١(.)‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ‬‫ﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﺒـﺩﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘـﻪ‬‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴـ‬‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺘﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬(‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ،‫ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬،‫ﺃﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻴﻑ‬‫ﺹ‬ ،٣.
  • ٥ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤـﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﻼﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻁﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺔ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻘﻊ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻤﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺘﻘﻬﻡ‬:‫ﺒﻜﺎﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺼﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﺸﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﻔﺘـﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻐﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻠﺠﺄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻜﺎﻟﻬﺎ‬، ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺃﺠـل‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺴﻬﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺼﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺠﺫﺏ‬‫ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻭﺍﻜﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺍل‬ ‫ﺭﺅﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻘﻁﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺎﻜﻠﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺤل‬‫ﺒﻨﻔﺴﻴﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬.‫ﻓ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬،‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻀﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻠﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺸﺭﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒـﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺒﺭﺍﺯ‬. ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺒﺭﺯ‬‫ﺒﻌﻼﻗﺘﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻏﻤﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﺈ‬‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻌﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﻌﻜﺎﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺘﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﺘﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺒﺭﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬. :‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺠﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻠﺘﻪ‬‫ﺎﻹﻨ‬‫ﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﻜﺯﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬، ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤـﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻜﻤـﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺭﻜﺯ‬. ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﻭﺼﻠﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎ‬‫ﺠﻴﺔ‬‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻁﻠﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﺼﺒﺢ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬،‫ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻭ‬
  • ٦ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬‫ﻟﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ‬.‫ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﺸﺨـﺼﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﺎﻤـل‬ ‫ﺃﺠـل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﺌﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻁﺒﻴﻌﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺸﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬.‫ﺠﻬﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﻗﺩﺭﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬)١( . ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺒـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺍﻨﻁﻼﻗ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬.‫ﺘﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺭﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤ‬‫ﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﻤﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻌﻠ‬‫ﻬﻡ‬‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻡ‬.‫ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﺘﺘﻀﺢ‬‫ﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬: -‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺘﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺜﻐﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ‬‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬. -‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺨﻁﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﺴﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻁﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﻥ‬‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﻔﺯﻫﻡ‬‫ﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ‬‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺘﻤﺎﺌﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺈﺩﺍﺭﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬. )١(‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ‬‫ﻫﻤ‬‫ﺸﺭﻱ‬)١٩٨٦(."‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬"‫ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬،،‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬،،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬‫ﺹ‬١٢٨.
  • ٧ -‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﻤل‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﺘﺨ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬‫ﺍﻷﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻓﻊ‬. ‫א‬:‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻤﺜل‬: -‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺘﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺒﻌﻴﻥ‬. -‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭﻑ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺩﻯ‬‫ﺒﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺘﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬. -‫ﻤﻔﺘﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻓﻘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻠﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬:)،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ،(. -‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬‫ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺸﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺭ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﺘﺏ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬. -‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ‬.
  • ٨ :‫א‬ ‫א‬ ١-‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺘﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﺒﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫؟‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ٢-‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬‫؟‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ٣-‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬‫؟‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ٤-‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬‫؟‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ٥-‫ﻤ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل‬(‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ؟‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ٦-‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻫـ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬)، ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬(‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ؟‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﻯ‬ :‫א‬ ‫א‬: ‫ﺃ‬-‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬:‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺘﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻭﻗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻀﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬. ‫ﺏ‬-‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬:‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺘﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ، ‫ﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬‫ﺎﻑ‬،‫ﺨﺎﻟﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬،‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬‫ﺠﻤ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬
  • ٩ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻨﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬.‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺴﺘﺜﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻻﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬. ‫ﺝ‬-‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬:‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺒﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬)‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘ‬ ،‫ـ‬‫ﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬(‫ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬‫ﻌ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺽ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬:)،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل‬‫ﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬(‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺘﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻁ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬. :‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ١-‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬: ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺒﺄﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺭﻑ‬:‫ﻓﻴـﺼﺒﺢ‬ ،‫ﻭﻋﻤﻠـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻜﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻐﺭﻗﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺇﻨﺴﺎﻨ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻏﺒﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻭﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺎﻋل‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻨﺌﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ،‫ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘ‬‫ﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬)١( . ‫ﺒﺄﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﺨﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬" :‫ﺍﻹﺸـﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬)‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬(‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬‫ﺍﺨﻠﻴـﺔ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬(‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭﺍﻀﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﻌل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﺄﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻴﻭﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻏﺒﺎﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻁﻤﻭﺤﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻤﺤﻘﻘ‬ ،‫ﺘﺫﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻤﻘﺒ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭﺍﻏﺒ‬ ‫ﻴﻔـﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗـﻊ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺤـﺼل‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻤﺘﻨﺎﺴﺒ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻗﻌﺎﺘﻪ‬")٢( . )١(‫ﻨﺎﺼﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬)١٩٨٢" .(‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺜﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬"‫ﻟـﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠـﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺎﺩﻱ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‬‫ﺹ‬٢٤ )٢(‫ﻋﻭﻴﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻌﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻁﺎﻥ‬)١٩٩٣‫ﻫـ‬.("‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬"‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴـﺕ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻡ‬٣٤.
  • ١٠ ‫ﺍﻟﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺃﺨﻴﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻀﺎ‬‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻨ‬‫ﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻴـﺴﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻭﺤـﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻀـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻁﺒﻴﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺸﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩﺭﺍﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﻭﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﺒﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺤﻘﻕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤـﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺵ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻭﻴﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻤﻁ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭ‬. ٢-‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬: "‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺒﺭ‬‫ﺤﺎﺼل‬‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬.‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬.‫ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻵﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻤﻭﺍل‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻜﻤ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬")١( ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻤﻭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻘﺼﺩ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻜﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺴﻠﻔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻭﺍﻜﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺴﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻤﻜﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﻭ‬ ‫ﻅل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬. ‫ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﻓﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬"‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻤﻭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻤﻭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺌ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻜﺱ‬‫ﺘﻔﺭﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻀﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺴﻠﻔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺒﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺒﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺴﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻭﺍﻜﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻁ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﺍﺜﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻹﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬")٢( . )١(‫ﻤﺤﻤ‬‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺩ‬‫ﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻴﺔ‬ ، ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺩ‬)١٩٩١‫ﻡ‬.("‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬"‫ﻋﻠـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ‬ ، ، ‫ﺸﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻫﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﻡ‬،.‫ﺹ‬١٦٠. )٢(‫ﻴﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﻴﺩ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺴﻑ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺭ‬)١٩٨٤.("‫ﺍﻟﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬‫ــ‬‫ﻤﻘﻴـﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻌـﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬" ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻴﺦ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬‫ﺹ‬٣٥.
  • ١١ ٣-‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬: ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻘﺼﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬:)، ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤـﻥ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴـﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻹﺸـﺭﺍﻑ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬()١( . ٤-‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ‬: ‫ﺒﻌﻼﻤ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺌﻁ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬‫ﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬‫ﺘﺸﻤل‬ ‫ﺨﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺸﻭﺍﻁﺊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺭﺼﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺨﺎﺯﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﻤﻘﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩﻫﺎ‬)٢( . ٥-‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺘﺸﻭ‬: "‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺒﻌﻭﻥ‬‫ﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺨﻀﻌﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻭﻗ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﻤﻠﻭﻥ‬ ،‫ﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻜﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺍﺠﺒﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻘﻭﻤﻭﻥ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺭﺴﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻤﺘﻌﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻨﻬﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻨﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻠﻭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻐﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‬‫ﺴﻴ‬ ‫ﺘﺭ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﺤﻕ‬‫ﻭﺍﻷﻋ‬‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻨﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺎل‬)٣( . )١(‫ﺴ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﻟﺒﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻑ‬)١٩٩٧‫ﻡ‬.("‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﻌﻜﺎﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﺜﺭ‬" ،‫ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬١٦. )٢(‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬)١٩٨٠‫ﻡ‬("‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻼﺌﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬"‫ﻤﻁـﺎﺒﻊ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻁﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﺹ‬ ،٦. )٣(،‫ﻟﺸﻤﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻴﺽ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻴﺩ‬)٢٠٠٢‫ﻡ‬" .(‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬."‫ﺹ‬٩.
  • ١٢ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﻴل‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻀﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺕ‬.‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺸﺎ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬١٩٧٦‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﻻﻑ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻅﻬﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬)١( ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻤﺕ‬.‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻊ‬‫ﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬‫ﻤﺘﺒﺎﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﻜﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺌﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺴﻴﺱ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﻭل‬)‫ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬(‫ﻭﺠﺩ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻋـﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻏﺭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺭﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬. :‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻥ‬)١٤٠١‫ﻫـ‬‫ـ‬ –١٩٨١‫ﻡ‬(‫ﺒﻌﻨﻭﺍﻥ‬"‫ﻤـﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ‬ ‫ﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬")٢( ‫ﻭﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬)٢٤٤( ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻓﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﻴﻥ‬.‫ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨـﺔ‬( ‫ﺒﻌﻭﺍﻤـل‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﻠـﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺠﻴـﺩ‬ ‫ﺒـﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻀﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻨﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻌﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺯﻤﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺭﺍﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻭﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ )١(‫ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺴﻑ‬)١٩٨١‫ﻡ‬.("‫ﺁﺜﺎﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬"‫ﺍﻟـﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬"‫ﺭﺴـﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ،‫ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ،ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ‬١٨. )٢(،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬)١٩٨١.("‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬"‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬـﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﻤـﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ‬ ‫ﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬"‫ﻜﺎﻟﻴﻔﻭﺭﻨﻴﺎ،ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ،ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ،ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬:،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬٩٩-١٢٠.
  • ١٣ ‫ﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬.‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻀﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬.‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨـﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺩﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﻔﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺜﻠﺕ‬:‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻨـﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘ‬‫ﻻﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ‬ ،‫ﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬‫ﺼﻠ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻭﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬. ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺩﺨل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺸﺘﻤﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬‫ﺘﻠ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﻘﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﻥ‬. ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬)١٩٨٢(‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺁﺜﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬)١( ‫ﻜﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴـﺕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‬‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻓﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺨﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﻌﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ‬.‫ﻗـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬‫ﺘﻭﺼـﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﻴﻥ‬(‫ﺍﻷﻤـﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎﺜل‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﺎﺒﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻠﺏ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺜ‬‫ﺘﺘﻌﻠـﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﺍﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﻋﻁﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬)١٩٨٣(‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻀﺎ‬)٢( ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬ )١(‫ﻨﺎﺼﻑ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬)١٩٨٢(‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬‫ﺹ‬٢٢‫ـ‬٣٥. )٢(‫ﻋﻁﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﺍﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻤﺩ‬)١٩٨٣.("‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻀﺎ‬"‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬٩١-٩٧.
  • ١٤ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬‫ﻋﻠ‬‫ﻤﺠﻤﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻐﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻰ‬)١٣١(‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺫﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺘﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺼل‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻘل‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ،‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻓﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺒﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺠﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ‬‫ﻅﺭﻭﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻤﺎﺩﻴ‬‫ﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤﺘﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﻨﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺩﺃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬. ‫ﺸﻌﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺯﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬)١٩٨٥(‫ﺒﻌﻨﻭﺍﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ‬)١( ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﺍﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻲ‬‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻱ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬.‫ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻀﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻬﺎ‬‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬‫ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻀﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻻﺴﺘﻐﻼل‬‫ﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬،‫ﻭﻋﻥ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻨﻭﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬‫ﻬﻡ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻋﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬‫ﻤﺠﻬﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬،‫ﻭ‬‫ﻋﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻋﻥ‬‫ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺭﺍﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬‫ﻤل‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻭﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬. )١(‫ﺸﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺯﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬‫ﺓ‬)١٩٨٥(."‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬"‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬)٤٧(‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺹ‬١٣٨‫ـ‬١٤٧
  • ١٥ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﺘﻭﺼل‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻴﺠﺭﻱ‬)١٩٨٨(‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻜﻌﺎﻤـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻁﻲ‬)١( ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﺍﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺩ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻴﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻐﻴل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻨﺩﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬‫ﺸﻤﻠ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺕ‬١٦٥‫ﻋﻼﻗـﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬،‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬،‫ﻭﻭﺠﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺒﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺸل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺯﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺭﻗﻪ‬. ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬‫ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻁﻔﻰ‬)١٩٨٨(‫ﻋﻥ‬‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻔـﺎﻭﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘـﺎﻁﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺯﻤﻨﻴ‬)٢( ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬١٦٩‫ﻤﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺯل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺞ‬‫ﻐﺩﺍﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬٥٤‫ﻋﺎﻤل‬‫ﻭ‬١٤٢‫ﻋﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ، ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬.‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻔﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻁﻠﻕ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻬﻴﺄ‬‫ﺴـﺒﺒﻲ‬‫،ﻜﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻤﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬)١٩٩٠‫ﻡ‬(‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺎﻟﻘﻁﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻱ‬)٣( ‫ﻋﺩﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬)٣١١(‫ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔ‬ )١(‫ﺇﺒﺭﺍﻫﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻴﺠﺭﻱ‬)١٩٨٨.("‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻁﻰ‬ ‫ﻜﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬" ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻭل‬٥‫ـ‬١١ )٢(‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻁﻔﻰ‬‫ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‬،)١٩٨٨"(‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬‫ﺴﺒ‬‫ﻁﺭﻴـﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺎﻁﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺯﻤﻨﻴ‬ ‫ﺕ‬"‫ﻤ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺼﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺏ‬ ‫ﺠﻠﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺼﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻟـﺴﺎﺩﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬٧٥٥‫ـ‬٧٣٣. )٣( ١٩٩٠Fahad Al Rahaimi ( ).An Analytical Atudy of Job satisfaction in Saudi Arabia. Public sector, unpublished ph. Ddisscitation university ٢٩٧of Liverpool,PP, pp
  • ١٦ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﻠﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺫﻭل‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺠﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺩﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻥ‬ ، ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻤﻜﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺅﺴﺎﺌﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﻁﺎﺌﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻴﺎﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻟﻭﻨﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻋﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬.‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺒﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻀﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻤﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬،‫ﻴﺸﻌﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺭﻗﺔ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺘﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺩﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ‬.‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻤﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼل‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﺤﺕ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻤﻁﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﻌﻭﺭﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩﺭﺍﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠل‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﺒﺘﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺒﺩﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﺓ‬. ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺎﻟﻜﻲ‬)١٩٩٢‫ﻡ‬(‫ﻋـﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﻤﺭﺩﻭﺩﻫ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺍﻷﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬)١( ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺩﻨﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻓﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺭﻴﻴﻥ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺤﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬. ‫ﻋﺩﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬)١٦٠(‫ﻤﻨﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﺭﺩ‬٨٢‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﺴﻜﺭﻴ‬٨٧‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﺩﻨﻴ‬.‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨـﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﻴـﺙ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻼﺀ‬.‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟـﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺼﻌﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺒﻭل‬.‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴـﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺠﺒﺎﺕ‬‫ﺤـﺴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﻁﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺭﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺭﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺒﺘﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﺒﺩﺍﻉ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬. )١(‫ﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻜﻲ‬)١٩٩٢.("‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺭﺩﻭﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺠل‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬"‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬‫ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺯ‬.
  • ١٧ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺤﻲ‬)١٩٩٣(‫ﻋﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﺴﻭﺒﻲ‬‫ﺭﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺜﺭﻩ‬)١( ‫ﻤﻜﻭﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬)٢٠٠(‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜـﺔ‬ ‫ﺠـﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬.‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼل‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﻤﻁـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﻤـﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ‬.‫ﺘﻜﺎﻓ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬‫ﺅ‬‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺒﺫﻟﻭﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺩ‬.‫ﻴـﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬.‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺒـﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻤﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺩﺭﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼل‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻌﺭﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎل‬‫ﺯﺍﺯ‬،‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﻁﺭﺩﻴ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﻔﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺭ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺭﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺌﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﻓﺭ‬.‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺩ‬‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺘﺄﻫﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﺍﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬. ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﻱ‬)١٩٩٤(‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬)٢( ‫ﻫﺩﻓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬.‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻴ‬‫ﺒﻠﻐ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﺕ‬٧٩٥‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺸﺨﺼ‬‫ﺸﻬﺎﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺎ‬.‫ﻭﺠـﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋـﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻕ‬. ‫ﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬‫ﻭﺘـﻭﻓﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻷﻤـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬.‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺤـﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬.‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺸﺎﺭ‬‫ﺕ‬‫ﻭﺠـﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋـﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﻓﺭ‬ ،‫ﻤل‬،‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤـﺎ‬ )١(،‫ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ‬)١٩٩٣" (‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬‫ﻟﻤﻨﺴﻭﺒﻴ‬‫ﻥ‬‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺜـﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻻﺴﺘﻜﻤﺎل‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ،‫ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺒﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬. )٢(،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺎﻡ‬)١٩٩٣"(‫ﺍﻷ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬"‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ ،)‫ﺃ‬(‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺎﺩﻯ‬٢١٦‫ـ‬٢١٨.
  • ١٨ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺩﺕ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬. ‫ﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ‬‫ﺕ‬‫ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﻋـل‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻘـﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺴﺔ‬.‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟ‬‫ﻙ‬‫ﻅـﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺘـﻭﻓﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺘل‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬،‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺘل‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻰ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬)١٩٩٣‫ﻡ‬(‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﺎﺌـﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﺭﻭﻓﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬)١( ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬‫ﻟﻠﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ،‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬، ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴـﺔ‬(‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬:،‫ﺍﻟﺠـﻨﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل‬،‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬.‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬‫ﻭﺃﻨﻪ‬‫ﻟﻠﻭﻅﻴﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺍﺠﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬‫ﻴﺘـﺄﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺸﻔﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬،‫ﻭﺃ‬‫ﻅﻬﺭ‬‫ﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬،‫ﻓﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺨ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬‫ﺍﻵﺘﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻑ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ،. ‫ﻴﻭﺴﻑ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻭﻴﺵ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬)١٩٩٩(‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬"‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻻﺀ‬‫ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺀ‬")٢( ‫ﻋﻴﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺔ‬٥٦٧، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔ‬ )١(‫ﺼﺒﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻓﻀل‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﻠﻲ‬)١٩٩٧‫ﻡ‬"(‫ﻭﻅﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬‫ﻓﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻴـﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻺﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩ‬،‫ﺠـﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬)١١(‫ﺹ‬٣‫ـ‬٣٣ )٢( ‫ﻴﻭﺴﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻭﻴﺵ‬)١٩٩٩(‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻱ‬، ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ ، ‫ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻌﻠﻲ‬‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬، ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬)٦(‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ،.
  • ١٩ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻴ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺜﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻴـﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻨـﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺘـﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺨـﺫ‬ ‫ﻋﻨـﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺒﻌـﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﺅﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬)٢٠٠٠‫ﻡ‬(‫ﺒﻌﻨﻭﺍﻥ‬"‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺎﺕ‬‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻁﻼﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬")١( ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺸﺌﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻐﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﻭﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻤﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬)٥٠١(‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬‫ﻗﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺒﺤﺜﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺘﻴﻥ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬)‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل‬ ، ‫ﺠﻨﺱ‬(‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬(‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺠﻨﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻁﻔﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺭﻗﻲ‬‫ﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬. )١(‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺅﺍﺩ‬)٢٠٠٠‫ﻡ‬(، ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺜﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬،‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬.
  • ٢٠ :‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺼﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟـﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠـﺎل‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻟﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻊ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺎﺩﺘﻬﺎ‬.‫ﻭ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﺒـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬Productivity‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬‫ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺜﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤل‬.‫ﺜ‬‫ﺘﻼ‬ ‫ﻡ‬‫ﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﻟـﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﻑ‬‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﻡ‬Human Relations‫ﻤﺤﻴﻁﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺘـﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻓـﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺸﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺴﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺍﺴﻁ‬‫ﺒـﻪ‬ ‫ﻗـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤـﺎ‬‫ﻫﺭﺯﺒـﺭﻍ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻤﺎﻋﺘﻪ‬١٩٥٧‫ﻡ‬‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻟﻘﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﻴﺸﻭﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ‬)١( . ‫ﻟﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬Locke ١٩٧٠‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭﺃﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺤـﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻟـﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺠـﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬(‫ﺴـﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟـﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺎﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬)٢( . ‫ﻟﻭﻻﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬lowler)١٩٧١(‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅـﻑ‬ ‫ﻴـﺸﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻓﻌ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﺤﻕ‬.‫ﺒﻴﻨـﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗـﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺸ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤـﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﺤﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻑ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬـﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘـﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺓ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺫﻭل‬(‫ﻟﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﻴﻴﻤـﻪ‬ )١( ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬)١٩٩٥".(‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻅﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬"‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫،ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫،ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫،ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬١٩٥ )٢( ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬)١٩٩٥(‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬ ،.‫ﺹ‬١٨٩-١٩٠ .
  • ٢١ ‫ﺍﻵﺨـﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻤـﺩﺨﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﻴﻴﻤـﻪ‬ ،‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻭﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺎﺜﻠﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺨﺭﺠﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ‬.)١ ( ‫ﻭﺒﻴـﻭﻻﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻴﺯﻙ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬١٩٨٣)٢( Sinzek & Bullard‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺍﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬)٩٢(‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﺭﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺠﻴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺭﻭﻗﺭﺍﻁ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬‫ﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬.‫ﺩﺭﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺭﻭﻗﺭﺍﻁﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘـﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻠﺴل‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺨﻔﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬. ‫ﺃﺠﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﻭﻭﻴﻠﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻲ‬)٣( Lee & Wilbur)١٩٨٥(‫ﻗﻭﺍﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ )١٧٠٧(‫ﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨـﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒـﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬:‫ﻭﺨـﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔـﺔ‬.‫ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻅﻬـﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺘـﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬. ‫ﺩﺍﻴﻨ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬‫ﺭ‬)٤( Diener)١٩٨٥(‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻓﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻁﺒﻘﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﻨﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻐﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬)١٣١(‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﺼل‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻘﻘـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﺭﺴﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ )١( ‫ﻴﻭﺴﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻭﻴﺵ‬)١٩٩٩(‫ﺹ‬ ، ‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬ ،٩٣ )٢(‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺭ‬)١٩٩٣.(‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬٧٩. )٣( ١٩٨٥Ramond Lee and Elizabeth Wilbur,( ) “Age, Education, Job Tenure, Salary Job Characteristics, and Job Satisfaction: A Multivariate Analysis” H ٧٨١uman Relations, pp. -٧٩١. )٤( ١٩٨٥Diener, Thomas ( ). “Community College Faculty Job Satisfaction”, Community, Junior College Ouarterlg of Research ٩ ٤and practice, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, V , N .
  • ٢٢ ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬.‫ﺸـ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬‫ﺭﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬. ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﻠـﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴـﺘﻌﺭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺠﺎﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺒ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬‫ﻭﺘﺩﻨﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻋﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻜﺸﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻌﺎﺩ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺌﻘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒـﺎﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤـﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻌﺽ‬‫ﺘﺘﻔﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺼﺒﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻨ‬ ‫ﻜﻭﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺴﻜﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﻭﻟﺕ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤـل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﻜﺯﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻭﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺼﻁﻔﻰ‬ ، ‫ﺸﻌﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﻗﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻤﺕ‬‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺒﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﻴﺠﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻜﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬‫ﻨﺠـﺩ‬ ‫ﺤـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻗـﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ، ‫ﻓﻘﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﻌﻜﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻴﺠﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻬﻤ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺠﺎﻨﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﺜﺭﻱ‬.
  • ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺗــــﻤــــﻬـــﻴــــﺪ‬ ‫ا‬‫ﻟﻤﺒﺤﺚ‬‫اﻷول‬:‫اﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺿﺎ‬‫وﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎهﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺤﺚ‬‫اﻟﺜ‬‫ﺎﻧﻲ‬:‫اﻹﻧ‬‫ـﺘ‬‫ﺎﺟﻴ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺑﺎﻷداء‬ ‫وﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫أهﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺤﺚ‬:‫ﻧﺸﺄ‬‫ة‬‫اﻟﺠﻤ‬‫ﺎرك‬‫وﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫وﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬
  • ٢٤ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺪراﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮي‬ ‫اﻹﻃﺎر‬ : ‫ﻤﻊ‬‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻅﻬﺭﺕ‬‫ﺘﻨﻅـﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺘﺤﺴﺱ‬ ، ‫ﻭﻓﺌﺎﺘﻪ‬‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺭﺠﺎل‬‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻀـﺭﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬‫ﻭﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺕ‬.‫ﻓﻭﻀﻌﺕ‬‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﺴـﺱ‬ ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺘﻁﻭ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻅﻬﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻤﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻭﻟﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟﺘـﺎﻴﻠﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ Taylor‫ﻟﻔﺎﻴﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬Fayol‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨـﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﻟﻌـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ‬. ‫ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺎﺀﺕ‬‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬)١( ‫ﻤﺎﻴﻭ‬ ‫ﻻﻟﺘﻭﻥ‬Elton-Mayo"‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻟﻰ‬" ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺇﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺍﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺍﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨـﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟـﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻜـﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺌﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻅﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﻴﻥ‬. ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺴﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺎﺒﻌﺕ‬‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒـﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻅﻬﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬Bakke )١( ‫ﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬،‫ﻭﺁﺨﺭﻭﻥ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺭ‬)١٩٩٧‫ﻡ‬(،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬،‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺯﺩﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬-‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬:‫ﺹ‬٦٦.
  • ٢٥ ‫ﻭﺃﺭﺠﻴﺭﺱ‬Argyris‫ﻭﻟﻴﻜﺭﺕ‬Likert‫ﺘﻨﻅـﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺭﻯ‬‫ﺎﺕ‬‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺴﺠﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅـﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﺎﻭﻨﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬)١( .‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻁﻭﺭ‬. ‫ﻭﻟﻌل‬‫ﻅﻬ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺒﺎﺭﻨﺎﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺭ‬(Barnarad)‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ‬‫ﻁﻭﺭﻫﺎ‬‫ﺴﺎﻴﻤﻭﻥ‬(Simon)‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﻌل‬‫ﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻤﺩﺨ‬‫ﻤﻅﻬـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨـﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠـﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬. ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻴﻤﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺩﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺸﺄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬‫ﻫـﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴـﻪ‬‫ﻗﺒـﻭﻟﻬﻡ‬ ،‫ﻟﺴﻠﻁﺘﻪ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻟﻠ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﻨﺎﻋﻬﻡ‬‫ﻴـﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﺒﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬")٢( .‫ﻭ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬‫ﺘﻨﺒ‬‫ﺅ‬‫ﺴـ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻴﻤﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻵﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺫﻜﺭ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁـﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺒﻙ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﺸﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﻴ‬‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻵﻟﺔ‬ ،‫ﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻥ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺤﺎﺴﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻴﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺨﻁﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻔﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﻅﻬﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﺼـﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬")٣( . )١ (،‫ﻜﻨﻌﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﺍﻑ‬)١٩٨٥.(‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ،ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺯﺩﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬.‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬٧٨ )٢ (،‫ﻜﻨﻌﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﺍﻑ‬) .١٩٨٥‫ﻡ‬(‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬٨٣. )٣ (‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬)١٩٩٧(،"‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬"‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌـﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺯﺩﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬ ،، ‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬١٩٢.
  • ٢٦ ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻭﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺍﻟﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻡ‬)‫ـ‬ ‫ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬‫ﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻌﻬﻡ‬(‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅـﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺎﻋل‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻴﻀﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ‬.‫ﻤﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺎﺀﺕ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘـﺩﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍ‬،‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺭﻤﻲ‬)،‫ﻟﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ‬١٩٤٣‫ﻡ‬(‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻋﺘﺒﺭ‬‫ﺕ‬‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻫـﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬‫ﺭﻀﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻠﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺴﺭﺓ‬. ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬‫ﻭﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﻭﺩ‬‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻏﺒﺎﺘﻪ،ﺘﻤﺨﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺎﺠﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻠﻭﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬.‫ﻭﺴﻨﺤﺎﻭل‬‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠـﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻀﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻘـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬،‫ﻭﺼـﻠﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬‫ﻥ‬‫ﻭﺴﻨﺭ‬‫ﻜﺯ‬‫ﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬‫ﻋﻠـ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤـﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤـﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬. ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬:، ١-‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬: ،‫ﺃﻫﻼ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺁﻩ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﺭﺘﻀﺎﻩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﺨﻁ‬ ‫ﻀﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻋﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻀـﻰ‬: ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺒﻪ‬)١( . )١ (‫ﻤﻨﻅﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺒﻥ‬،)١٩٥٦‫ﻡ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬ ،١٤.‫ﺹ‬٣٢٣
  • ٢٧ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺯﺍﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺼﻔﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺼﻁﻼﺡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬‫ﺒﺄﻨﻪ‬"‫ﺍﻟﺤـﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺏ‬ ‫ﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺜﻤﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺭﺙ‬")١( . ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬‫ﺴـ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺠـﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺓ‬)☺ ☺ ☺ ()٢( . ‫ﺘﻌـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎل‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺸـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺴـﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬) ()٣( .‫ﻭﻫ‬‫ﺫﺍ‬‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻜﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺠﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻤﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﺎﻓﺊ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﺤﺎﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺤﻘﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻨﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻌﻴﻬﻡ‬‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬‫ﻩ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬"‫ﺒﻘﺴﻁﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺠل‬ ‫ﻋﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺡ‬ ‫ﺠﻌل‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺩﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺡ‬")٤( ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺨﻁ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻌل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺭﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻬﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻙ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻌـﺽ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻁﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ‬.‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺫﺍﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺩل‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻭ‬.‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻨﻲ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺸﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬‫ﺒﺼﻴﻎ‬‫ﻭﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﻋﻭﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻴﺤﺎﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬ )١ (‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﻴﺎﺀ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻐﺯﺍﻟﻲ‬.‫ﺹ‬٢٤٣ )٢ (‫ﺍﻵﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﺭﺓ‬)٢٧‫ـ‬٣٠.( )٣ (‫ﺴﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍﻵﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺸﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺓ‬)٨-١٠.( )٤(‫ﺍﻟﻌﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺯﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻓﻅ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺴﺒﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺸﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﻡ‬ ، ‫ﻤﺴﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻤﺸﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺩﺭﻱ‬)١٩٨٧) (‫ﻤﺴﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﺼﺭ‬(، ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺏ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬٤٧٩.
  • ٢٨ ‫ﻋﻤﻭﻤﻴـ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻬﺫﻩ‬ ،‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﺡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻅ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻀﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺯﻴﺩ‬)١( . ‫ﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻏﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ‬.‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴـﺩ‬ ‫ﺤـﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺯﺍل‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻻ‬‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴـﻑ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻁﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺠﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻷﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﻌﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗـﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬.‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬"‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭﺍﻀﻴ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬")٢( . ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴـﺩ‬ ‫ﺨﻼﻟﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ‬‫ﺍﻻ‬‫ﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺩﻡ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺤﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺠﻊ‬. ‫ﻭﻤﻔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻁ‬‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﻭل‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺡ‬. ‫ﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺸﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺩﺍﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺤﻴـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺠﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬ )١ (‫ﺨﺎﻟﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺎﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬،‫ﻤﺴﻠﻡ‬)١٩٩٣‫ﻡ‬(" .‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴـﺕ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬"‫ﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋـﺎﺕ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ،ﺹ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬٩. )٢ (،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺘﻴﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺁﺩﻡ‬)١٩٩٥‫ﻡ‬(،"‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺒﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻓﺩﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ،٧٦‫ﺭﺒﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭ‬٩١.
  • ٢٩ ‫ﻭﻗﺩﺭ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺇﺨﻔﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬‫ﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭﻩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴـﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﻌﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻪ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺍﺨل‬، ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬‫ﺘﺠﺯﺌﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬. ‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻭﺼـﻭل‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺤﺎﻭﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺜﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺭﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬.‫ﻫﻭﺒﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬Hoppock )١٩٣٥(‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﺩﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬:‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﻨﻲ‬.‫ﺃﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺭﻯ‬ "‫ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻟﺸﺎﻏﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻯ‬،‫ﻋﺒـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻓﺅ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺍﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬.‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤـﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﻟﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺯﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬.‫ﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬‫ﻴﺤﻘﻘـﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺯل‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻁﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻓﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺀ‬)١( . ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻟﻭﻟ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻯ‬‫ﺭ‬lawler‫ﻁﺭﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺠ‬‫ﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻤ‬‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺯﻤﻼﺌﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻊ‬‫ﺘﻬﻡ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻠﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﺒﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬: ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺩﺨل‬Pay‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻓﻭﻉ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺒل‬. ‫ﻨﻤﻁ‬‫ﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬Supervision‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﻴﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﻠﻌﻤل‬satisfaction with the work itself )١ (،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬)١٩٩٩(،‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻅﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ، ،‫ﻟﻠﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬،‫ﺹ‬١٩٠.
  • ٣٠ ‫ﻟﻭﻟ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺭﻯ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺭ‬"‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬)‫ﺃ‬(‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬‫ﺴﻴ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺤﺼل‬)‫ﺏ‬(‫ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻌـل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺤـﺼل‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﻴﺩﺭﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬")١( . ‫ﻓ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻌﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬‫ﻴﺠـﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﻴﺩﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻗل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬،‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺴﺎﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬"‫ﻴﺘﻜﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬،‫ﻭﻋﻤﻠـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻔﺎﻋ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻐﺭﻗﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﻨﺴﺎﻨ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺼﺒﺢ‬‫ﻭﺭﻏﺒﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻭﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻨﺌـﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺸﺨﺹ‬")٢( . ‫ﻭﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻔﺎﻋل‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻁﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ‬‫ﺘﻤﻜﻨﻪ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺒﻤـﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻁﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻴﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ‬. ‫ﺴﻭﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬Super"‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻴﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻴﻭﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩﺭﺍﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻔﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬.‫ﻴﺘﻭﻗـﻑ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻗﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﻴﻀ‬‫ﺍﻟـﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻌـﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺒﺭﺍﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻭﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻤﺸﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬.‫ﻭ‬‫ﺒﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﻓﻪ‬Plok‫ﻤﺤـﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻨﻔـﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻜﺸﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺒﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺒﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺭﺍﺩﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻨﺠـﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺴﺘﻨﺩ‬ )١ (،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬)١٩٨٢‫ﻡ‬(،"‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬"‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬ ،٣٦‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ،٥٠. )٢ (‫ﻨﺎﺼﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬،)١٩٨٢(‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬‫ﺹ‬٢٤.
  • ٣١ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺸل‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬‫ﺘﻘـﺩﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻬﺎﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﺴﺒﻴل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬")١( .‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﺈ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤـل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺎﻜـل‬ ‫ﻭﺘـﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬.‫ﺃﺸـ‬ ‫ﺒﻌـﺽ‬ ‫ﺤﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﻔﺴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬‫ﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬.‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨـﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒـﺎﻟﻤﻴﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺭﺀ‬ ‫ﺭﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺘﺭﺍﻤﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻜﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬، ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬. ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻁﻲ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺄﻨﻪ‬"‫ﺒﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﺒﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﺏ‬،‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﺒـﺄﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬،‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﺒﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻏﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻭﻗﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﺒﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻌل‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬")٢( . ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻜـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺭﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻐﻴﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻌل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻌﻪ‬. ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﻴﺭﻯ‬‫ﻋﺎﺸﻭﺭ‬‫ﺘﺘﻴﺤـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺸﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺸﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﺍﻟـﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺩﺍﻨﻲ‬‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﻯ‬.‫ﺘﺠـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺸـﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺒﺩﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ،‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬.‫ﺘﺠـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ )١ (‫ﺃﺴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺴﻥ‬‫ﺇﺴﻤﺎﻋﻴل‬ ‫ﻨﺒﻴل‬ ،‫ﺃﺴﻌﺩ‬،‫ﺭﺴﻼﻥ‬)١٩٨٤‫ﻡ‬("‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬"‫ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ،‫ﺠﺩﺓ‬‫ﺹ‬ ،٢٨. )٢ (‫ﺤﺎﻤﺩ‬،‫ﺒﺩﺭ‬)١٩٨٣‫ﻡ‬("‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬"‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬‫ﺹ‬٦٣.
  • ٣٢ ‫ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬.‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬‫ﻤﺤﺘـﻭﻯ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬ ،‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬،‫ﻭﺘﻜـﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤـﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺴﻬﺎﻤﻬﺎ‬.‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻨـﺏ‬ ‫ﺫﻟـﻙ‬ ‫ﻴـﺸﺒﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻹﺸـﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺘـﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺤـﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﺸـﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻴﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬.‫ﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺤـﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺠﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ،‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺨﻠـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻴﺯﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﻬﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻜﺱ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺘﻔﻊ‬‫ﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬.‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻜﻠﻴـ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺠﺯﺌﻴ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺭﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﺜل‬)١( . ‫ﻭﺇ‬‫ﺫﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬‫ﺎﺘﻪ‬‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺸﻌﺒﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺭﻭﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺒﺎﻟـﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﻌﺏ‬‫ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺩل‬ ‫ﻨﻘﺎﺵ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺯﺍل‬.‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺨـل‬ ‫ﻟـﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺼﻭﺭ‬. ‫ﺘﺘﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼل‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬‫ﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬. )١ (‫ﺃﺤ‬‫ﻋﺎﺸﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺩ‬،‫ﻋﺎﺸﻭﺭ‬)١٩٨٥‫ﻡ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ،،‫ﺍﻹﺴـﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬، ‫ﺹ‬٢٧،٢٨.
  • ٣٣ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬‫ﺘﺠﺎﻫل‬‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺄﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺇﻅﻬﺎﺭ‬. ‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗـﻑ‬ ‫ﻀﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬‫ﻭﺃﻨﻪ‬‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﻫـﺫﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬‫ﻭﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ‬. ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻅﻬﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻨﺎﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻭﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻜﺱ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻘـﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ـ‬.‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻘﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺜﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺭﺹ‬. ‫ﻋﻼﻗ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺎﺕ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺯﻤﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ـ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ـ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ـ‬. ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ـ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ـ‬. ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ـ‬. ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻐﺭﻗﻪ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻻﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻭﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻔﺎﻋل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﻼﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻏﺒﺘﻪ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺒـﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﺒﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ،‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬)١( . )١ (‫ﻨﺎﺼﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬،)١٩٨٦‫ﻡ‬(،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ ،:‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬٧١.
  • ٣٤ ‫ﻜ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻌﺭﻑ‬‫ﺒﺄﻨﻪ‬"‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺘﻴﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀﻩ‬ ‫ﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻌﻤﻠﻪ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬‫ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻓﻌ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬")١( . ٢-‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺍﻋﻲ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﺘـ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻲ‬‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻨـﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤـ‬‫ﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻓﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ‬. ‫ﻓـﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘـﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻨﻔـﺫﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻭﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺨﻁﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﻌ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺸﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺤﺭﺍﻓﻪ‬‫ﻴﻕ‬‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻸﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﻁل‬‫ﺘﻬﺎ‬.‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻬل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺠﺯ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﻏﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨﺎ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻤﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﺎﻗﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼل‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬‫ﻯ‬‫ﻋﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻟﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬‫ﺎﺀ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬"‫ﺸـﻐل‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﻴـﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻀﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺅﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻥ‬ ،‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺒﺤﺜـﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬.‫ﺍﻷﺨـﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴـﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻠﺤﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬")٢( . )١ (‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻴﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻟﺢ‬،)٢٠٠١‫ﻡ‬("‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬"‫ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬. )٢ (‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺴﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻼﻥ‬،)١٩٨١‫ﻡ‬("‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﺜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ،‫ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬ ،‫ﺹ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ،‫ﺔ‬١٨،١٩.
  • ٣٥ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﺘﺴﻬﻡ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺴﻌﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨـﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺯﺩﻴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺯﺯ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻨﺎﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ‬.‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨـﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺒـﺩﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬. ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌـﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫـﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓـﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻤـﺸﺎﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻼ‬‫ﺍﺯﺩﻴـﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻔل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻔﻌﺔ‬ ‫ل‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻓـﻕ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻔﺭﺩ‬. ‫ﺇ‬‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻀﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟـﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻐﻼل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺸـﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻠـﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺸﻌﻭﺭﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻓﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺨﻁ‬. ٣-‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬: ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﻭل‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬"‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﺭﻭﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ‬‫ﺇﻁـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻥ‬ ،
  • ٣٦ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻱ‬‫ﺫﺍﺘﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻭﺍﻤـل‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺴـﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺄﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺩﻴﺔ‬")١( . ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺨﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻬﻲ‬. ‫ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ـ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺸﺭﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ـ‬)٢( . ‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ـ‬‫ﻴﺘﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺎ‬.‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩﺭﺍﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬،‫ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺘﻤﺜل‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺭﺅﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬ ،‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﺯﻤﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ‬ ، ‫ﻭﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻁﺎﻗﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺎ‬.‫ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻤـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻤﺜـل‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻌﺏ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻨﺸﺄﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘـﺸﻜﻴل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻀﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻠﻭﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﻭﻟﻪ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺭﻯ‬"‫ﺍﻟـﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺘـﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬:،‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺘﻘـﺎﺀ‬ ،‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤـﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺭﺹ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻷﺠﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ‬")٣( . ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤـل‬ ‫ﺃﻫـﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬.‫ﻴﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬‫ﻓﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻑ‬ )١ (‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﻟﺩ‬،)١٩٩١‫ﻡ‬("‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒـﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺭﻓﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬"‫ﺃﺒﺤـﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠـﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻴﺭﻤـﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌـﺔ‬ ،‫ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻴﺭﻤﻭﻙ‬٧‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬٤.‫ﺹ‬ ،١٥٠. )٢ (‫ﻨﺎﺼﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬،)١٩٨٢‫ﻡ‬(‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬‫ﺹ‬ ،٢٦. )٣ (‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺴﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻼﻥ‬)١٩٨١‫ﻡ‬(‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬١٧.
  • ٣٧ ‫ﻗﺩﺭﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻔﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﻗﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺍﻭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬)١( . ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺭﻯ‬‫ﻤﺘﺩﺍﺨﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺜﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺄﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬:‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻘـﺼﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻀﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬:‫ﻭﺘـﺸﻤل‬"‫ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺍﺘـﺏ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﺠـﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻅ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻑ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬:،‫ﻗﺩﺭﺍﺘـﻪ‬ ،‫ﻭﺸﺨـﺼﻴﺘﻪ‬ ،‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻜـﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـﺭ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻅﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﺀﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ،‫ﻁﻤﻭﺤﻪ‬ ،‫ﺫﻜﺎﺀﻩ‬ ،‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺩﺍﺩﺍﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺠـﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻌﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺨل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬. ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ‬:‫ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺭﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ‬‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﻴﺒﺫﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘـﺴﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬)٢( . ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬)١(‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺘﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬: )١ (‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬)١٩٨٦‫ﻡ‬(‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬‫ﺹ‬٢٢٤. )٢ (‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬،)١٩٨٦‫ﻡ‬("‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬‫ﻤﻌﻬـﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬‫ﺹ‬٢٢٥.
  • ٣٨
  • ٣٩ ‫ﺸﻜل‬‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬)١( ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬
  • ٤٠ ‫ﻭﻤ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺼﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻀﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺒﺩﻭ‬. ٤-‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬: ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻨﺎل‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻜﺒﻴـﺭ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻤـﺩﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒـﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﺴﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻭﻟﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬.‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺜﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻠﻁﺭﻕ‬‫ﺴـﺎﻋﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﻌﻜﺎﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬.‫ﺠﺩﻴـﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎﺯﺍﻟﺕ‬.‫ﺴـﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻗـﺩ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻋـﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻅﻬـﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ‬‫ﻭﺫﻟـﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻠﺴﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﺏ‬. ‫ﺃ‬-‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬Needs theory: ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠـﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺠـﺎل‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﻬﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻬﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻗﺸﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻬﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﺔ‬"‫ﺒـل‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺜل‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ‬")١( . )١ (‫ﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬،‫ﻭﺁﺨﺭﻭﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺭ‬)١٩٩٧‫ﻡ‬(،"‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬".‫ﺹ‬٧٣.
  • ٤١ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﺼﻨﻴﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻨﺎﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﺒﺭﺍﻫﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺒﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺌﻌﺔ‬Abraham Maslow‫ﻭﺍﻟـﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﺩﻋﻴﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬١٩٤٣.‫ﻟﺩﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺭﻯ‬"‫ﻭﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠ‬‫ﻫﺭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﺤﺎﺤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺩﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﺎﺕ‬")١( ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤـﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬: ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬)٢( ‫ﻟﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺭﻡ‬Maslow ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻘـﺩﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤـﺎﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠـﺎﺕ‬‫ﺎﻋﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤــﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺤــﺎﺠـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴـﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤـﺎﺠـﺎﺕ‬ )١ (‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬)١٩٨٥‫ﻡ‬("‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬"،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴـﺎﺽ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬.‫ﺹ‬١١
  • ٤٢ ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺘﺭﺘﻜﺯ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺁﻨﻴﺔ‬،‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬‫ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻭﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬"‫ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻔﺭﺩ‬".‫ﺍﻟﺜـﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬.‫ﻭ‬‫ﺃﺸـﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻭﻟﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘـﺩ‬ ‫ﻟـﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻀﺕ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻓـﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﻀﻴﻠﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺘﻠﻔﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻨﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺫﻫﺒﻭﺍ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺸﺒ‬‫ﻌ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺂﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻲ‬. ١-‫ﻟﺠﻤﻴـﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻠـﺴل‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺭﻤـﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺘﻠﻔﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬. ٢-‫ﻴﻌﻨـﻲ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺠﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﺫﻫﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺒﻘﺎﺀﻫﺎ‬. ٣-‫ﻤﺘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻓـﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺘﺭﺍﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﺩﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻔﻭﺍﺼل‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬)١( . ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻁﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻭ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﺎﻤـ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩ‬‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺴـﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﻔـﺴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺒﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﻔﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺒﻌﺽ‬‫ﺤﺜﻴﻥ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬)٢( . )١ (،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺒﺭﺍﻫﻴﻡ‬)١٩٩٣(،"‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﺭ‬"‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬٢٨٣. )٢ (‫ﺴ‬‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻬﻴﻠﺔ‬‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ،‫ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‬‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬)١٩٩٩" (‫ﺍﻟﺒـﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬"‫ﻭﺍﺌـل‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ، ‫ﻋﻤـﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﻨـﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬١٧٠.
  • ٤٣ ‫ﺏ‬-‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﻓ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺭ‬Alderfer Theory: ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻬﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻨﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬"‫ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ‬"‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺫل‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻫـﺅﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺍﺌـل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﻭﺩ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺭ‬ )Alderfer(‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺨﻤـﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺴـﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﻟـﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍل‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺡ‬ ‫ﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺒـﺎﻟﺭﻤﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﻓﺕ‬)E. R. G(‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤـﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬)١( : -‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬Existence Need: ‫ﺒﻘﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻪ‬‫ﺌﺔ‬.‫ﻭﺤﺎﺠـﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺄﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻤﻥ‬. -‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬Relatedness Need: ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻴﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬"‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬." -‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬Growth Need: ‫ﺫﻟـﻙ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻌﺩﺍﺩﺍﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻁﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺼل‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺭﻏﻡ‬ ،‫ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻪ‬: -‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻔﺸل‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻟﻠﻭﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﺩﻓﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻨﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬. )١ (‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺩﻕ‬‫ﻭﺁ‬ ،‫ﻋﻔﻴﻔﻲ‬‫ﺨ‬‫ﺭﻭﻥ‬)١٩٨١.("‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤـﺎل‬ ‫ﻤـﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬"،‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘـﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺴـﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬،‫ﺹ‬٢٩٤.
  • ٤٤ -‫ﻭﻗـﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻌﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺘﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺭ‬. ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺭﺍﻀﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺴﺎﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻴﺯﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﻓﻌل‬ ‫ﺭﺩ‬‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻓـﻀل‬ ‫ﺒـﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬. ‫ﺝ‬-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬Two Factors theory: ‫ﻫﺭﺯﺒﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺩﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬Hertzberg‫ﻭﺯﻤ‬‫ﺴﻴﻨﺩﺭﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻪ‬ Synderman‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻔﺭﻴﻕ‬)١( : ١-‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬Motivators: ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺩﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﺨﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺩﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺘـﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺫل‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺩﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺠﺩ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﻴﺎﻨﻪ‬: -‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ‬. -‫ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬. -‫ﻭﺍﺤﺘﺭﺍﻤﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬. -‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺹ‬. -‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬. )١ (، ‫ﻤﺎﻫﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ‬)٢٠٠٢(‫ﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺨل‬‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻷﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻤﻨﺔ‬.‫ﺹ‬٢٣٧،٢٣٩.
  • ٤٥ ٢-‫ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬Hygiene’s: ‫ﻴﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬‫ﻟﺘ‬ ‫ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺠﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺭ‬‫ﺤ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﻤﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﺨﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺠﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬: -‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬.-‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬. -‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬‫ﺴﻴﻥ‬.-‫ﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬. -‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴ‬‫ﺘﻪ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬. ‫ﺃﺜﺒﺘـﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺸﺄ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺎﻭل‬ ‫ﻜﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ‬. "‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺭﺯﺒﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ‬‫ﺘﻲ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻁـﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻓﺭﺼ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻨﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﻓﺭ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻷﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤـﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺯﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺩﻓﻌﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬)١( .‫ﺩﻴﻔـﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﻴـﺭﻯ‬ )Davis(‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺭﺯﺒﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﺎﺭﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﺅﻜﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬)٢( .‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻜﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻜﺯ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻠﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﺤﻴـﺙ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺭﺯﺒﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺭﻯ‬‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ )٣(‫ﻭﻫﺭﺯﺒﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬. )١ (‫ﻗﺎﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻴﻭﺘﻲ‬)١٩٨٩‫ﻡ‬(،"‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤـﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬"‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ ،‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ،.‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬٤٤. )٢ (‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺩﻕ‬‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬ ،‫ﻭﺁﺨﺭﻭﻥ‬ ،‫ﻋﻔﻴﻔﻲ‬٢٩٤.
  • ٤٦ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬)٣( ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺭﺯﺒﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬/‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻷﺴﺒﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎ‬‫ﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻓﺎﻕ‬"‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻼﺀ‬" ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺀﻭﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﲏ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﲏ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻇﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻜﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﻓﻌﻴﺔ‬‫ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ‬‫واﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮار‬‫اﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ‬‫ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ‬
  • ٤٧ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺭﺯﺒﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺘﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺸﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺙ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺜﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻅﻬﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘ‬‫ﺃﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺘـﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬: ‫ﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺹ‬‫ﻭﺍﺴـﺘﺒﺩﺍﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺭﻭﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻘـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﻼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺯﻴﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻁﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬. ‫ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻘﻘﻭﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻁﻼﻉ‬. ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻋ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺴﻬﺎﻤﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬‫ﻜـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺒﺘﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﻼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬)١( . ‫ﻁﻤﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺜﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻏﺒﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻁﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺒﺘﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻤﺘﻌﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻴﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺒﺩﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺒﺘﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﻴﻔﻘﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻔﻀﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺜﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬. )١ (،‫ﺩﺍﻻﺱ‬ ‫ﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ، ‫ﺴﻴﺯﻻﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺩﺭﻭﺩﻱ‬)١٩٩١(،‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬‫ﺘﺭﺠﻤﻪ‬ ،:‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻭ‬ ‫ﺠﻌﻔﺭ‬. )‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬:‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬.(‫ﺹ‬٩٧-٩٩.
  • ٤٨ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻓﻨ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺴﺎﺀل‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻌﻠﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺭﺯﺒﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻫل‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺭﺍﻀﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻓﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺴﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺭﺯﺒﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺭﺍﻀﺎﺕ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻀـﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻤﺅﻴـﺩ‬ ‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺎﻴﻨـﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺭﺍﻀـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻴـﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ،‫ﻭﻤﻌﺎﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺠﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺭﺯﺒﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺩل‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﻴـﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺤل‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬‫ﻤﻬﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻠﻔﺕ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻬﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﻷﺤﻜﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺘﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺸـﻌﺭﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﺅﺍل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﺴﺘﻴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺸﻌﺭﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺭﻙ‬‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻴـﺯ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺍﺴـﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﻔﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻋﺎﺕ‬.‫ﻓ‬‫ﺍﻵﺨـﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻴﺎﺀﻩ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻘﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻁﺒﻴﻌﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺎﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬. ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻜﻴﻔﻴ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺴﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬. ‫ﺃﺜﺒﺘﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤـل‬ ‫ﺒﻌـﺽ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟـﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺭﺯﺒﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬)‫ﺍﻷﺠﺭ‬(‫ﺘﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻥ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺸﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻴﺎﺀ‬)١( . ‫ﻤﺤـﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﺜﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺸﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺼﻘﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺤﺘـﻭﻯ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺠـﺭ‬ ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ )١ (‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺩﻕ‬،‫ﻭﺁﺨﺭﻭﻥ‬ ،‫ﻋﻔﻴﻔﻲ‬)١٩٨١‫ﻡ‬(،"‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬"‫ﺹ‬ ،٢٩٤.
  • ٤٩ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺸﺎﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺩﺭﺝ‬)١( . ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺒﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﺞ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺫ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻋﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﺒل‬.‫ﻗﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻁﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﻁﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺃﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﻬﻤ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩﻨﺎ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻥ‬‫ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬. ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺼﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﺤﻴل‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻔﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬. ‫ﺩ‬-‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ‬Equity theory: ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃﺩﻤﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻅﻬﺭﺕ‬(Adams,١٩٦٣)‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺤـﺩﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻀﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬. ‫ﻴﺘﺭﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺩل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﻤﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺯﻤ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺩل‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺫﻟـﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺭﺘـﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻴل‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ‬.‫ﻤﺤﺼﻠ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﺭﺘﺏ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﻟﻠﻔـﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻫـﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ )١ (‫ﺼﻘﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﻤﺩ‬،‫ﻋﺎﺸﻭﺭ‬)١٩٨٣‫ﻡ‬" .(‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬"‫ﺒﻴـﺭﻭﺕ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬.‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬.‫ﺹ‬١٥٦-١٥٧.
  • ٥٠ ‫ﻤﻅﺎﻫﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻤﺘﻴﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻋـﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺎﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺯﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﻔﺽ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺭﻓﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬)١( . "‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺸﻴﺭ‬:،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻅﻔﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟـﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ‬‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬‫ﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻭﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﻪ‬: -‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬. -‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬:‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ‬=‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺩﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬=‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬. -‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻓﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬‫ﺍﻹﻨﺼﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺩﻡ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬()٢( . ‫ﺒﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻴـﺸﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﻤﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺨﻔﺽ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ‬:- ‫ﺒﺯﻤﻼﺌﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ،‫ﺃﻗل‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨﻼﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻠﻴل‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬. ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬)٣( . )١ (‫ﻭﺁﺨﺭﻭﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺼﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺴﻡ‬)١٩٩٤‫ﻡ‬(،"‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬"‫ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﻩ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻔﻭﻟﺔ‬-‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬.‫ﺹ‬١٣. )٢ (،‫ﺩﺍﻻﺱ‬ ‫ﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺯﻻﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺩﻭﺭﻱ‬)١٩٩١‫ﻡ‬(،"‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬"‫ﺹ‬ ،١٦. )٣ (‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺩ‬،‫ﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬)١٩٩١.("‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬"‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ،‫ﺸﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‬‫ﺹ‬٢٦٠
  • ٥١ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﺫﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﻡ‬ ،‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻏﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬‫ﻓﻴﻬ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﻌﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﻑ‬‫ﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴـﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻠﻘﺎﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺭﻥ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﻠﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻀﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﻔﻑ‬. ‫ﻫـ‬-‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬Expectance theory: ‫ﻓﻴﻜﺘﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﻡ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻓﺭﻭﻡ‬Vector & vroom‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴ‬‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻘـﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺭﺍﺽ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ‬(‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ "‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻭﺍﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﺒﺈﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺸﻌﻭﺭﻩ‬")١( .‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺒل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺎﻓﺯ‬. ‫ﻟﻸﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻊ‬=‫ﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺓ‬x‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻷﺩﺍﺌﻪ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻔﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻬﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺍﻓﻊ‬.‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺍﻨﻁﻼﻗ‬‫ﻴﺼﺩﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻜﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺎﺭﺒﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻜﺎﻤﻬﻡ‬"‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻗﻌﺔ‬"،‫ﻤﺘـﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻀﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻨﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﺫل‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻌﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﺘﻤـﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﻭ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺏ‬)٢( :- )١ (،‫ﻤﺎﻫﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ‬)٢٠٠٢(،"‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬‫ﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬"‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌـﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﺴـﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻌﺔ‬١٥٤. )٢ (‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺩ‬،‫ﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬)١٩٩٩(."‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬"‫ﺹ‬٢٥٨.
  • ٥٢ -‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬. -‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻜﻪ‬. -‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻭل‬. ‫ﻭ‬-‫ﻟﻤﺎﻜﻠﻴﻼﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬Achievement Theory: ‫ﻤﺎﻜﻠﻴﻼﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻀﺢ‬(Mcklland)‫ﻏﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴـﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠـﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻹﺸﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻌﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬:‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬Power)‫ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺔ‬.( ‫ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺩﻤﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬Affiliation)،‫ﺍﻟـﺼﺩﺍﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺩﺓ‬(‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬. ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬Achievement)‫ﺒـﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟـﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺘﻘﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬.( ‫ﻓ‬‫ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﺸـﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬.‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻻﻨﺩﻤﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻴل‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻌﻨﻲ‬‫ﻭﻴﺠﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺯﻤﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬.‫ﻟﻺﻨﺠـﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓ‬‫ﺘﻌﻨ‬‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺤـﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺨـﻼل‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻏﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨـﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺼﻔﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻔﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻏﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬)١( . )١ (،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬)١٩٨١‫ﻡ‬(،"‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬـﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﻤـﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ‬ ‫ﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬،)‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬:‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬(‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬ ،٣٦.
  • ٥٣ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺠـﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻓـﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻬﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺠﺎﻫﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻪ‬.‫ﻋﺩﻴـﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺭﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻨﺴﺒﻴ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻁﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻗﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺩﺍﻓﻌ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺱ‬)١( . ‫ﺯ‬-‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬Reference group theory ‫ﻭﺒﻠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻭﻟﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻀﺢ‬Hulin& Blood‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺘﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻤﺜ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ،‫ﻟﺩﻴﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺘﻤﻲ‬‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬‫ﻓﻴﻘﺎﺭﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻤﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻭﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻅﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻴﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﻫل‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺠﻤﺎﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫؟‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺎﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬)٢( . ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻭﻟﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺅﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻴﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻔﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺎﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬)٣( . )١ (‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﻨﻔﻲ‬‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬)١٩٩٧.("‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ــ‬‫ﺴ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨ‬ ‫ﻠﻭﻙ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬"‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬،، ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺼﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺹ‬١٩٧،١٩٨. )٢ (‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺴﻑ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻼﻥ‬)١٩٨٢‫ﻡ‬(.‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬١٠. )٣ (‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺴﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻼﻥ‬)١٩٨٢.(‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬١١.
  • ٥٤ ‫ﺡ‬-‫ﻭﻟﻭﻟﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺭﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬Porter and Lawler’s Theory: ‫ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻭﻟﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺭﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ‬‫ﺭﻀﺎﻫ‬ ‫ﻋﻠىﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﻭﻗﻨـﺎﻋﺘﻬ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻜﻬـ‬ ‫ﻭﻤـﺩﻯ‬‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻠ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒﻲ‬‫ﻭﺍ‬‫ﻴﺩﺭﻜ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﺃﻨ‬‫ﻬﻡ‬‫ﻴﺴﺘﺤﻘ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻜﻨﺘﻴﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬‫ﻌﻤﻠﻬ‬‫ﻡ‬. ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺭﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻋﺘﻤﺩ‬‫ﻟﻭﻟﺭ‬"‫ﺍﻓﺘﺭﻀـ‬ ‫ﺤﻴـﺙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺠ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺒـﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬‫ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬‫ﻭﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌـﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬.‫ﺘﻠـﻙ‬ ‫ﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺘﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﺩ‬‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬‫ﻓﻬ‬‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻹﺸﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻨﺤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﺠﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻨﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌـﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻠﻤﻬﺎ‬")١( .‫ﻗﺩﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫،ﺤﻴـﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫،ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺘﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﻘﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻌﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻤﺴﺘﻘ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻌﻠﺕ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﺎﺒﻌ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤـل‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﻪ‬ ‫ﻀﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﺠﺯﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻜﺔ‬)٢( : )١ (‫ﻤﺤﻤ‬ ‫ﺴﻬﻴﻠﺔ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ،‫ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‬)١٩٩٩(."‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬"‫ﺹ‬١٧٤. )٢(‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬)١٩٩٠"(‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬"‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺹ‬١٩٤.
  • ٥٥ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺒـل‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺫﻭﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺩﻓﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻴ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ، ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻤﻜﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل‬ ‫ﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺴﻠﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻏﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ‬.
  • ٥٦ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬)٤( ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻭﻟﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺭﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ‫ـ‬ *‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬:‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬)١٩٩٥("‫ﺍﻹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬"‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻅﻭﺭ‬‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ، ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬. ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﺇﻴﻀﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬(‫ﺃﺒﻌـﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺒﻌﺔ‬.
  • ٥٧ ‫ﻓﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺫﻭل‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻬﺩ‬‫ﻭﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬـﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻓـﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺭﻭﻗﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻁﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺩﺭﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺒﺫﻟﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻌﻠﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻘﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﻭﺩﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ‬. ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬‫ﻭﻤـﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺒـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬ ،‫ﻭﻤﻌﺭﻓﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻬﺎﺭﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﺭﺘﻬﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺫﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺱ‬. ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩل‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻨﺢ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨـﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬(‫ﻟﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬. ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻬﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﻴﺩﺭﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺒﻠﺔ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭﺍﻀـﻴ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻗل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬. ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻭﻟﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺭﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺼﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﻔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬،‫ﺍﻷﻓـﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻌﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺸﻌﻭﺭﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬)‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬(‫ﻤﻜﺎﻓـﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻁﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺒل‬.‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬)‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬(‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬)‫ﺒﻤﻌﻨـﻰ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻟﻺﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻥ‬)١( . )١ (‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬)١٩٩٥(".‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬"‫ﺹ‬١٧٢،١٧٣.
  • ٥٨ ‫ﺡ‬-‫ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬““Goal Setting Theory: ‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﻌﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬‫ﻲ‬‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻴـﺴﻌﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺤﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺏ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ،‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬ‬‫ﻟـﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻘﺒﻭﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻁﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘ‬‫ﻴﺘﻠﻘﺎﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻜﺒـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺜـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺴـﺘﺜﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺯﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺘﻪ‬)١( . ‫ﻤﺴ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬‫ﻭﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺠـﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒـﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺎﻭل‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴـﺼل‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻤﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺼل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻭﻓﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺸل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺸل‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺨﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬‫ﺩﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻁـﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺠـﺎﺡ‬ ،‫ﻟﻨﻔـﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻁﻤﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻗل‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺸل‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻭﺡ‬. ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬‫ﺃﺭﺒﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ‬:‫ـ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬:‫ﺘ‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻓﺭ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬:‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﻤﻭﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺭ‬‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﺩﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬(‫ﺍﻟﺤـﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﻀﺢ‬)‫ﺯﻴـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬(‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬. ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴ‬:‫ﺘ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺤﻘ‬‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻕ‬:‫ﺴ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﺀ‬‫ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤـﺸﺘﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺒـﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺇﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺌﻴﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﻡ‬ )١ (‫ﻗﺎﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻴﻭﻨﻲ‬)١٩٨٩‫ﻡ‬("‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬"‫ﺹ‬٤٩.
  • ٥٩ ‫ﺘﻜ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺭﺅﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻥ‬)‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ‬(‫ﺒﺄﺴﻠﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬)‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻌل‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻌﻙ‬.( ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺜﺎﻟﺜ‬:‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺼ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬‫ﻭﺩﺭﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻀﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ‬. ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭﺍﺒﻌ‬:‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬‫ﻭﻋﺯﻤـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅـﻑ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬)١( . ‫ﻭﺍﻟـﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﻫـﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﻅﻬﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻤﺜل‬‫ﺌ‬‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﻠﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﻀﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ،‫ﻭﻤﺭﺀﻭﺴﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬‫ﺘﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻘﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﻅﺎﺌﻔﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺸﺎﻤل‬.‫ﻴﻌﻤﻠـﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻨﺤـﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺩﻓﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﺎﺭﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬.‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻕ‬‫ﺤـﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﺭﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬)٢( . ‫ﻋﺎﻁﻔﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻫـﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻤـل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺌﺩﺓ‬ )١ (‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺼﻼﺡ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬)٢٠٠٠‫ﻡ‬(،"‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬"‫ﻟﻠﻁﺒﺎﻋـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‬.‫ﺹ‬١٣٥،١٣٧. )٢ (‫ﻫﺎﻴﻨﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺭﻴﻭ‬)١٤٠٩(‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎل‬ ‫ﻟﻺﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺸﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴل‬‫ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ‬ ،:،‫ﺍﻟـﺼﺒﺎﻍ‬ ‫ﺯﻫﻴﺭ‬ ،‫ﻤﺭﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻲ‬ ،‫ﻏﺭﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻜﻲ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬:‫ﺇﺩﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺭﺓ‬.‫ﺹ‬١٠٨-١٠٩.
  • ٦٠ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬‫ﻭﺘﻭﻗﻌﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻷﻫـﺩﺍﻓﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﺒﻌـ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟـﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻌﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻁﻤﻭﺤﻬﻡ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬‫ﺘﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩﺕ‬‫ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬‫ﻤﻌﺒﺭﺓ‬‫ﻋﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬. ‫ﻤﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺨﻀﺎﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻘﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓـ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺎﺤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺠﺎﺤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺩل‬‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬.‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬‫ﻴﺘﻼﺌﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻬ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺭﺸﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬.
  • ٦١ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬:‫א‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﺼﺩ‬ ‫ﻫل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬‫ﻜﻭﻨﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﺼﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻫل‬ ‫ﺃﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬.‫ﺍﺨـﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻴـﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘـﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺤﻴـﺙ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻟﻭﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﺩﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﺒﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬‫ﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬)١( . ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬"‫ﻴﺨﺘﻠﻁ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬Efficiency ‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬)‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬(‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬Effectiveness‫ﻭﺘﻌﻨﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬(‫ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﻬﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺒﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬)٢( ‫ﺍﻷ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﻬﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﻌﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ‬.‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺠﺯﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻔﺎﻋل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺘﺩﺍﺨل‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺸﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺸﺄﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﻌﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬. )١ (‫ﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﻴﺩ‬‫ﻴﻭﺴﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺎﻟﺩ‬ ،‫ﻋﺎﻤﺭ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻑ‬)١٩٨٤‫ﻡ‬(،"‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬" ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻴﺦ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬:‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬٢١. )٢ (‫ﻨﺎﺼﻑ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬)١٩٨٢‫ﻡ‬(،"‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬".‫ﺹ‬٢٩.
  • ٦٢ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬"‫ﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺨﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬")١( ‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬‫ﻴﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬‫ﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺩل‬‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔ‬‫ﺎﺘﻪ‬.‫ﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺒﻌﺽ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﻜﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻗل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬.‫ﺤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ،‫ﺃﺭﺒﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺘﻤﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘـﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬)٢( . ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﺭﻑ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬"‫ﻗـﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺒـﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﻜﻥ‬‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬‫ﺒﺄ‬ ،‫ﺒﺴﻁ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﺩ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻗ‬‫ﻭﻗ‬ ‫ﺼﺭ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫ﺃﻗل‬‫ﻤﻤﻜﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜـﺎﻟﻴﻑ‬")٣( .‫ﻭﻴﻘـﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﻭﻥ‬‫ﻤﻨﻬﻡ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻻﻋﺘﻘـﺎﺩﻫﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻗﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻜ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬‫ﺒﺄﻨﻬـﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻔﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻜـﺫﻟﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘـﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻫﺏ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ‬ )١ (‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻲ‬)١٩٨٥‫ﻡ‬(،"‫ﺍﻟﺤـﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻅـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺭﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻎ‬"‫ﺴﻠـﺴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬‫ﺔ‬)٥(‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﻓﺩﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺼل‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬‫ﺹ‬١٥. )٢ (‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭ‬‫ﻭﻋﺩﻨﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻴﻭﻱ‬،‫ﺤﻤﺯﺓ‬)١٩٨٧‫ﻡ‬(،"‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺩﻭﺓ‬-‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ،١٧. )٣ (‫ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺸﻘﺎﻭﻱ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﺭ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻭﺱ‬)١٩٨٠‫ﻡ‬(‫ﻨﺩﻭﺓ‬ ،‫ﺒﻌﻨﻭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﻭﻗﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﺜﺭ‬‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜـﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬٢٧٦.
  • ٦٣ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬. ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻭﺘﻘـﻭﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﻴـﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﻌﻜﺴﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺠﻪ‬.‫ﺍﻟـﺼﻌﻭﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺭﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ،.‫ﺇﻻ‬‫ﺘﻘﻠـل‬ ‫ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴـﺴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤـﺭﻴﻜﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﺤﺩ‬ )‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬)١( .‫ﻤـﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟـﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌـﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻁﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻤ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻜﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﻯ‬‫ﻭﻤﻴﻭﻟﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻠﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ‬.‫ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺎﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺒـﺎﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘـﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﺘﺸﺭﻴﻌﺎﺕ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻤـﺩﻯ‬‫ﺘـ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻓﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺘﺼﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺍﺕ‬.‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻫﻴﻙ‬‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﺎﻟﻤﺤﺴﻭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻌﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬‫ﻭﻀﻌﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤـ‬ ‫ﻨﻅـﺎﻡ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬.‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬‫ﻭﻋـﺩﻡ‬‫ﺘﺤـﺩﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬،‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨﻘﺹ‬‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺤﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ...‫ﺍﻟﺦ‬. ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﻭل‬‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺃﺕ‬‫ﺘﻁﺭﺡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌل‬‫ﺇﻨﺘـﺎﺠﻴﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻭﻜﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻤﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻷﻋﻤﺎﻟﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺌﻬﻡ‬.‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺒل‬ ،‫ﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩﻤﻭﺍ‬ ،‫ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺜﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﺒﺭﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻤﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺩﻭﻫﺎ‬ )١ (‫ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺸﻘﺎﻭﻱ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﺭ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻭﺱ‬)١٩٨٠(‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬‫ﺹ‬٢١٨.
  • ٦٤ ‫ﻜﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬‫ﻤﺴﺘﻘل‬‫ﻜﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬‫ﺘـ‬‫ﺎﺒﻊ‬. ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺒﺭﻴﺭﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﻴـﻀ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺘﻔﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺅﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺒﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺭﺘﻔﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻤﺘﻨﺎﻨﻪ‬.‫ﻴـﻨﺨﻔﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﻌﻜﺱ‬ ‫ﺇﻗﺒ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻘل‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻘل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎﻩ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟـﻭﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻤﺘﻨـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤـﺸﺎﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺅﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻨﺨﻔﺽ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻘل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬)١( . ‫ﺸﻜل‬‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬)٥( ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬ *‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬:‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬)١٩٩٥.(‫ﺍﻟ‬ ،‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻅﻭﺭ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬،‫ﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬٦٥. )١ (‫ﺼﻘﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ‬،‫ﻋﺎﺸﻭﺭ‬)١٩٨٥(،"‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬"،‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺹ‬٢٩،٣٠. ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬
  • ٦٥ ‫ﻴﺭﻓﻀﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬‫ﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻌﻠﻠﻭﻥ‬: -‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﺴﺒﻴل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻠﻰ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﺠﺘﻬﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻔﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻫﻴﻜل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺭﻜﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺨـ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺼﻨﻴﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺨﻭل‬ ‫ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺝ‬.‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻭﺍﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬. -‫ﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬‫ﺕ‬‫ﻭﻫـﻭ‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻨﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬.‫ﻭﻫـﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺘﻔﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺯﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬‫ﻜﻨﺘﻴﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻅﻬـﺭ‬ ‫ﻜﻼﻫﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‬. ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ،‫ﺒﺎﻻﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻼﺤﻅ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻏﺒـﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻤﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻤـل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻗﺘـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺼﺎﻋﺏ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺜﺭ‬‫ﻤﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻗﺎﺒـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻁ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬.‫ﻭﻟ‬‫ﻟـﻸﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻨﻤﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻠﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨـﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤـﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬)١( . ‫ﺃﻤ‬‫ﺍﻻ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺴﻜﻨﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻴﺅﻴﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬(Skinnar)‫ﻭﻓﺭﻭﻡ‬(Vroom)‫ﻭﺒـﻭﺭﺘﺭ‬(Porter) ‫ﻭﻟﻭﻟﺭ‬(Lowler) )٢( . )١ (‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ‬،‫ﻤﺎﻫﺭ‬)٢٠٠٢(،"‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬"‫ﺹ‬ ،٢٤٥. )٢ (‫ﺤﺎﻤﺩ‬‫ﺒﺩﺭ‬)١٩٨٣(.‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬‫ﺹ‬٦٤.
  • ٦٦ ‫ﻴﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺱ‬،‫ﻴﻌ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬‫ﻫـﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻼﺯﻤﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺠـﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭﻴﻥ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺩﺨﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻌﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﺒﻙ‬. ‫ﺘـﺄﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺈﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﺁﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻀﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺘـﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤـﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬.
  • ٦٧ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀـﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺘﻜﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬. ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺼل‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺠﺄﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻋﺭﻓﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬. ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻓﺫ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺸﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ،‫ﺸﺄﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻨﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺎﻟ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﹸﻔﺭﺽ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﻁﺎﻋﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﺒﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺤﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﻁﻌﺘ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﺭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬‫ﻜﻡ‬‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺭﻭﻀـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻓﻀ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻔﺭﻨﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺨﻭﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬)١( . ‫ﻋﺭﻓ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﺕ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ‬،‫ﻓ‬‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻜـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺨ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ،‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﺸﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺭﻭﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺍﺌﺏ‬‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﺩﻤﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬.‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻴﺯﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﻭﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﺭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺎﺠﺭ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺓ‬)٢( .‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻅﻬﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺸـﻌﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻜﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺨﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺎ‬‫ﺒﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺨﻭﻟﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺎﺭ‬.‫ﻓـﺭﺩ‬ )١ (،‫ﺸﻌﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻤﺯ‬ ‫ﺸﻭﻗﻲ‬)١٩٩٤‫ﻡ‬" .(‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬."‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ ،‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬٢١. )٢ (،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺩ‬)٢٠٠٠‫ﻡ‬" .(‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﻌﻜﺎﺴﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﻟﺩ‬."‫ﻤﻨ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠـﻭﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻠـﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺸﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬٤٣.
  • ٦٨ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬"‫ﺭﺒـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺴﻠﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺭﻭﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻜﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﺩﺭ‬ ،‫ﻌﺸﺭ‬،‫ﺍﻟـﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺸﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ‬)١( . ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻨـﺎﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻊ‬‫ﺍﻋـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻔﺎﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ )‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬(‫ﺍﺘﺠﻬﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟـﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺍﻀﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺤﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻋﺎﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺘـﺭﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻜﺘﺸﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻴﺭﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻭﻅﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤـﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﻌـﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﻭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﺩﻴﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺩﺃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬.‫ﻭﻗﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘـﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺄ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺯﻋﺔ‬‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻨﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺍﺒـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺜـل‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻁﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻨﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺩﺍﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻀﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻼﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬)‫ﻜﺎﻟﻤﺨﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬(‫ﺃﻋﻤـﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﻀﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻓﻀ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺨﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻓﺴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻼﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺎﺴﺔ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﺽ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻋﻔﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻠﺯﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻴﺒﻲ‬(‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬)‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻤﺜﻴل‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﺭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ‬. ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺘﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬)‫ﻜﻤﺭﻙ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﻨﻲ‬)‫ﻤﻜﺱ‬(‫ﻭﺠﻤ‬‫ﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻨﻬـﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﺠﺒﺎﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻜﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺱ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻘﺎل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻤﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻜﺱ‬)‫ﻤﻜ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺱ‬(‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﻨﻲ‬)١( . )١ (،‫ﺸﻌﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻤﺯ‬ ‫ﺸﻭﻗﻲ‬)١٩٩٤.("‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬"‫ﺹ‬٢٥.
  • ٦٩ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺭﻀﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺼﻁﻼﺡ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻀﻤﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺨﻭﻟﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﺤﺎﺏ‬‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺹ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﹸﺴﺘﺜﻨﻰ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ،‫ﺫﺍﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ‬)٢( . ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻤﻴﺯ‬)٣( : ‫ﻭﺃﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻏﺭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻔﺭﺽ‬‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬. ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺒـﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻘﺼﺩ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻔﺭﺽ‬‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺒﻐـﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻟﻠـﺴﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺼﺩﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺴﺘﻭﺭﺩﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﺩﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻜـﺫﻟﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺠﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻐﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻴﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹸﻌﻔﻰ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬. ‫ﻏﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺴـﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻔﺭﺽ‬‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻋﻔﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻤﻭﻟﺔ‬‫ﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺘﻬﺠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ‬. ‫ﻴﻌﻨـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﺒﻼﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺨﻭﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻔﺭﺽ‬‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﻁﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺩﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺨـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻭ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‬. )١ (‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬)١٩٩٧‫ﻡ‬" .(‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤـﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻗﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻥ‬."‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻤـﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻗﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬٦. )٢ (‫ﻤﺭﻜ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺯ‬)١٩٩٧‫ﻡ‬.("‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬"‫ﺹ‬٦. )٣ (،‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻴﺽ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻴﺩ‬)٢٠٠١.("‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬"‫ﺹ‬٨٩.
  • ٧٠ ‫ﻭﻟﻘﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺕ‬‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻗـﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﻌـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤـﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺸﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻫﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻔﻜﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ‬،‫ﻟﻠﺠ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺭﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬.‫ﺼـﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻭﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻭل‬ ٣٢٦‫ﻭﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬٣/٢/١٣٤٩‫ﻫـ‬)١( ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ،‫ﺒﺭﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺤﻜﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ‬.‫ﺜﻼﺜـﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺸﺭﻴﻥ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﺘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬‫ﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﻜـﺯ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻀﻤ‬‫ﻤﻭﺯﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤـﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﺒﻊ‬ ،‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬.‫ﺜـﻡ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻨـﺸ‬‫ﺊ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ُﻁﻠﻕ‬‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻡ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺩﻴﻭﺍﻥ‬(‫ﺍﻹﺠـﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻤﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺘﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﺒﺤـﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﺅﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻭﺯﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﺼﺎﺼﺎﺕ‬)٢( . ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻟﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﻬﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ُﻨﺸﺌﺕ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻓﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺸﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻜﺎﻟ‬‫ﻤﻭﺍﻨ‬‫ﺊ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬،‫ﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺠﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻤﻨ‬‫ﺎﻁﻕ‬‫ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ‬ ،‫ﺒﺭﻴﺔ‬،‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻓﺔ‬،‫ﺇﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﺹ‬‫ﺌ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻬـﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻟـﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﻁﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺸﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬ )١ (‫ﻨ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺸﺭ‬٢٩٣‫ﻭﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬٢٢/٢/١٣٤٩‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻭﺜﺎﺌﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ،‫ﻫـ‬. )٢ (‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬)١٩٨٠".(‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺫﻜﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﺌﺤﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬"‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ،ﺍﻟﻤﻁـ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ،ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﺹ‬١٠.
  • ٧١ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬٢٩/٢/١/٢٣٣١‫ﻭﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬٢٩/٢/١٣٧٢‫ﻗﺒـل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻫـ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎﻤ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻤﺴﺅﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻴﺭ‬‫ﻪ‬)١( .‫ﺃﻋ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬‫ﺃﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺒﻀﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻘﺏ‬‫ﺼـﺩ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻗـﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜـﻲ‬ ‫ﺒـﺎﻷﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴـﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬﺎﺕ‬٤٢٥ ‫ﻭﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬٥/٣/١٣٧٢‫ﻫـ‬)٢( .‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺸﺘﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺸ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻤل‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬‫ﺠﻤﻴـﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺘـﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻤﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺴﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬.‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬١٣٩٢‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺼﺩﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻫـ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﺩﺭﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬)‫ﻡ‬/٥٦(‫ﻭﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬١٩/١٠/١٤٠٧‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘـ‬ ‫ﻫــ‬ ‫ﺭﻗـﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻁﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﻭﻜﺴل‬ ‫ﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬ )٣/١٨٠٥(‫ﻭﺘﺎﺭ‬‫ﻴﺦ‬١٩/١٠/١٤١٠‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹸﺸﺭ‬‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻫـ‬)٣( . ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺍﻟﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﺨﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺩﻟﻴ‬٧١٦‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﺘﻤل‬ ‫ﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺱ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺒﻭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻭل‬)٤( . ‫ﻭﻤﻊ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻏﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻤﻭل‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻓﻘﻴﺭﺓ‬،‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬‫ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬.‫ﻭﻴﻌـﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺫ‬‫ﻟﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬)‫ﻭﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴـﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ،‫ﺩﺴﺎﺘﻴﺭ‬ ،‫ﺇﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻴﻌﺔ‬... )١ (‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬)١٩٨٠".(‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬"‫ﺹ‬١١. )٢ (‫ﺭﻗـﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜـﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬٤٢٥‫ﻓـﻲ‬٥/٣/١٣٧٢‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬ ،‫ﻫــ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬)١٤٠٠‫ﻫـ‬(‫ﺹ‬١٢-١٣ )٣ (‫ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻓﻅ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﺩ‬،)١٩٩٤‫ﻡ‬" .(‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺴﻕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﺔ‬."،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬـﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ‬١. )٤ (‫ﺘﻨ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬)١٩٩٩.(‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻟﻴل‬،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹ‬ ،‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﻁﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬١.
  • ٧٢ ‫ﺍﻟﺦ‬(‫ﻭﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺘﻪ‬.‫ﺒﻬ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﻭل‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨـﺫ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﺭﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﺭﻀﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺒﺎﻥ‬.‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻴﺯ‬‫ﻏﻴﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻤﺎﺕ‬: -‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺔ‬: ‫ﻟﻸﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﻨﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺘﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺨﺘﺼﺎﺼﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺎﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻘﺼﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻴﻴﺭ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺏ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻤﺜل‬:،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺘﺏ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴـل‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﻋﻔﺎﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺌﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻌﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻡ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬(‫ﺍﻟﺘـﺩﻗﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻗـﺴﻡ‬ ،)‫ﺒﻌـﺽ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬(‫ﺍﻵﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻡ‬ ،. -‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺔ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻘﺼﺩ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﻭﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺼﻴل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻨﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﻠﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬)‫ﺘﻔﺘﻴﺸﻬﺎ‬(‫ﻭﺒﻌـﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬.‫ﻫـﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺵ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺭﺏ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬: −‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺒﻘﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺭﻗـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻜـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ‬. −‫ﺍﻟﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺜﻤﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴـﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻀـﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺤﻘﺔ‬.
  • ٧٣ −‫ﺇﺠـﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺨـﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺭﺴﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺭﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻭﻴل‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻤل‬ ‫ﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻴﺎل‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺎﺩﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬)١( . ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻤﺜل‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺤﺎﻟﻴـ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻫﺎﻤ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻌﺏ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟـﺩﻋﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻋﻔﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺒـﻪ‬ ‫ﺤﻅـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﺭﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻬﻭﺽ‬‫ﻓﺴ‬‫ﻟﻠﺩﻭﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘـﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻨﻭﻴﻊ‬. –‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺕ‬: ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻟﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸ‬ ‫ﻪ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴ‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ،‫ﺠﻭﻴـﺔ‬ ،‫ﺒﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺫ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻗﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺹ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬.‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴـﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻴﻘﺘﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﻴﺨل‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺨﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺫﻫﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﻁﻨ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻓﺭﺍﺩﻫﺎ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﻤﻨﻴ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺼﺤﻴ‬ ‫ﻴﻬﺎ‬.‫ﺒﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻜﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﺤﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻼﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻥ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬: −‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺨﻭﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻅﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟـﺔ‬‫ﻤﺜـﺎل‬‫ﺫﻟـﻙ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻜﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟـﺸﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺭﺍﺌﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻷﺴﻠﺤﺔ‬... ‫ﻭﻨﻅﺎﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺄﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬. −‫ﺍﻟﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﺭﻭﺠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻅﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬‫ﻭﻟ‬‫ﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﺔ‬‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺜﺭﻴﺔ‬‫ﺒﺨﺭﻭﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﺭﺍﺜ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺜﺭﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬. )١ (‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬)١٩٨٥.(‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬.‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﻟﻸﻭﻓﺴﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ،ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬٦٢
  • ٧٤ −‫ﺍﺴـﺘﻴﺭﺍﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﺘـﺼﺩﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺘـﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺼﺎﺭﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘـﺎﻗﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻴﺔ‬...‫ﺍﻟﺦ‬.( −‫ﺘﺼﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻤﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒـﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻴﺭﺍﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻨﺴﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﺩﺕ‬‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﺼﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﻴﺭﺍﺩ‬ )‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺭﺍﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻤﺎل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ‬.(‫ﺸـ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬‫ﺃﻨـﻭﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻋ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻭﻋﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺁﻨﻔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻔﺎﻋل‬ ‫ﺇﻁﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬)١( . ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺀ‬‫ﺠﺯ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻤﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺴﻼﻤﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﺎﻓﻅ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺨل‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻼﻤﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜﺩ‬.‫ﺒﻤﺜﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺫ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ )‫ﻤﺼﻔﺎﺓ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﻫﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺫﻟﻙ‬ ، ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ‬‫ﺘﺤﺼ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ل‬. ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﻙ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻀـﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺘﺵ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺠﺴﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻋﺒﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ،‫ﺃﺸﻜﺎﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺭﻴﺏ‬.‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺼـﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺩﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﺨﻀﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺘﻬﺩﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺎﺘﻪ‬. ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﻙ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﻭﺘﻨـﺸﺄ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺒل‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺘﺵ‬ ‫ﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻨـﺸﺄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ،‫ﻭﻭﺍﺠﺒﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻌﺏ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻪ‬ )١ (،‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻴﺽ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻴﺩ‬)٢٠٠٢‫ﻡ‬.("‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬"‫ﺹ‬٨٩.
  • ٧٥ ‫ﹼ‬‫ﺨ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﻜﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ،‫ﻠﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬـﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ‬.‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻁﻔﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔـﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻓﻀ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺍﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬.‫ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻔﺘـﺸ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻫـﻡ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﺭﺩﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻜﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺘﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺹ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﻟﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ‬. ‫ﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻋـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬‫ﻭﺼﺎﺭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻙ‬.‫ﺠـﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺸﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺸﺩﻴﺩ‬.‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺍﻗﻔ‬ ‫ﻴﻅل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ‬‫ﻭﺼـﻭل‬ ‫ﺯﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻜﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺘﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻔﺤﺹ‬ ‫ﻀﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤ‬ ‫ﺴـﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺭﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻭﺍﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺌﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﻠـﻪ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺵ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﻤل‬‫ﺒﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟـﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻓﺄﺤﻴﺎﻨ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺼﺒﺎﺤ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻐﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﺤﺩﺜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﻀﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺄﺘﻭﻥ‬. ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻜﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺵ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﺠﺎﻟﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻅﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺄﻜﻴـﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﻡ‬ ،‫ﻤﺭﻴﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻀﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ،‫ﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺌﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﺭﺍﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﺴﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻭﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻭﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻌﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺭﺍﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺯﻟﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﻨﺎﺩﻗﻬﻡ‬.‫ﻨﻔـﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺯﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻨﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﻴﺒﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺎﻓﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻀﺏ‬ ‫ﺴﺭﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻨﻭﺍ‬. ‫ﹼ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺨ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤـﺎﻤﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﺭﺩﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺼﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻤﻜﻨـﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﺴﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻀﺎﺌﻌﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﺨﺭﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺼﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﻭﺭﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﺼﻴل‬ ‫ﺃﺼﺤﺎﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻠﻴﻤﻬﺎ‬.‫ﻷﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺭﻭﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﻜﻭﻨﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ‬
  • ٧٦ ‫ﻭﻫ‬ ،‫ﺒﻀﺎﺌﻌﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻁﻴل‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺵ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻁﻴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬.‫ﻓﺈﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺸﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﺴﻠﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺎﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﻓﺒﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﻨﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻬﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺎﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻴﻘﻅ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺨل‬. ‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺒل‬ ‫ﺴﻬﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺵ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻜـﺱ‬ ‫ﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺵ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻤﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺒﻘﺩﺭ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬.‫ﻭﻟ‬‫ﻋﻼﻗ‬ ‫ﻠﻤﻔﺘﺵ‬‫ﺎﺕ‬‫ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬‫ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ‬‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺸﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺯﻤﻼﺌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻊ‬ ،‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻁﻭ‬‫ﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺭ‬‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻭﻜﻪ‬. ‫ﻭﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻓﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﻭﺍﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻜﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻁل‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ‬.‫ﻜـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌـﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻻﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜـﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﻌﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺵ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻠﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻭﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺴﺠﺎﻤ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺫﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬. ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻴﺯ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜ‬‫ﻲ‬‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬‫ﻤـﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﺙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻠﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﺜﺎل‬ ،‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﺜﺒﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺘﻜﺒﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺸﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺭﺍﺌﻡ‬‫ﺫﻟـﻙ‬)‫ﺠـﺭﺍﺌﻡ‬
  • ٧٧ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻟﻔﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺭﻴﺏ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﻜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬‫ﻌﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺙ‬)١( . ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻗﺩ‬‫ﻨﺼ‬‫ﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤـﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻤـﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻀـﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ‬ ‫ﺤﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻬﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺽ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻬﻡ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ‬ ‫ﺘﻬﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﺸﺘﺒﺎﻩ‬‫ﺸﺨﺎﺹ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﺙ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﺼﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺯل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﺃﻤـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺈﺫﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻨﻁﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﺭﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬.‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻀﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻁ‬)٢( . ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬)٣(‫ﻻﺌﺤ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﻜﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻭﺍﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺸﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺭﻜﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻜل‬ ‫ﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺘﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻴـﺎل‬ ‫ﺴـﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺯﻭﺍﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺎﺒﻴﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻥ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬.‫ﺘﺤـﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺩﻭﺍﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺘﻅل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺤﻭﺍل‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻐﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺒﺔ‬.‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺴـﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺨﺭﺍﺠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻔﺴﺢ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺤﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻤﻌﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬‫ﺇﺒﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺨﻭل‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬)٣( . -‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻭﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬: )١ (،‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻤﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬)١٩٩٤‫ﻡ‬" .(‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠ‬ ‫ﻤﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻤﺭﻜ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬."‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁـﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤـﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤـﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬٦. )٢ (‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬)١٩٨٠("‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬"‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬)٦. ( )٣ (‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬)١٩٨٠("‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬"‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬)٦. (
  • ٧٨ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﻀﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬‫ﻘﺼﺩ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ "‫ﺃﻤـﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻘﺘـﻀﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻀﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻐل‬ ‫ﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻤ‬‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺯﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻠﻜﻲ‬")١( . ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻔﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻟﻴل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅـﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨـﺕ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺸﻌﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﻴﺔ‬‫ﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬.‫ﻭﺍﻹﺭﺴﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺤـﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﻼﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻜﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻤﺘﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﺌﺤﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠـﻭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺍﺒ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺤﻜﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻭﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺩﻗﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺫ‬ ‫ﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻭﺍﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻴﻔﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺩﺍﺕ‬. ‫ﻓﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻫﻠﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻊ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺘﻬﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺭﺍﻗﺏ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻗﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺘﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬‫ﻭﺘﻨﻔﻴـﺫ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺭﺴﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﺎﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻟﻔـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘـﺎﺭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺭﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﺨﺭﻭﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺭﻭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺜﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬. ‫ﻋـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻋـﺩﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻠـﻎ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻜﻭﺍﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﻤل‬١٩٩٨‫ﻡ‬ )٦٧٣٧(‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺯﻋﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔ‬‫ﻋـﺩﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻉ‬)٣٣(‫ﻤﻨﻔـﺫ‬ )١ (‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬)١٩٩٤.(‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴل‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬.
  • ٧٩ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬)١( ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻜل‬ ، ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻤﺜل‬:- -‫ﺠﻤـﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﻟﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ‬. -‫ﻤﻴ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬‫ﻤﻁـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ‬. -‫ﺠﻤـﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻴـﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺴـﻠﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺘﻨﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﺱ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺨﻔﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻔﺫ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻅﻬﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﺒﻴل‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬‫ﺠﻤـﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﻓﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻌﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﺱ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ‬. -،‫ﺍﻟﻁـﻭﺍل‬ ‫ﺠﻤـﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺠـﺎﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺠﻤـﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺃﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻭﺩﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﻋﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺨﻀﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺴﺎﻥ‬. -،‫ﺘﺒـﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﻋﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬‫ﻀﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺩﺭﺓ‬. -‫ﺠﻤـﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﻁﺭﻴـﻑ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﻋﺭﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬. ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﻨﺹ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬‫ﻤﻨﺢ‬‫ﻟﻤـﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺘـﺼﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻓـﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺨﺒﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺎﻟﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﺸﻔﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻨﺠـﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﻴـﺙ‬ )١ (‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬)١٩٩٨‫ﻡ‬.("‫ﺍﻟﺘ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤـﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻤـﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻘﺭﻴﺭ‬"‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬١٧.
  • ٨٠ )٢٧١(‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺌﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺭﻗـﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺩﻟﺔ‬٣/١٢١٠‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ٢/٦/١٤١٤‫ﺒﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺭﻭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻫـ‬)١٢٠٠(‫ﻜـل‬ ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭ‬)٧٥٠(‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺯﻴـﺩ‬ ‫ﺠـﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻨـﺼﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺭﻭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬)٢٧١(‫ﺒـﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﺭﻑ‬‫ﺠﺭﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭ‬)٤٥٠٠(‫ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ .‫ﻓﺒﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬)٢٧٠٠(‫ﺠـﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻠـﻭ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬.‫ﻤﻜﺎﻓـ‬ ‫ﺃﻤـﺎ‬‫ﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻨﺼﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻜﺭﺍﺕ‬)٢٧١(‫ﻴﺼﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬)٢٠٠٠(‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﺭﺯﻥ‬،‫ﻓﺄﻗـل‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺎﻴﺔ‬،‫ﻭﺒﻭﺍﻗـﻊ‬)٦٠٠( ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺯﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬.‫ﺃﻭﻋﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺜﻼﺜـﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺼﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺭﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺜﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺭ‬)٦٠٠(‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬.‫ﺒﻘﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻌﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺠﺯﺍﺀﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻨﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺼﺭﻑ‬٣٠%‫ﻭﺍﻟـﻀﺎﺒﻁﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺨﺒﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬.‫ﺘﺼﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺠﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺍﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻨﺼﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬٢٧٢‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺌﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬٢٧١‫ﻤﻜﺎﻓ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺂﺕ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻭﻟﻴـﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺼﺹ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺓ‬٤٢%‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺂﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺩﺭﺏ‬"‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌﺱ‬"‫ﻭﺫﻟـﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻬﺭ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﻴﺩ‬١٠٠%‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬٩٠%‫ﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻋ‬‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺠﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬٧٠%‫ﻭﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺒـﻭل‬ ‫ﺘﻘـﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬٤٠%‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺨـﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺒﻭل‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﺘﻜﺭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻀﻌﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺤﺼل‬
  • ٨١ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺸﻬﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺔ‬٤٠%‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﺘﻜﺭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻭ‬ ، ‫ﺘﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﻡ‬‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺸﻬﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻀﻌﻴﻑ‬)١( . ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻟﻎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺨﺼﺹ‬‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺭﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻤﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺎﺭﻴﺭﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺨﺼﺹ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﺭﺒﺎﺕ‬٢٠%‫ﺒﻘـﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺸﺭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬ * . ‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺄﺨﻭﺫﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻐﺭﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﻅـﻑ‬ ‫ﺩﻓﻌﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴـﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺨـﺎﻟﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬)٢( ‫ﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ،:- )‫ﺃ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺭﻭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻏﺭﺍﻤﺔ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨـﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻤـﺴﻤﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺸـﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴـﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺩﺨل‬)‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻭﻜـﺎﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤـﺸﻴﺵ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻴﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻴﺠﻭﺍﻨﺎ‬(‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺭﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﻤﺴﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎﺌﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻑ‬ ‫ﻏﺭﺍﻤﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺇ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‬‫ﺴـﺒﻌﻤﺎﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﺭﺍﻤﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻜـﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﺨﻤﺴﻭﻥ‬. )‫ﺏ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺭﻭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﺭﺍﻤﺔ‬: ‫ﺒﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻔﺭﺽ‬)٤٥٠٠(‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬ ‫ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺒﻌﻤﺎﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﺭﺍﻤﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬. )‫ﺠـ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻏﺭﺍﻤﺔ‬: )١ (‫ﻤ‬‫ﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬)١٩٨٠(."‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬"‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺹ‬٢٧١‫ـ‬٢٧٢ * ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺒﺎﺩل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺼﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻡ‬‫ﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻤﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬. )٢ (‫ﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺩ‬)١٩٩٤.("‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻨﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻀﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﺭﺍﻤﺔ‬"،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤـﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤـﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ‬.‫ﺹ‬١٢
  • ٨٢ ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻔﺭﺽ‬‫ﺍﻟـﻭﺯﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘـﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻁﺒﻘـ‬ ‫ﺠـﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻠـﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻜـل‬ ‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬٤/١٤٣٣‫ﻓﻲ‬١٧/٧/١٣٩١‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻤﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻫـ‬١٣٥٦٦‫ﻓﻲ‬٢/٨/١٣٩١‫ﻫـ‬. )‫ﺩ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺴﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﺭﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﺭﺍﻤﺔ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤـﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺭﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺨﻤﺴﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻔﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻌﻤﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ‬٦١/١١٨/١/‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃ‬٣/٤/١٤٠٦‫ﻫـ‬. )‫ﻫـ‬(‫ﺒﻤﻨﺎﻓﻴﺴﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻏﺭﺍﻤﺔ‬)‫ﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬٢٧٤:( ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻅﻬﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺨﻼﺹ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﺤﺎﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺯﺍﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺴﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﻀﻴﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺭﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﺄﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬: −‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻀﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﺭﺍﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬. −‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻨﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘـﻀﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨـﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﺭﺍﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻤﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬. −‫ﺍﻟﻔـﻭﺍﺘﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀـﺢ‬ ‫ﻫـﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺯﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺍﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺼﻴل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‬٥.%‫ﺯﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ‬٥%‫ﻟﻤﻘ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﺭﺍﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺤﺼل‬‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﻀﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ‬.
  • ٨٣ −‫ﻟﺠﺭﻴﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻜﻭﻨ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻁﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺭﻴﺏ‬. ‫ﻟﻶﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻁﺒﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﺯﻉ‬: ٦٠%‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﻜﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺄ‬ ‫ﺍﻜﺘﺸﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬. ٢٠%‫ﻜﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬. ٢٠%‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬. -‫ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻻﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬: ‫ﺃ‬-‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺩل‬: ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺩل‬ ‫ﻴﺼﺭﻑ‬١٥%‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺼل‬٣٥%‫ﺃﻭل‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺒﻭﻁ‬‫ﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺴﻲ‬.‫ﺍﻷﺩﻨـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤـﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘﺹ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﺒﻌ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺒﺈﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺄﺜﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻗﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺩل‬)‫ﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬(.‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻋـﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻐﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩﻴل‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬٧,٥% ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺩﻨﻰ‬. ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﻠﻤ‬‫ﺸﻌﺏ‬‫ﻋﻨﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐـﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨـﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻠـﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺴﻜﺭﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻴﺯﺍل‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺩل‬٣٥% ‫ﺒﺎﻋ‬‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﻀﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﻡ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺜﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬. ‫ﺏ‬-‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺩل‬: ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻌﻭﺒﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺩل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺼﺭﻑ‬١٥%‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺃﻭل‬ ‫ﺃﺼل‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤـﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺨـﺼﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﻜـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻗـﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ،‫ﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺒﻭﻁ‬
  • ٨٤ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ،‫ﺭﻜﻲ‬)‫ﻤﺭﺍﻗﺏ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻗﻕ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺼﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬.( ‫ﺝ‬-‫ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺩل‬)‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭ‬:( ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻔﺎﻭﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﺭﻑ‬.‫ﻤﺒﻠـﻎ‬ ‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺼل‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ٢٨٠‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬.‫ﺒﻌـﺽ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻗﻔـﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ُﻟﻐﻴﺕ‬‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻻﺯﺍﻟﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻻﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅـﻑ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌـﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺩﻭﻯ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬،‫ﺫﻟـﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺒل‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺠﺩ‬)‫ﺒـﺩل‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻭﻯ‬(،‫ﺇﻟﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺼﺭﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺎﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺠـﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻬﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻠﺹ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺒﺯﻤ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺩﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻼﺌﻬﻡ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒـﺩﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻻﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺒـﺄﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺨﺼﻭﺼ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺯﻤﻼﺌﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﻔﺱ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺒـﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻁﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺂﺨﺭ‬. ‫ﺘﻘل‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﻗـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤـﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺼﺩﻯ‬‫ﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺒﻬـﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺘﻘـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻁـﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺭﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻁﻭﻴل‬ ‫ﻟﻭﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬
  • ٨٥ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﺄﻗﻠﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺌﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩﻫﺎ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬‫ﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺔ‬: •‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺨﻁﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬. •‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺸﻴﺢ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠـﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺴـﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻬ‬‫ﺎ‬. •‫ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻠﻴﻑ‬‫ﺎﺘﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺯﻤـﻼﺅﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻤﻴﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬. •‫ﻀـﺒﻁﻪ‬ ‫ﺨﻼﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ،‫ﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﻨﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻬﺭﺒﺎﺕ‬)١( . •‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺤـﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻨـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺫ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻤﺘﺩﺍﺡ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬. •‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬.‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﻀﺒﺎﻁﻪ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻁﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬)٢( . ‫ﻤﻬـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻤﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺒـﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺒﻬـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺜـل‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺍﺠﺒﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓـﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒـﺩﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻟـﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺭﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺭﻓـﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﺎﻤﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻌﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻟﺒﺫل‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻔﻴﺯﻫﻡ‬.‫ﻜﺎﻨـﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒـﺩﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻑ‬ ‫ﺩﻋﺕ‬ )١ (‫ﺒﻴﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬)١٩٩٤(.‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬١٠٣. )٢ (‫ﺒﻴﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬ ،‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬١٠٣.
  • ٨٦ ‫ﺒﻘـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﻟﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻔﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴـﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺭﺍﻜﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺒﺭﺍﺘﻬﻡ‬.‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻬﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺭﺒﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ‬‫ﺍﺕ‬)١( . )١ (‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺩ‬)٢٠٠٠(‫ﻤ‬‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﺭﺠﻊ‬‫ﺹ‬٧٤.
  • ‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻬﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ً‫ﻻ‬‫أو‬:‫اﻟﺪراﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺞ‬‫وأدواﺗﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴ‬:‫وﺛﺒﺎﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺒﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﺪق‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜ‬:‫اﻟﺪراﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫راﺑﻌ‬:‫أﺳ‬‫اﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﻴﺐ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
  • ٨٦ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻬﺠﻲ‬ ‫اﻹﻃﺎر‬ :‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ١−‫א‬ ‫א‬: ‫ﻴﺸﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺜﺎﺌﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺜﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻊ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻜﻴﻔﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻜﻤﻴ‬)١( .‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺼﻔﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻬﺠﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬.‫ﻭﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻬﺠﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﻟﻭﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬)٢( . ‫ﻤ‬‫ﺴﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻭﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﻟﻭﺼﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﻟﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ‬(.‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺠﻲ‬‫ﺍﻵﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻭﺭﻴﻥ‬: ‫ﺃ‬(‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺜﻴﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﻲ‬: ( ‫ﺍﻟـﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻁﻼﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺭﻀ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻁﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺜﺎﺌﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬. ‫ﺏ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬: ‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴـﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺨﺼﻴﺼ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻌﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬‫ﻭﺠﻤﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ‬. )١ (‫ﻋﻁﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻭ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺩﻱ‬)١٩٩٦(."‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ‬"،‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫ‬‫ﺭﺓ‬:‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‬‫ﺹ‬١١٤. )٢ (‫ﺍﻟﻌﺴﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬)١٩٩٥(."‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺨل‬"،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬:‫ﻤﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺔ‬، ‫ﻟﻌﺒﻴﻜـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺹ‬٢٠٣-٢٠٧-٣٦١-٢٦٣.
  • ٨٧ ٢−‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬: ‫ﺘ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ، ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﻘﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼل‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺭﺴﺔ‬‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻴﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺴﺘﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺩﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻨﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬،‫ﻭﻭ‬‫ﻀ‬‫ﻌﺕ‬‫ﺍﻻ‬‫ﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻼﺀﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻬﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬)٤٥(‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺔ‬)١(‫ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻘﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬: ‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ‬:‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺤـﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﺼل‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺴـﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ‬ ، ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺸﺘﻤﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺴﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺨﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﺱ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ‬:‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬)٢٥(‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺭﺕ‬)١-٥(‫ﻓﻘﺭﺍﺕ‬ ،، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺒﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺸﻤل‬)١-٥(‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻤﺎﻥ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺸﻤل‬ ‫ل‬)٦-١٠( ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺸﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬)١١-١٥(‫ﻭﺘﺸﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭ‬‫ﺍﺕ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬)١٦-٢٠(‫ﻭ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺸﻤل‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬)٢١- ٢٥. (
  • ٨٨ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ‬:‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬)١٥(‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬: ١-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭ‬‫ﺍﺕ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬)١-٣(‫ﺨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬. ٢-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭ‬‫ﺍﺕ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬)٤-١٥(‫ﺨﺎﺼ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬. −‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺼل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬‫ﺒﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ‬‫ﺒﻌـﺩ‬ ‫ﻤـﺭﺕ‬‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﺤل‬‫ﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻋﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻻﺯﻤﺔ‬‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻘﺼﺎﺀ‬‫ﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﺨﻴﺼﻬﺎ‬: ‫ﺃ‬(‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﺩﻕ‬: ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﺩﺒﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻤﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﻭﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻨﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﺫ‬‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺤﺫﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻡ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﻀﺕ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﺩﻴل‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺴﺌﻠﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻠ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﻀﻬﺎ‬‫ﻭﻡ‬ ‫،ﻭﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻌﺽ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻌﺽ‬ ، ‫ﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺤﺎﺕ‬
  • ٨٩ ‫ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺫﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬.‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻑ‬‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻼﺤﻕ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬)٢(‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬. ‫ﺏ‬(‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬: ‫ﻋـﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴـﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻋﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺭﻭﻥ‬‫ﻟﻼﺨﺘﺒـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻜﺭﻭﻨﺒـﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻔـﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻤـل‬ ‫ﺤـﺴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻋﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ )cronbach alpha(‫ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬٠,٨٧‫ﻭﻫـﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﻴـ‬ ‫ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻀﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺠﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺩل‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ‬. :‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟـﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻭﺍﺌﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﻁﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬. ‫ﻋﺩﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬)٢٣٣(‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﻟﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﺨﻭل‬)٢٠٤(‫ﻭﻤﻔﺘﺸﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻔﺘﺸ‬. ‫א‬:‫א‬ ‫א‬: ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻠـﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺤـﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬)Statistical Package For Social Sciences(‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬: -‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻻﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﺼﻑ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺩ‬
  • ٩٠ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﻭﺩ‬.‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻻﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬. ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬‫ﻓﻴﻘﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺘﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬‫ﺒﺤﻭﺜﻴﻥ‬‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬. -‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬)١(‫ﻴ‬‫ﻌﻨ‬‫ﻲ‬‫ﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﺘـﺸﺘﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺯ‬‫ﻋـ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﻘﺎﺭﺒ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺩل‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬‫ﺒﻴ‬‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﺒﺤﻭﺜﻴﻥ‬. -‫ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬‫ﻴﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬)١(‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬‫ﻭﺘﺸﺘﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺸﻴﺭ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺎﻋﺩ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﺒﺤﻭﺜﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻀﻤﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬. -‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻤل‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻥ‬. -‫ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬)‫ﺕ‬(‫ﻻﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ‬‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬. -‫ﻤﺭﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬)‫ﻙ‬(‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬. -‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻴﻀﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬. ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ‬)٢٦-٣١(‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ‬)٣٢-٤٠(‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬)‫ﺜﺭﺴﺘﻭﻥ‬. ( ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﻗﻴﺎ‬‫ﺍﻵﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺱ‬: -‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬)٣,٥-٥,٠(‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻀﻤﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺩل‬. -‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬)٢,٥‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬٣,٥‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺩل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻀﻤﻭﻥ‬. -‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘ‬‫ﻭﺴﻁ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل‬٢,٥‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺩل‬‫ﻀ‬‫ﻌ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻀﻤﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻑ‬.
  • ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ً‫ﻻ‬‫أو‬:‫اﻟﺪراﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺮدات‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴـــــ‬:‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻏﺮاﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫دور‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺿﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺛــــــﺎﻟﺜ‬:‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫دور‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺿﺎ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫راﺑﻌـــــ‬:‫اﻟﺪراﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺮدات‬ ‫ﻟﺪى‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣ‬ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺴـ‬:‫اﻷداء‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘ‬ ‫ﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻮاﻣ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻤﺎرك‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻇﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺪى‬ ‫واﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬
  • ٩٢ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ :‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﺴـﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻴـﺩﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺤﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤـﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻤﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬.‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨـﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬ ‫ﻷﻫـﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﺭﻀ‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻔﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬)٢٠٤(‫ﻭﻤﻔﺘﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻔﺘﺸ‬: -‫ﺍﳉﻨﺲ‬: ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﻭ‬)١(‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬)١(‫ﻟﻠﺠـﻨﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ‬٢٠٤‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻅﻤـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺭ‬٨٧,٣%‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬١٢,٧%‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬٠ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)١( ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻨﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻨﺲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬% ‫ﺫﻛﺮ‬١٧٩٨٧,٣ ‫ﺃﻧﺜﻰ‬٢٥١٢,٧ ‫ﻤـــــــﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬٢٠٤١٠٠%
  • ٩٣ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬)١( ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻨﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ -‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ‬)٢(‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬)٢(‫ﻭﻗـﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤـﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻐﺕ‬١٩٥‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﺒﺤﻭﺜ‬٩٥,٦%‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻊ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬‫ﻥ‬٣٠-٣٩‫ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺴـﻨﺔ‬ ٤٤,١%‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬٢٠-٢٩‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬٤٠,٥% ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ‬٤٠-٤٩‫ﻓﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻁﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل‬ ‫ﻓﺌﺔ‬٢٠‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬١,٥%‫ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬٥٠‫ﻓﺄﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬١,٠%٠ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)٢( ‫ﻭﻓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬% ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل‬٢٠‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬٣١,٥ ‫ﻤﻥ‬٢٠–٢٩‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬٧٩٤٠,٥ ‫ﻤﻥ‬٣٠–٣٩‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬٨٦٤٤,١ ‫ﻤﻥ‬٤٠–٤٩‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬٢٥١٢,٨ ٥٠‫ﻓﺄﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬٢١,٠ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤـــــــﻭﻉ‬١٩٥١٠٠% ‫ﻤﻜﺘﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬)٩( ٢٥ ١٧٩ ‫أﻧﺜﻰ‬ ‫ذآﺮ‬
  • ٩٤ ٢ ٢٥ ٨٦ ٧٩ ٣ ٠ ٢٠ ٤٠ ٦٠ ٨٠ ١٠٠ ١‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ٢٢٥٨٦٧٩٣ ٥٠ ‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺄآﺜﺮ‬ - ٤٠ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ٤٩ - ٣٠ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ٣٩ -٢٠ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ٢٩ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ٢٠ ‫ﺸﻜل‬)٢( ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ -‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل‬: ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬)٣(‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬)٣(‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺅﻫل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺼﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻊ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ‬. ‫ﺒﻨﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﺼﻠﻴﻥ‬٤٢,٦%‫ﻭ‬٤١,٢%‫ﻴﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺼﻠﻴﻥ‬٧,٤%‫ﻭ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺼﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺒﺘﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬٦,٤%،٢,٤%٠
  • ٩٥
  • ٩٦ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)٣( ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺅﻫل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬% ‫ﺍﺒﺘﺩﺍﺌﻲ‬٥٢,٤ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬١٣٦,٤ ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻭﻱ‬٨٧٤٢,٦ ‫ﺒﻜﺎﻟﻭﺭﻴﻭﺱ‬٨٤٤١,٢ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬١٥٧,٤ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤـــــــﻭﻉ‬٢٠٤١٠٠% ‫ﺸﻜل‬)٣( ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺅﻫل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ -‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬: ١٥ ٨٤٨٧ ١٣ ٥ ٠ ٢٠ ٤٠ ٦٠ ٨٠ ١٠٠ ١‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ١‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ١٥٨٤٨٧١٣٥ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫دراﺳﺎت‬‫ﺑﻜﺎﻟﻮرﻳﻮس‬‫ﺛﺎﻧﻮي‬‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬‫اﺑﺘﺪاﺋﻲ‬
  • ٩٧ ١٥ ٣٣ ٦٨ ٤٤ ٣٤ ٠ ٢٠ ٤٠ ٦٠ ٨٠ ١٥٣٣٦٨٤٤٣٤ ‫ﻓﺄآﺜﺮ‬ ٢٠ ‫ﺳﺘﺔ‬١٩ - ١٥ ‫ﻣﻦ‬١٤ - ١٠ ‫ﻣﻦ‬٩ - ٥ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ٤ - ١ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬)٤(‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬)٤(‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻐﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬١٩٧‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﺒﺤﻭﺜ‬٩٦,٦% ‫ﻴﺘ‬ ‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ١٠-١٤‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬٣٤,٥%‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬٥-٩‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ٢٢,٣%‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬ ،١-٤‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺌﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬١٥–١٩ ‫ﺒﻨﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬١٧,٣%‫ﻭ‬١٦,٨%‫ﻓﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻌﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬٢٠ ‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬٩,١% ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﺎﻏﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻅﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬.‫ﺘﺫﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺠﻭﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﺒﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬. ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)٤( ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬% ‫ﻤﻥ‬١–٤‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬٣٤١٧,٣ ‫ﻤﻥ‬٥–٩‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬٤٤٢٢,٣ ‫ﻤﻥ‬١٠–١٤‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬٦٨٣٤,٥ ‫ﻤﻥ‬١٥–١٩‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬٣٣١٦,٨ ٢٠‫ﻓﺄﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬١٨٩,١ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤـــــــﻭﻉ‬١٩٧١٠٠% ‫ﻤﻜﺘﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬)٧( ‫ﺸﻜل‬)٤( ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬
  • ٩٨ -‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬)٥(‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬)٥(‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﻠ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﻐ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ‬٢٠٣‫ﻤ‬‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺒﺤﻭﺜ‬٩٩,٥%‫ﻨﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬٤١,٩%‫ﻓﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻊ‬٤,٠٠٠–٥,٩٩٩ ‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬٣٤,٠%‫ﻓﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬٢,٠٠٠-٣,٩٩٩‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬٦,٠٠٠-٧,٩٩٩‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬١٦,٣%‫ﻓﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ ٨,٠٠٠‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬٤,٩%‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺩﻨﻲ‬ ،٣%‫ﺃﻗـل‬ ‫ﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬٢,٠٠٠‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬. ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)٥( ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬% ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل‬٢٠٠٠‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬٦٣,٠ ‫ﻤﻥ‬٢٠٠٠–٣٩٩٩‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬٦٩٣٤,٠ ‫ﻤﻥ‬٤,٠٠٠–٥,٩٩٩‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬٨٥٤١,٩ ‫ﻤﻥ‬٦,٠٠٠-٧,٩٩٩‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬٣٣١٦,٣ ٨٠٠٠‫ﻓﺄﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬١٠٤,٩ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤـــــــﻭﻉ‬٢٠٣١٠٠% ‫ﻤﻜﺘﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻐﺕ‬)١(
  • ٩٩ ٠ ٢٠ ٤٠ ٦٠ ٨٠ ١‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ١٠٣٣٨٥٦٩٦ ‫ف‬ ٨٠٠٠ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أآﺜﺮ‬ ٦٠٠٠ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ٧٩٩٩ - ‫ﻣﻦ‬ -٤٠٠٠ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ -٢٠٠٠ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻗﻞ‬ ٢٠٠٠ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻀﺢ‬٣٧%‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻘﺎﻀﻭﻥ‬٤,٠٠٠‫ﺍﻟـﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋـﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻘل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻘﺎﻀﻭﻥ‬٨,٠٠٠‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬٥%‫ﻫـﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺸـﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺁﺜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺘﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ‬‫ﻥ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬
  • ١٠٠ :‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻼﺠﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﺤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬‫ﻭﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺒﻲ‬)‫ﺕ‬( ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬: ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ‬. ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)٦( ‫ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬"‫ﺕ‬"‫ﻭﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬‫ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺴ‬‫ﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬١,٠٨٠,٢٩ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺎﺙ‬١,٢٥٠,٤٤ ٢,٧٤ ٠,٠١ * ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل‬٢٠-٣٩٢,٦٧٠,٦٨ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬٤٠‫ﻓﺄﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬١,٢٧٠,٤٥ ١٦,٢٣ ٠,٠١ ** ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﻫﻼﺕ‬٣,٤٥٠,٧٥ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻫل‬‫ﻓﺄﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﻲ‬١,٢٦٠,٤٤ ٢٢,٨٩ ٠,٠١ *** ١٤‫ﻓﺄﻗل‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬٢,٧٦١,١٩ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ١٥‫ﻓﺄﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬١,٢٤١,٩٧ ١١,١٨ ٠,٠١ **** ٣,٩٩٩‫ﻓﺄﻗل‬ ‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬١,٢٤٠,٤٣ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ٤,٠٠٠‫ﻓﺄﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻴﺎل‬٢,٨٣٠,٨٩ ١٤,٨ ٠,٠١ ***** ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﻀﺢ‬)٦(‫ﻴﻠ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻲ‬: *‫ﺍﻟﺠـﻨﺱ‬ ‫ﺒـﺎﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬٠,٠١‫ﻟﻺﻨـﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤـﺴﺎﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬١,٢٥ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬٠,٢٩‫ﻤﻘﺎﺒل‬١,٠٨‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬٢,٢٤٠‫ﻴﻌﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬
  • ١٠١ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻴﻬﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺭﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻓﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﺘﺒﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻌل‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻓﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻌﻠﻬﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻨﺱ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺭﻗﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬. **‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬٠,٠١‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺴﻨ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺼﻐﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬.‫ﻟﻔﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬٢٠–٣٩‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬٢,٦٧‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬٠,٦٨‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺒل‬١,٢٧ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬‫ﺭﻱ‬٠,٤٥‫ﺍﻟﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻔﺌﺎﺕ‬٤٠‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻠـﻎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬١٦,٢٣ ‫ﻭﻭﻴﻠﺒـﺭ‬ ‫ﻟـﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﺍﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻠﻔﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻥ‬)١٩٨٥(‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬٠‫ﺍﻟﻭ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬‫ﻅـﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻁﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬٠‫ﺃﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟـﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋـﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺇ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻜﺜﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻀﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺒﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻐﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺨﻔﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻁﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻴﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻘﻕ‬. ***‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬٠,٠١‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺫﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل‬ ‫ﺤﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻨﻰ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺅﻫﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻠـﻎ‬ ‫ﺤﻴـﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬٣,٤٥‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬٠,٧٥‫ﻭﻓـﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬١,٢٦‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬٠,٤٤‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻠﻐﺕ‬٢٢,٨٩٠‫ﻴﻌـﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻨـﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻤﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺫﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺭﺒﻬ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘـﺴﺘﻘﻁﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻐﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻤﻴﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺒﺤﺜ‬ ‫ﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ‬.
  • ١٠٢ ****‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬٠,٠١‫ﺴـﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬.‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬١٤‫ﻓﺄﻗـل‬ ‫ﺴـﻨﺔ‬٢,٧٦ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬١,١٩‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺒل‬١,٢٤‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬١,٩٧‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬١٥‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻠﻐﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬١١,١٨٠‫ﺍﻻﻨﺨﻔـﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌـﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺩﻭﺍﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﻴﺠﻌـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﻤﻠل‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼـل‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻔﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺩﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬)١٩٩٠‫ﻡ‬(‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜـﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁـﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻬـﺎﺭﺍﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴـﺘﻐﻼل‬ ‫ﺒﻌـﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩﺭﺍﺘﻬﻡ‬‫ﺃﻋﻤـﺎل‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻤﻁﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﻌﻭﺭﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺒﺘﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺒﺩﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠل‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬)١( . *****‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬٠,٠١‫ﻓﺌـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟـﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺎﺕ‬٠‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬٤,٠٠٠‫ﺭﻴـﺎل‬٢,٨٦ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻨﺤ‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻑ‬٠,٨٩‫ﺍﻟـﺩﻨﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻠﻎ‬٣,٩٩٩‫ﻓﺄﻗـل‬١,٢٤ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬٠,٤٣‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻠﻐﺕ‬١٤,٨٠‫ﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻔﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﻴـﺩﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﻟﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬‫ﻜﺎﻨـﺕ‬ ‫ﻴـﺸﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﻴﺩﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﺭﺘﻴﺎﺡ‬)٢( .‫ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻔﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬)١٩٩٣‫ﻡ‬(‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻭﻅﻴﻔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬‫ﺔ‬٠ )١ (‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬)١٩٩٢(‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬ ، )٢ (‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬)١٩٨٢(‫ﺹ‬ ، ‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬ ،٥٠
  • ١٠٣ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻭﻟﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺭﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻔﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻤـﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻨﺎﻋﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﺤﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺩﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬. ‫ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌـﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻤـﺭ‬ ‫ﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻨـﻰ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ، ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺒﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻔﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻀﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬)٣( ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬.‫ﺴـﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺒـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺨـﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺈﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻔﻘﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻭﻗﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻁﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻷﻋﻼﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل‬. )٣(‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﻑ‬)١٩٨٢(‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬ ،)٧٣-١٠٦. (
  • ١٠٤ :‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺨﻼﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺘـﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻌﺽ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺘﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬. ‫ﺃ‬(‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬)٧(‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺅﺴﻴﻥ‬. ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)٧( ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺃ‬-)‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬( ‫ﻡ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺅﻭﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺅﺳﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻙ‬٦٧١١٤--٢٣ ١‫ﻣـﺴﺎﻋﺪﰐ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﲔ‬%٣٢,٨٥٥,٩--١١,٣٢٠٤٣,٩٩١,١٧١ ‫ﻙ‬٥٤٤٤-٨٥٢١ ٢‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬%٢٦,٥٢١,٦-٤١,٧١٠,٣٢٠٤٢,٩٨١,٤٠٣ ‫ﻙ‬٢٢٤٤١١٧٢١- ٣‫ﺗﺼﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻮﺡ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬%١٠,٨٢١,٦٥٧,٣١٠,٣-٢٠٤٣,٣٣٠,٨٠٢ ‫ﻙ‬-٢٢٩٤٢٢٤٤ ٤‫ﲰـﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﲝﺮﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺘﺮﺣﺎﺕ‬%-١٢,١٥١,٦١٢,١٢٤,٤ * ١٨٢٢,٥٢٠,٩٩٥ ‫ﻙ‬-٧٢٤٤٢٢٤٤ ٥‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﺎﺳـﺐ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻮﻳﺾ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻻﲣﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬%-٣٩,٦٢٤,٢١٢,١٢٤,٤ * ١٨٢٢,٧٩١,٢٠٤ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺀﻭﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺅﺳﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻹﲨﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬٣,١٢ *‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬٢٠٤‫ﺍﻟﻐ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﻤﻜﺘﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬)٧(‫ﻗﻴـﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺍﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬.‫ﺇﺠﻤـﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻠـﻎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬٣,١٢‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺇﺴﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭ‬
  • ١٠٥ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ل‬٣,٩٩‫ﻤﻌﻴـﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ١,١٧‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺘـﺼﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺄﺘﻲ‬ ، ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬٣,٣٣‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬٠,٨٠‫ﻋﺒـﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠـﺎﺀﺕ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁﺎﺕ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺠﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩل‬٢,٩٨‫ﻭﺒـﺎﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬١,٤٠‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟـﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻭﻴﺽ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻻﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬٢,٧٩‫ﻤﻌﻴـﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬١,٢٠ ‫ﺘﻘﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺘﺭﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺴﻤﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘ‬‫ﻭﺴﻁ‬٢,٥٢‫ﻤﻌﻴـﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬٠,٩٩.‫ﺍﻟـﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗـﺔ‬ ‫ﺤـﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌـﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟـﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﻔﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﻤﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺍﺠﻬﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺤﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺤﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺏ‬‫ﺤﻠﻬﺎ‬. ‫ﻫـﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﻀﻭﺡ‬ ، ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺸﺘﺭﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﺴﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺘﺭﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﺩﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺘﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎﻤـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺘﺼﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺘﻴﺴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ،‫ﻭﺸـﻜﺎﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺁﺭﺍﺀﻩ‬ ‫ﺒـﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺘـﺸﻌﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺒـﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻭﺍﻤﺭﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺼل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺤﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺼل‬.‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬.
  • ١٠٦ ‫ﺏ‬(‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬)٨(‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻥ‬. ( ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)٨( ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬-)‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻥ‬( ‫ﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻙ‬٤٥٥٥٥٠٢١٢٣ ٦‫ﺍﻟﺮﺅﺳﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﳌﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻫﻢ‬%٢٢,١٣١,٩٢٤,٥١٠,٣١١,٣ * ١٩٤٣,٤٣١,٢٦١ ‫ﻙ‬٢٢٩٠٥٠٢١٢١ ٧‫ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﱘ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬%١٠,٨٤٤,١٢٤,٥١٠,٣١٠,٣٢٠٤٣,٣٥١,١٣٣ ‫ﻙ‬٦٧٤٣-٩٤- ٨‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺮﱐ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻼﺋﻲ‬%٣٢,٨٢١,١-٤٦,١-٢٠٤٣,٤١١,٣٥٢ ‫ﻙ‬٢٢-٢٣٢٢١٣٧ ٩‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻣﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺘﺰﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ‬%١٠,٨-١١,٣١٠,٨٦٧٣٢٢٠٤١,٧٦١,٣١٥ ‫ﻙ‬٢٢٤٣٢١٦٨- ١٠‫ﲢﻈﻰ‬‫ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺶ‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻊ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ‬%١٤,٣٢٧,٩١٣,٦٤٤,٢- * ١٥٤٣,١٢١,١٣٤ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬٣,٠١ *‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬٢٠٤‫ﻤﻜﺘﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬٣,٠١‫ﺠـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﻴـﺙ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤل‬‫ﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻓﺠﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬٣,٤٣‫ﻤﻌﻴـﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬١,٢٦‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻴـﺄﺘﻲ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ٣,٤١‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬١,٣٥‫ﺠﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ،‫ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬٣,٣٥‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬١,١٣‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ، ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺵ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺘﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﺀ‬٣,١٢‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ١,١٣‫ﺩﺍﺌـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟـﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤـل‬ ‫ﻫـﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬١,٧٦٠ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬١,٣١٠
  • ١٠٧ ‫ﺭﺍﻀـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒـﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻜﺈﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺭﺀﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻴـﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻜل‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺭﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻁﻤﺌﻨﺔ‬‫ﻨﻔـﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻭﺍﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺭﻜﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻁﻤﺌﻨﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﺸﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬. ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻁﻤﺌﻨـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺀﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺒل‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻁـﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺼل‬.‫ﻤﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺘﺭﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻘﺎﺌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻤﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬.‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﻬـﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓـﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺭﺕ‬‫ﺤـﺴﺎﺒﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻗﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﻬﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ‬.‫ﻟﻠﺘﺭﻗﻴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺍﻋـﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻗـﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻨﺢ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﻴـﺴﻭﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴـﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨـﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻴﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻴل‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻜﺜﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺯﺍﻫﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺤﻕ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺤﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﺨﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀﺍﺕ‬٠
  • ١٠٨ ‫ﺝ‬(‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬)٩(‫ﻟﻘﻴـﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴـﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬. ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)٩( ‫ﺘ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺠـ‬-)‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬( ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺗﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻙ‬٢٢٦٤-٤٥٧٣ ١١‫ﻭﺿﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭﺍﺗﺒ‬ ‫ﺃﺗﻘﺎﺿﻰ‬ %١٠,٨٣١,٤-٢٢,١٣٥,٨٢٠٤٢,٥٩١,٤٩١ ‫ﻙ‬-٢٢-٤٣١١٧ ١٢‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺗﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﺍﻓﺰ‬%-١٢,١-٢٣,٦٦٤,٣ * ١٨٢١,٥٩٠,٩٩٥ ‫ﻙ‬-٤٣٢٢٦٦٧٣ ١٣‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺗﱯ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ %-٢١,١١٠,٨٣٢,٤٣٥,٨٢٠٤٢,١٧١,١٣٤ ‫ﻙ‬-٤٣-١١٧٤٤ ١٤‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺗﱯ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻼﺋﻲ‬%-٢١,١-٥٧,٤٢١,٦٢٠٤٢,٢١١,٠١٣ ‫ﻙ‬-٤٣٢١٩٤٤٦ ١٥‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﳘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺗﱯ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻮﻡ‬%-٢١,١١٠,٣٤٦,١٢٢,٥٢٠٤٢,٢٩١,٠٤٢ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬٢,١٧ *‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬٢٠٤‫ﻤﻜﺘﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﺍﺘـﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﻫـﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ٢,١٧‫ﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺎﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻭﻀـﻊ‬ ‫ﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻓﺠﺎﺀﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬٢,٥٩‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬١,٤٩‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻀﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻜﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺠﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬‫ﻤﻘﺎﺒل‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻗل‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﻌﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬ ، ‫ﻤﺠﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻜـﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺤﺎﺠﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ، ‫ﺸﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺤل‬ ‫ﻴﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺠﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺠﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬
  • ١٠٩ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻜل‬‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬٠ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻭﻴﻀﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤـل‬ ‫ﺒـل‬ ، ‫ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺫﻟﻙ‬ ، ‫ﻭﻗﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬ ، ‫ﻤﺘﻤﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻫﻭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺴـﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻭﻴﻀﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻼل‬ ‫ﻷﻥ‬ ، ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺨﻴﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺏ‬ ، ‫ﻜﺎﻟﺘﻅﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﺸﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﻴﻨﻌﻜﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ٠٠‫ﺍﻟﺦ‬٠‫ﺍﻷﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻘـﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﺩﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬)٤( ٠‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺯ‬‫ﺯ‬‫ﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬٠ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﺘﺄﺭﺠﺤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺠﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬‫ﻁ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﺍﺘـﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﻠـﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﺩﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺩﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﻀﻌﻬﺎ‬٠ )٤ (، ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻴﻭﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬، ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ ، ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ ،١٩٩٠‫ﺹ‬ ، ‫ﻡ‬١٣١.
  • ١١٠ ‫ﺩ‬(‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬)١٠(‫ﻟﻘﻴـﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴـﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬. ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)١٠( ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺩ‬–)‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬( ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬‫ﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻙ‬-٨٧-٩٤٢٣ ١٦‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﱄ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﻫﻠﲏ‬%-٤٢,٦-٤٦,١١١,٣٢٠٤٢,٧٤١,١٣٣ ‫ﻙ‬-٨٩٢١٧١٢٣ ١٧‫ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﱄ‬ ‫ﻳﻬﻴﺊ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻓﻀﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‬%-٤٣,٦١٠,٣٣٤,٨١١,٣٢٠٤٢,٨٦١,١١٢ ‫ﻙ‬-٢٢٤٥١١٦- ١٨‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬ %-١٢,٠٢٤,٦٦٣,٤- * ١٨٣٢,٤٩٠,٧٠٤ ‫ﻙ‬-٢٢٤٣٦٦٧٣ ١٩‫ﻭﺍﻹﺗﻘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﺔ‬ %-١٠,٨٢١,١٣٢,٤٣٥,٨٢٠٤٢,٠٧١,٠٠٥ ‫ﻙ‬-١١١٧٢٢١- ٢٠‫ﱄ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻴﺢ‬‫ﻭﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﳎﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺧﱪﺍﺕ‬%-٥٤,٤٣٥,٣١٠,٣-٢٠٤٣,٤٤٠,٦٧١ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬٢,٧٢ *‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬٢٠٤‫ﻤﻜﺘﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘـﺸﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺍﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺭﻜﻴﻭﻥ‬٢,٧٢‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺠـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺨﺒﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻜﺘﺴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ٣,٤٤‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬٠,٦٧‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﺘﻬﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺄﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﺠﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺼﺔ‬٢,٨٦‫ﻭﺍﻨ‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ١,١١‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺭﻗﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﻫل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺼﺔ‬ ٢,٧٤‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬١,١٣. ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻜﻔـﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺘـﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴـﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻹﺘﻘـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺘﻘﺎﻥ‬
  • ١١١ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﺢ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺹ‬٢,٠٧‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬١,٠٠ ‫ﺒﻬﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬. ‫ﻫـ‬(‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬)١١(‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬. ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)١١( ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻫـ‬-)‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬( ‫ﻡ‬‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻙ‬-٢٢٩٣٤٤٢٣ ٢١‫ﻭﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﱄ‬%-١٢,١٥١,١٢٤,٢١٢,٦ * ١٨٢٢,٨٤١,١٩٣ ‫ﻙ‬-٢٢٩٣٤٤٢٣ ٢٢‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬%-١٢,١٥١,١٢٤,٢١٢,٦ * ١٨٢٢,٦٣٠,٨٦٤ ‫ﻙ‬-١٣٨٢٣٢١- ٢٣‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻋﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ %-٧٥,٨١٢,٦١١,٥- * ١٨٢٣,٦٣٠,٦٨١ ‫ﻙ‬-٨٩٢١٢١٢٣ ٢٤‫ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﱘ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺣﺮﺻ‬ ‫ﺃﳌﺲ‬ ‫ﺑﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬%-٥٧,٨١٣,٦١٣,٦١٤,٩ * ١٥٤٣,١٤١,١٤٢ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳ‬‫ﻂ‬‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﰊ‬٣,٠٦ *‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬٢٠٤‫ﻤﻜﺘﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‬ ‫ﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬٣,٠٦‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ، ‫ﻭﻤﻭﺍﻋﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻡ‬٣,٦٣‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ٠,٦٨‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺄﺘﻲ‬‫ﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬٣,١٤‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬١,١٤‫ﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ، ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻁﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬٢,٨٤‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬١,١٩‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻨﺴﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬
  • ١١٢ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﺀﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﺢ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬٢,٦٣‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬٠,٨٦‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬٣,٠٦ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺫﻟﻙ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺤﻭﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺤﻭﺭ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺀﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺤﻭﺭ‬ ، ‫ﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬٢,٨١‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻤﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬٠
  • ١١٣ ‫א‬:‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﻁﺒﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺨﻼﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤـل‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬)، ‫ﺍﻷﺠـﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ، ‫ﻤل‬(‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ‬. ‫ﺃ‬-‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬)١٢(‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴـﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺤـﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬. ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)١٢( ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻡ‬‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬‫ﳑﺘﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺪ‬‫ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻝ‬‫ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‬‫ﻤﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻙ‬٩٤٨٨٢٢-- ١‫ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻚ؟‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀﻙ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻒ‬ %٤٦,١٤٣,١١٠,٨--٢٠٤٤,٣٥٠,٦٧٤ ‫ﻙ‬١١٦٦٦٢٢-- ٢‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺘﻚ؟‬%٥٦,٩٣٢,٤١٠,٨--٢٠٤٤,٤٦٠,٦٣٣ ‫ﻙ‬١٨١٢٣--- ٣‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺼﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ؟‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ‬%٨٨,٧١١,٣---٢٠٤٤,٨٩٠,٣٢١
  • ١١٤ ‫ﻙ‬١٣٢٧٢--- ٤‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺘﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﻚ؟‬%٦٤,٧٣٥,٣---٢٠٤٤,٦٥٠,٤٨٢ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬)١٢(‫ﻴﺭﺍﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻭﻥ‬٠‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺘﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬٤,٨٩ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺘﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ٤,٦٥‫ﺠﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬٤,٤٦٠‫ﻴﻘﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺭﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻭﻥ‬٤,٣٥ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬‫ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻁﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺄﺘﻲ‬٤,٨٩. ‫ﺏ‬-‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬)١٣(‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴـﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺤـﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬. ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)١٣( ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻡ‬‫ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻇﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻛﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻛﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻧﻮﻋ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﻼ‬‫ﻤﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻙ‬١٨١٢٣--- ٥‫ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺘﻚ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻚ؟‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻈﺮﻭﻑ‬%٨٨,٧١١,٣---٢٠٤٤,٨١,٥٥ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)١٤( ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻡ‬‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ١-٣٤-٦٧-٩ ١٠ ‫ﻓﺄﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻤﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻙ‬١٣٢٧٢--- ٦‫ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺼﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺨﺎﻟﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻔﻚ‬%٦٤,٧٣٦,٣---٢٠٤١,٣٥٠,٤٨ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)١٥(
  • ١١٥ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻡ‬‫ﻋ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ١-٣ ٤ ‫ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻤﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻙ‬٢٠٤-- ٧‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺼﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬%١٠٠-- ٢٠٤ ١,٠٠,٠٠
  • ١١٦ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)١٦( ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻡ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﺋﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻙ‬٢٠٤-- ٨‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﳌﺴﺎﺋﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﺿﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻚ؟‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺗﲔ‬%١٠٠--٢٠٤٣,٠٠٠,٠٠ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻀﺢ‬١٣‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬١٦‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺨﻁﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺩﺩ‬٠ ‫ﻟﺭﺃ‬ ‫ﻓﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺄﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁﺔ‬٤,٨،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺼﻤﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺩل‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺯﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺸﻤل‬. ‫ﻜﺸ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺒل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻟﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬٦٤,٧%‫ﺤﺼﻠﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬١-٣‫ﺴﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﺕ‬٣٦,٣%‫ﻭﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ١,٣٥٠ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﻁﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺸﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺨﻁﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻠﺕ‬٠ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬)١٦(‫ﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﻔﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬.
  • ١١٧ ‫ﺠـ‬_‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬)١٧(‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬: ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)١٧( ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺩﺍﺋﻤ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻧﺎﺩﺭ‬‫ﻤﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻙ‬٤٦٦٥٩٣ ٩‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﺿﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺘﻚ؟‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬%٢٢,٥٣١,٩٤٥,٦٢٠٤١,٧٧٠,٧٩ ‫ﻙ‬٨٩٩٣٢٢ ١٠‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺘﻚ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﻞ‬ ‫ﺭﺿﺎﻙ؟‬%٤٣,٦٤٥,٦١٠,٨٢٠٤٢,٣٢٠,٦٦ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)١٨( ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻛﺜﲑ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻧﺎﺩﺭ‬‫ﻤﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳊ‬‫ﺴﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻙ‬١١٠٧٢٢٢ ١١‫ﺯﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺘﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﺴﲔ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻨﻚ‬ ‫ﻫﻞ‬ ‫ﹰ؟‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﺿﺎﻙ‬%٥٣,٩٣٥,٣١٠,٨٢٠٤٢,٤٣٠,٦٨ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻀﺢ‬)١٧(‫ﻭ‬)١٨(‫ﻓﻴﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬)١٧(‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬١,٧٧‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨﺎ‬٢,٣٢٠ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬)١٨(‫ﻟﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩ‬‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬٢,٤٣‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺨﻀﺎﻋﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺨﺭﻭﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺘﻘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻌﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬.
  • ١١٨ :‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬: ‫ﻤﻔﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺨﻼﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬. ‫ﺃ‬(‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬)١٩(‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬. ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)١٩( ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﻌﻢ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻤﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ‬‫ﻙ‬%‫ﻙ‬%‫ﻙ‬% ‫ﻛﺎ‬٢ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻙ‬٢٣٣٤,٨٤٣٦٥,٢٦٦٧٤,٢ ‫ﻧﻌﻢ‬ %٥٠,٠-١٠٠--- ‫ﻙ‬٢٣١٠٠--٢٣٢٦,٨ ‫ﻻ‬ %٥٠,٠----- ‫ﻙ‬٤٦-٤٣-٨٩١٠٠ ‫ﻤﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬ %٥١,٧-٤٨,٣-١٠٠- ٢٨,٩٩٢٠,٠١٠,٦٠,٠١ ‫ﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩل‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬)١٩(‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬٢)٢٨,٩٩٢(‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬٠,٠١‫ﺒﻴﺭﺴﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﺎﻤل‬٠,٦ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬٠,٠١‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬‫ﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬٠ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻴﺠﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﺒﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻁﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬.
  • ١١٩ :‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﻁﺒﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺨﻼﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﺠﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬)،‫ﺍﻷﺠﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ‬(‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ‬. ( ‫ﺃ‬(‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬)٢٠(‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬‫ﻟﻠﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬.‫ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺜـﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬)٢-٣(‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒـﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻤـﻀﻤﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺩل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬١‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻗل‬٢‫ﺍﻷﻗـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺩل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬١‫ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻀﻌﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬. ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)٢٠( ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫ﺃﺅﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺅﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﺅﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻤﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻙ‬١٣٨٢١٤٥ ١‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﻫﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺫﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ %٦٧,٦١٠,٣٢٢,١٢٠٤٢,٤٦٠,٨٣٢ ‫ﻙ‬١١٢٩٢- ٢‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬)‫ﻛﻤﺒﻴـﻮﺗﺮ‬–‫ﻛـﺸﻒ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻬـﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ‬(%٥٤,٩٤٥,١-٢٠٤٢,٥٥٠,٤٩١ ‫ﻙ‬٦٤٩٥٤٥ ٣‫ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺸﲔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺽ‬ %٣١,٤٤٦,٦٢٢,١٢٠٤٢,٠٩٠,٧٣٥ ‫ﻙ‬٢٢١٥٩٢٣ ٤‫ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻼﺣﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻮﻳﺾ‬ %١٠,٨٧٧,٩١١,٣٢٠٤١,٩٩٠,٤٧٦ ‫ﻙ‬٦٦١١٦٢٢ ٥‫ﺍﳌﺰﺍﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺩﻳﺐ‬ %٣٢,٤٥٦,٩١٠,٨٢٠٤٢,٢٢٠,٦٢٣ ‫ﻙ‬٦٦٩٣٤٥ ٦‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺎﻋﺴﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺮﻳﺢ‬ %٣٢,٤٤٥,٦٢٢,١٢٠٤٢,١٠٠,٧٣٤
  • ١٢٠ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬)٢٠(‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺍﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬٠‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬)‫ﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺸﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ، ‫ﻜﻤﺒﻴﻭﺘﺭ‬(‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬٢,٥٥، ‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬٠,٤٩‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻅﻬﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻭﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺫﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬٢,٤٦، ‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬٠,٨٣‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻜﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻜﺎﻓﺄ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻤﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬.‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺩﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ٢,٢٢‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ،٠,٦٢‫ﻭﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺭﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ، ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺘﻘﺎﻋﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺘﻪ‬‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺎﻋﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺢ‬ ٢,١٠‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬٠,٧٣‫ﺭﻗﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‬٢,٠٩‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬٠,٧٣‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﻼﺤﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﻭﻴﺽ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺴﺔ‬١,٩٩‫ﻭﺍﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ، ‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬٠,٤٧‫ﺩﻟﻴل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺭﻗﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺘﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺄ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺨﻁﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﻼﺤﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺅ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻗﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﻱ‬.
  • ١٢١ :‫א‬ ‫א‬: ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﻁﺒﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺨﻼﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺤﻭﺜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻘﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬. ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬)٢١( ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳌﻘﺘﺮﺣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻡ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺘﺸﲔ؟‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺗﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺘﺮﺣﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬‫ﺃﺅﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺅﻳﺪ‬‫ﺃﺅﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﻤﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻙ‬١٨٣٢١- ١‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺗﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﲢﺴﲔ‬ %٨٩,٧١٠,٣-٢٠٤٢,٨٩٠,٣٠١ ‫ﻙ‬١٠٩٩٥- ٢‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻇﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﲢﺴﲔ‬ %٥٣,٤٤٦,٦-٢٠٤٢,٥٣٠,٥٠٤ ‫ﻙ‬١٥٤٥٠- ٣‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ %٧٥,٥٢٤,٠-٢٠٤٢,٧٦٠,٤٣٢ ‫ﻙ‬٢١٨٨٩٥ ٤‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺎﻉ‬ %١٠,٣٤٣,١٤٦,٦٢٠٤٢,٥٤٠,٤٩٩٣ ‫ﻙ‬٢١٨٨٩٥ ٥‫ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺺ‬ %١٠,٣٤٣,١٤٦,٦٢٠٤١,٦٤٠,٦٦٦ ‫ﻙ‬٨٩١١٥- ٦‫ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﺍﻓﺰ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ %٤٣,٦٥٦,٤-٢٠٤٢,٤٣٠,٤٩٥ ‫ﻙ‬١١١٩٣- ٧‫ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳊﻮﺍﻓﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ %٥٤,٤٤٥,٦-٢٠٤٢,٥٤٠,٤٩٩٣ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ‬)٢١(‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬٢,٨٩‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﻴﻴﺩ‬١٠٠%‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬٢,٧٦‫ﺘﺄﻴﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ١٠٠%‫ﻭﺤل‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻁﺎﻟﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ،‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻭﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ٢,٥٤‫ﺘﺄﻴﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬٥٣,٤/ %‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ٢,٥٣‫ﺘﺄﻴﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬١٠٠%‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ، ٢,٤٣‫ﺘﺄﻴﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬١٠٠%‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻀﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬١,٦٤‫ﺘﺄﻴﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬٥٣,٤. %
  • ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﺼﺔ‬. ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴ‬:‫ﺍﻟﻨ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‬‫ﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬. ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺜﺎﻟﺜ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬. ‫א‬ ‫א‬
  • ١٢٠ ً‫ﻻ‬‫أو‬:‫اﻟﺪراﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﺻﺔ‬: ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﺨﻤﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﺀﺕ‬: ‫ﻭﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻬﺎ‬ ،‫،ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ،‫ﻤﺒﻴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭل‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔـﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻫـﻡ‬ ، ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﺘﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫،ﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫،ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﻁﻠﺤﺎﺕ‬‫ﺇﻟﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼـﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻷﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬. ‫ﻭﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬‫ﺜـﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﻀـﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻫﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻬ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻨﺎﻭل‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺭﺍﺤل‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﺸﺄﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺯﺍﻴـﺎ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺒﺫﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺩﻻﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻗﺵ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬،‫ﻭﺩﻭﺍﻋـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬،‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬‫ﻭﺍﻟ‬‫ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻹ‬‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤـﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺸﺄﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻤﺎﺕ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟـﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺵ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻁﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻴﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺩﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬. ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬‫ﻭﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ، ‫ﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬‫ﻜﺭﻭﻨﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬‫ﺎﺥ‬ )‫ﺃﻟﻔﺎ‬(‫ﺒﻠـﻎ‬ ‫ﺠﻴـﺩ‬ ‫ﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬)٠,٨٧( ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺤﻭﺜـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺜﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﻟﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻜﻴﻔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻜﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﺜﺎﺌﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ‬‫ﻲ‬.
  • ١٢١ ‫ﺍﻹﺤـﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴـﺎﻟﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬:‫ﺍﻻ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒﻨﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬. ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﺘﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬‫ﻟﻭﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻻﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺭﺍﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬‫ﺒﻨـﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻌـﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬‫ﺘﻡ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻜـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴـﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁ‬ ‫ﻻﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬. -‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻤل‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺭﺴﻭﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻔﻲ‬. -‫ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬)‫ﺕ‬(‫ﺍﻟﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻻﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬. -‫ﻤﺭﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬)‫ﻙ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬. -‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨ‬ ‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﺨﻼﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬‫ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﺽ‬‫ﻟﺭﺒﻁﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﺤﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺘﺵ‬‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺼ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬‫ﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ﻋﻼ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻫل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﻀﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺨﻼﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭل‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺘﺭﺤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬‫ﻤﻔﺘﺸ‬‫ﻲ‬‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬. ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴ‬:‫ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‬‫اﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬: ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﻷ‬‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻓﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻟﻭﻻﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬. ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻁﺭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬)٠,٦(‫ﺩﺍﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ٠,٠١%‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬
  • ١٢٢ ‫ﻭﻫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩ‬‫ﺫ‬‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻔﻕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻴﺠﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬)١( ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍ‬‫ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻁﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﺔ‬)٢( .‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺜ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬١،٧٧‫ﺘﺭﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬٢،٣٢‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﺯﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬٢،٤٣. ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺒﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺨﻀﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻴﻥ‬‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻠﻴـل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬: -‫ﺒﻠﻐـﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﻴـﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻅﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ٨٨,٥%‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬١١,٥%‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺠـﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬‫ﻓـﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬‫ﺌ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ‬)٢٠-٢٩(‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬)٣٠-٣٩(‫ﺒ‬‫ﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬٨٤,٦% ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺼﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺼﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬٨٣,٨% ‫ـﻴ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ـﻊ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻴﻘ‬ ‫ـﺏ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺭﺍﺘ‬ ‫ـﻭﻥ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻴﺘﻘﺎﻀ‬ ‫ـﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌ‬ ‫ـﻡ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻤﻌﻅ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ـﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻜﻤ‬‫ﻥ‬)٢٠٠٠-٦٠٠٠( ‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬٧٥,٩. % -‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻭﺫﻟـﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬٠،٠١‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﻤـﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻗـﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﺘﺒﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻌل‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻓﺎﺀ‬‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺭﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻓﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻌﻠﻬﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬. -‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺴـﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺼﻐﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﻔﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬٨٤,٦%‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻜﺜﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﻤﻨﺘـﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺼـﻠﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﻔﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺨﻔـﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘـﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻁـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻡ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﳚﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‬)١٩٨٨(‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬٥–١١. )٢ (‫ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ‬)١٩٨٨(‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬٧٥٥-٧٣٣.
  • ١٢٣ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠل‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻌل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺭﻀﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﺜـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻔﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺩﺏ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬)١٩٩٠(‫ﻭﻤﻠل‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻁﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺒﺩﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺒﺘﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺩﻡ‬. -‫ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨـﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬٠,٠١ ‫ﺤﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺫﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻱ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬(‫ﺴـﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺩل‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺫﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨـﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁـﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺘﻘﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻌل‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻭﺤﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺘـﺩﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻐﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻓﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻅل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺫﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺅﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻨﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﺒﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻠل‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻸﺴﺭ‬ ‫ﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎﻟﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻏﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻨﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬. -‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻨ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﻟﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼل‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻔﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺫﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬‫ﻋﻨـﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﻴﺩﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﻤـﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻴﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﻴﺩﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼل‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻔﻕ‬)١٤٠١()١( ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼـﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ‬)١٩٩٣()٢( ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬. -‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻼﻗـﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﻠـﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﺎﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬٣,١٢،‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻤـﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻡ‬‫ﺤـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺩﻭﻥ‬‫ﺴﻁ‬٣٣,٩‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﺔ‬٨٨,٧٠%‫ﻫﻨ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻟـﻙ‬ )١ (‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺻﺮ‬)١٤٠١‫ﻫـ‬(‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬)٩٩-١٢٠. ( )٢ (‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺻﺒﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻞ‬)١٩٩٧(‫ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬.
  • ١٢٤ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻭﺡ‬٣,٣٣‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺩل‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺠﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬)١٩٩٠()١( ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺅ‬‫ﺴ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺌ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻬﻡ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﻁﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻟﻭﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻋﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬. -‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔ‬‫ﺘﺸ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺫ‬٣،٠١‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺎل‬ ‫،ﺒﺤﻴﺙ‬‫ﻋﺘﺭﺍﻑ‬‫ﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬‫ﻫﻡ‬‫ﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻤﻭﻥ‬٣,٤٣‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬٥٤%‫ﺘﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬‫ﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻼﺀ‬٣,٤١‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬٥٣,٩%‫ﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬٣,٣٥‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬٥٥%،‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺤﺘﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻅﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺵ‬٣,١٢‫ﻭﺍﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬١,١٣،‫ﺍﻹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬‫ﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ‬‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻌﺕ‬ ١,٧٦‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬١٠,٨‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺩل‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ‬‫ﻭﻟﺫﻭﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﻡ‬. -‫ﻭ‬‫ﺘﺩﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬‫ﻔﺘﺸ‬‫ﻴﻥ‬‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﺀﺕ‬٢،١٧‫ﻓﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬‫ﺘﻘﺎﻀﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺵ‬‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭﺍﺘﺒ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬‫ﻭﻀﻌﻪ‬‫ﺠﺎﺀﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬٢,٥٩‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬٤٢,٢%‫ﻭﻀﺤ‬ ‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﺕ‬‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬٢,٢٩‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬٢١,١%‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬١,٥٩‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬١٢,١%‫ﺘﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺩل‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬)١٤٠١()٢( ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬)١٩٩٤()١( ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺤﻭﺜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬. )١ ( Fahad Al – Rahaimi (١٩٩٠) P.P ٢٩٧ . )٢ (‫ﺍﻟﻌ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺻﺮ‬‫ﺪﻳﻠﻲ‬)١٩٨١(‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬٩٩–١٢٠.
  • ١٢٥ -‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻓﺭﻭﻗ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻀﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬٣،٠١‫ﺠﺎﺀﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻻﻜﺘﺴﺎﺒﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬٣,٤٤ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬٥٤,٤%‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺘﻘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ‬٢,٠٧‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬١٠,٨‫ﻴﺩل‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻔﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺘﻘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺸﻌﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺯﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬)١٩٨٥()٢( ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺤﻭﺜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬. -‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻭﺍﻋﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬٣,٦٣‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬٧٥,٨%‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬٣,١٤ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬٥٧,٨%‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺴﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﺃﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬٢,٦٣‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬١٢,١.% -‫ﻟـﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺘﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬٤,٦٥‫ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺤـﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻭﻥ‬)‫ﻤﻤﺘﺎﺯ‬(‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬٤,٨٩‫ﺘﺘﺄﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬٤,٨‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬١٠٠%‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺒل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬١,٣٠‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ٣٦,٣%‫ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺸـﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺨﻁﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺨﻁﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ١٠٠%‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬١٠٠%‫ﻴﺩل‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻘﺎﻋﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬. -‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺯﺯ‬)‫ﻜـﺸﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﻬـﺯﺓ‬ ، ‫ﻜﻤﺒﻴـﻭﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬(‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬٢,٥٥‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬١٠٠%‫ﺯﻴـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﺒـﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﻋـﺩﺩ‬ )١ (‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺎﻡ‬)١٩٩٣(‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬ ،٢١٦-٢١٨. )٢ (‫ﺷﻌﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪ‬)١٩٩٣(‫ﺹ‬ ، ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬٣١٦-٣١٨.
  • ١٢٦ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺫﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬٢,٤٦‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬٧٧,٩‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬٢,٢٢‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬٨٩,٣%‫ﺒﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻔﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺤﻲ‬)١٩٩٣(‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﻫﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻭﺍﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔـﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬٢٠,٨٩‫ﺘﺄﻴﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬١٠٠% ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬٢,٧٦‫ﺘﺄﻴﻴـﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬١٠٠% ‫ﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻭﻀـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﺤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺎﻟﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺎﻉ‬٢,٥٤‫ﺘﺄﻴﻴـﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬ ٥٣,٤%‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬٢,٥٣‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬١٠٠%‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻴـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬٢,٤٣‫ﺘﺄﻴﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬٥٣,٤%‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻅـﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬٢,٥٣ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﻠﻴﺹ‬١,٦٤‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬٥٣,٤%‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﻴـﻀ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﻜـﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻫـﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻀﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬.
  • ١٢٧ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜ‬:‫اﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎت‬ ١.‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺒﺎﻫﺘﻤـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻅﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘـﺎﺠﻴﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺸﻙ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺤـﺴﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﺜﺒﺘﺕ‬‫ﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬. ٢.‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻻﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺠﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺄﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﺘﺒﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻨﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﺸﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺩ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘـﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺭﻭﺍﺘـﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺩﻨـﻰ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺤـﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻀﻁﺭﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻬﻡ‬. ٣.‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺤـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺸﻜﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺭﺸﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺭﺅﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻼﺘﻬﻡ‬‫ﻭﻻﺌﻬـﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺭﺒﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﺒﻭﻅﺎﺌﻔﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺴﻜﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺯﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺘﻤﺎﺌﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬. ٤.‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻷﻓـﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺭﻫﻡ‬.‫ﻴﻘﻠﻘﻬـﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﺄﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﺘﺒﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻅل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺨﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺤﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺠﺯﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺠﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺌﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺍﺠﻬﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻥ‬ . ٥.‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤـﺭﻜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻠﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻔﻜﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﻴﺭﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺍﺼﻠﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘـﺴﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻬﺎﺕ‬.‫ﻴﻨﺼﻔﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺎﻋﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬.‫ﻭﻴﺠﻌل‬ ‫ﺨﺩﻤﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﺘﺒﻬﻡ‬.
  • ١٢٨ ٦.‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬‫ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﺸﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺨﻁﺎﺏ‬‫ﺨ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬.‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺜﻠﺜﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﺍ‬. ٧.‫ﺍ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬‫ﻭﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺎﻋﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﺭﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠ‬ ‫ﺄﺓ‬‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﺒﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻭﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺒﺩﺃ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬. ٨.‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒـﺭﺍﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻅل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺒـﺎﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻋﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻭﺍﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ‬‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻥ‬.
  • ١٢٩ ‫واﻟﻤﺮاﺟﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر‬ ١.‫ﺍﻟﺭﺯﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺸﻌﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻭ‬)١٩٨٥‫ﻡ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟـﺴﺎﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺒﻌﻴﻥ‬. ٢.‫ﻤﻜﺭﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻀل‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻲ‬ ، ‫ﻤﻨﻅﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺒﻥ‬)١٩٥٦‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﺎﻥ‬‫ﺒﻴﺭﻭﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺒﻴﺭﻭﺕ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ،١٤. ٣.‫ﺇﺴﻤﺎﻋﻴل‬ ‫ﻨﺒﻴل‬ ، ‫ﺭﺴﻼﻥ‬ ، ‫ﺃﺴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺴﻥ‬ ، ‫ﺃﺴﻌﺩ‬)١٩٨٢‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﻟﻠﻘـﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬‫ﻜﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ، ‫ﺠﺩﺓ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬. ٤.‫ﻭﺤﻤﺯﺓ،ﻋﺩﻨﺎﻥ‬ ، ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻴﻭﻱ،ﺒﺩﺭ‬)١٩٨٧‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺩﻭﺓ‬– ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ‬. ٥.‫ﺴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻤﻲ‬)٢٠٠٠‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﻭﺍﻨﻌﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺭﺏ‬‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﻟﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬، ‫ﻤﻨـﺸﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺠـﺴﺘﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺴـﺎﻟﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬. ٦.‫ﺇﺒﺭﺍﻫﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻴﺠﺭﻱ‬)١٩٨٨‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺀ‬‫ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬. ٧.‫ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻭﻴﺵ‬ ، ‫ﻴﻭﺴﻑ‬)١٩٩٩(‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟـﻭﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ ، ‫ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﺭﻗ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬ ،‫ﻡ‬ )٦(‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ، ٨.‫ﺴﻴﻑ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻟﺒﺤﻲ‬)١٩٩٧‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﻌﻜﺎﺴﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻨـﺎﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬.
  • ١٣٠ ٩.‫ﺤﺎﻓﻅ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺒﻲ‬)١٩٩٤‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ،. ١٠.‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺩ‬)١٩٩١‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓـﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ،. ١١.‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻤﻥ‬ ‫،ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻘﺎﻭﻱ‬)١٩٨٠‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻨـﺩﻭﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁـﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﺜﺭ‬ ، ‫ﻭﻤﻌﻭﻗﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ،. ١٢.‫ﻋﺎﻴﺽ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻴﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺭﻱ‬)٢٠٠١‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﺒﺩﺍﻉ‬‫ﺍﻟـﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺘﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬. ١٣.‫ﺭﺍﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺤﻲ‬)١٩٩٣‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺜﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﺴﻭﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻻﺴﺘﻜﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺒﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬. ١٤.‫ﻭﺁﺨﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺴﻡ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺭﺍﻑ‬)١٩٩٤‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠـﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻔﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺓ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬. ١٥.‫ﻴﻭﺴﻑ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﻟﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻑ‬ ، ‫ﻴﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﻴﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺭ‬)١٩٨٤‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬‫ﻤﻌـﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻴﺦ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬. ١٦.‫ﻏﺎﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺁﺩﻡ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺘﻴﺒﻲ‬)١٩٩٠‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜـﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁـﺎﻋﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺘﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ،. ١٧.‫ﻏﺎﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺁﺩﻡ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺘﻴﺒﻲ‬)١٩٩٥‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺕ‬: ، ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴـﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜـﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺍﻓﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻵﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺒﻴﻊ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ،.
  • ١٣١ ١٨.‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬)١٩٨١‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ، ‫ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ‬. ١٩.‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬)١٩٨٢‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬـﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ، ‫ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬، ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺱ‬. ٢٠.‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬)١٩٨٥‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬. ٢١.‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬)١٩٨٦‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬. ٢٢.‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ‬)١٩٩٥‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﻤﻘـﺎﺭﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻅﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ، ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬. ٢٣.‫ﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺴﺎﻑ‬)١٩٩٥‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺨل‬، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴـﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻴﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬. ٢٤.‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫،ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻲ‬)١٩٨٥‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﻭﻨﻅـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺭﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻎ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﻓﺩﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺼل‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬. ٢٥.‫ﺒﺴﺎﻡ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﻱ‬)١٩٩٣‫ﻡ‬" . (‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬"‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺎﺩﻯ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬. ٢٦.‫ﺨﺎﻟﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﻱ‬)١٩٩١‫ﻡ‬" . (‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺭﻓﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺒﻌﺽ‬"‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ ، ‫ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻴﺭﻤﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺭﻤﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺎﺒﻊ‬.
  • ١٣٢ ٢٧.‫ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺅﺍﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﻱ‬)٢٠٠٠‫ﻡ‬(‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺜﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬ ، ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜـﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬. ٢٨.‫ﺤﺠﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫،ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻤﺩﻱ‬)١٩٩٤‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ،. ٢٩.‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻤﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺯﺍﻟﻲ‬)‫ﺒﺩﻭﻥ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻴﺎﺀ‬‫ﻤﺅﺴـﺴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺒﻴﺭﻭﺕ‬ ، ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬ ، ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺠﻠﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻴﻨﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﺅﺍﺩ‬. ٣٠.‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻴﻑ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻟﺢ‬)٢٠٠١‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻨـﺎﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬. ٣١.‫ﺼﺒﺎﺡ‬ ‫،ﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﻠﻲ‬)١٩٩٧‫ﻡ‬" . (‫ﻟﻠﻭﻅﻴﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌـﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﺭﻭﻓﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻬﺎ‬"‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺠﺩﺓ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻴﺯ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤـﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺩ‬ ، ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬. ٣٢.‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺩ‬)١٩٩٤‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻨﻭﻋـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻀﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﺭﺍﻤﺔ‬‫ﻤـﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻵﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺎﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬. ٣٣.‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺴﻑ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻼﻥ‬)١٩٨١‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺁﺜﺎﺭ‬، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴـﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ، ‫ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬ ،. ٣٤.‫ﻗﺎﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻴﻭﺘﻲ‬)١٩٨٩‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴـﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨـﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ ، ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬. ٣٥.‫ﻗﺎﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻴﻭﺘﻲ‬)١٩٩٠‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭ‬‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌـﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻋﻤـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬.
  • ١٣٣ ٣٦.‫ﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻜﻲ‬)١٩٩٢‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺠل‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺭﺩﻭﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬‫ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻨﻴﺔ‬. ٣٧.‫ﺨﺎﻟﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺎﻤﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻡ‬)١٩٩٣‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬. ٣٨.‫ﺴﻠﻁﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﻴﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻌﺎﻥ‬)١٩٩٣‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬. ٣٩.‫ﺇﺒ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﻑ‬‫ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻫﻴﻡ‬)١٩٩٣‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬ ،. ٤٠.‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺭ‬)١٩٩٠‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠـﻙ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬. ٤١.‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺭ‬)١٩٩٣‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﻅﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ، ‫ﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬. ٤٢.‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺭ‬)١٩٩٧‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻅـﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴـﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴـﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺯﺩﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬. ٤٣.‫ﺍﻟﻘﺸﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺴﺎﺒﻭﺭﻱ‬)١٩٨٧‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺼـﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘـﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﻠﻡ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺏ‬ ، ‫ﻷﻟﺒﺎﻨﻲ‬. ٤٤.‫ﺤﺎﻤﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺒﺩﺭ‬)١٩٨٣‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺒﻜﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬. ٤٥.‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﻴﺩﺓ‬)١٣٤٩‫ﻫـ‬. (‫ﻨﻅ‬ ‫ﺃﻭل‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺎﻡ‬‫ﻤﺭﻜـﺯ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴـﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺜﺎﺌﻕ‬٢٩٣. ٤٦.‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﻨﻔﻲ‬ ، ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬)١٩٩٧‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻻﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ‬.
  • ١٣٤ ٤٧.‫ﺩﺍﻻﺱ‬ ‫ﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ، ‫ﺃﻨﺩﺭﻭﺩﻱ‬ ،‫ﺴﻴﺯﻻﻗﻲ‬)١٩٩١‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬، ‫ﺃﺒﻭ‬ ‫ﺠﻌﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺴﻡ‬. ٤٨.‫ﺭﺍﻤﺯ‬ ‫ﺸﻭﻗﻲ‬ ، ‫ﺸﻌﺒﺎﻥ‬)١٩٩٤‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬. ٤٩.‫ﺼﻘﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ‬ ، ‫ﻋﺎﺸﻭﺭ‬)١٩٨٣‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ، ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ ، ‫ﺒﻴﺭﻭﺕ‬. ٥٠.‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ‬ ، ‫ﻋﺎﺸﻭﺭ‬‫ﺼﻘﺭ‬)١٩٨٥‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻻﺴـﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬. ٥١.‫ﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ، ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻲ‬ ، ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻬﻴﻠﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‬)١٩٩٩‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ،. ٥٢.‫ﻤﺤﻤـﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻥ‬ ‫،ﺼﻼﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬)٢٠٠٠‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨـﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻁﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻻﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬. ٥٣.‫ﻨﺎﺼﻑ‬ ، ‫ﻋﺒﺩﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﻕ‬)١٩٨٢‫ﻡ‬. (، ‫ﻋﻤـﺎﻥ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺜﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺎﺩﻱ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬ ،. ٥٤.‫ﻨﺎﺼﻑ‬ ، ‫ﻋﺒﺩﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﻕ‬)١٩٨٦‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻼﺩ‬، ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬. ٥٥.‫ﺴﻭﺍﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻤﺩ‬ ، ‫ﻋﻁﻴﺔ‬)١٩٨٣‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻭﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬. ٥٦.‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻭ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺩﻱ‬ ، ‫ﻋﻁﻴﺔ‬)١٩٩٦‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﺎﺘﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬. ٥٧.‫ﻭﺁﺨﺭﻭﻥ‬ ، ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺩﻕ‬ ، ‫ﻋﻔﻴﻔﻲ‬)١٩٨١‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬"‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ‬ ،. ٥٨.‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻁﻔﻰ‬ ، ‫ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‬)١٩٨٨‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻤﻨ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻔـﺎﻭﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘـﺎﻁﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬، ‫ﺒﻐـﺩﺍﺩ‬ ، ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻴـ‬‫ﺃﺩﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺼﺭﻴﺔ‬‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ،.
  • ١٣٥ ٥٩.‫ﻨﻭﺍﻑ‬ ، ‫ﻜﻨﻌﺎﻥ‬)١٩٨٥‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬، ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺯﺩﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﻁـﺎﺒﻊ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬. ٦٠.‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ‬ ، ‫ﻤﺎﻫﺭ‬)٢٠٠٢‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟـﺩﺍﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻻﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻤﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺔ‬. ٦١.‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺒﻴﻭﻤﻲ‬)١٩٩٤. (‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤـﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬‫ﻤﻌﻬـﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴـﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬. ٦٢.‫ﻓﺘﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ، ‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬)١٩٩٤‫ﻡ‬" . (‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬"‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺯﺩﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬. ٦٣.‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬)١٩٩٧‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤـﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻗﻁـﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻗﺔ‬. ٦٤.‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬)١٩٩٩‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘـﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻟﻴل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘـﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺤـﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ، ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﻁ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬‫ﻁﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺎﺒﻊ‬. ٦٥.‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬)١٩٨٠‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻼﺌﺤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴـﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬. ٦٦.‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬)١٩٨٥‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁـﺎﺒﻊ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻭﻓﺴﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ‬. ٦٧.، ‫ﻫﺎﻨﺯ‬‫ﻤﺎﺭﻴﻭ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎل‬ ‫ﻟﻺﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺸﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴل‬ ، ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬:‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺎﻍ‬ ‫ﺯﻫﻴﺭ‬ ، ‫ﻤﺭﺴﻲ‬:، ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻴﻰ‬ ، ‫ﻏﺭﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬. ٦٨.‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ‬ ، ‫ﻫﻤﺸﺭﻱ‬)١٩٨٦‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬"، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴـﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻟﻺ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ،. ٦٩.‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬)١٩٩٤‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴل‬‫ﺍﻟﺠـﺯﺀ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬.
  • ١٣٦ ٧٠.‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬)١٩٩٨‫ﻡ‬. (‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤـﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻤـﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ‬، ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬. ٧١.‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬)١٤٠٠‫ﻫـ‬. (‫ﺍﻟـﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺴﻌﻭﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤـﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬)٤٢٥(‫ﻓﻲ‬٥/٣/١٣٧٢‫ﻫـ‬‫ﻤﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬ ، ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ‬ ١٩٩٠Fahad Al Rahaimi ( ).An Analytical Atudy of Job satisfaction in Saudi Arabinn. Public sector, unpublished ph. Ddisscitation university of ٢٩٧Liverpool,PP, pp ١. ١٩٨٥Ramond Lee and Elizabeth Wilbur,( ) “Age, Education, Job Tenure, Salary Job Characteristics, and Job Satisfaction: A Multivariate Analysis” Human ٧٨١Relations, pp. -٧٩١. ٢. ١٩٨٥Diener, Thomas ( ). “Community College Faculty Job Satisfaction”, Community, Junior College Ouarterlg of Research and practice, Hemisphere ٩ ٤Publishing Corporation, V , N . ٣.
  • ‫اﻟﻤـــﻼﺣﻖ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ‬)١(‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ‬)٢(‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﻤﺎﺀ‬
  • ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫دراﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫وﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺿﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻲ‬‫اﻟﺮﻳﺎض‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﺎرك‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻬﺮي‬ ‫ﻳﺤﻴﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺒﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫رﻗﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺴﻢ‬ ‫رﺋﻴﺲ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻠﻴﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜﻢ‬ ‫أرﺟﻮ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻮم‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻳﻒ‬ ‫أآﺎدﻳﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠ‬ ‫اﻟﺪراﺳﺎت‬ ‫آﻠﻴﺔ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬ ‫اﻹدارﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮم‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﺟﺴﺘﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
  • ‫اﻟﻤــﻼﺣﻖ‬ )١( ‫ﺍﻷﺥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﻡ‬/ ‫ﻭﺒﺭﻜﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺤﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺭﻭﺤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴـﺌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﻁﻼﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺭﻡ‬ ‫ﺁﻤل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﻠﻤـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﺒﺂﺭﺍﺌﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺭﺠﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﺫﺍ‬ ، ‫ﻓﻘﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﺭﺍﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺘﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻐﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻟﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺼﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻜﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺠﻭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺃﺨﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﺎﺌﻕ‬. ،،، ‫ﺒﺎﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻔﻀﻠﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺎﻭﻨﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺩﻕ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺸﺎﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻴﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻡ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻴﻑ‬‫ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬
  • ١٤٠ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ‬:-‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ١-‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ‬:‫ﺃﻨﺜﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻜﺭ‬ ٢-‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل‬٢٠‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬٢٠-٢٩‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬٣٠–٣٩ ‫ﻤﻥ‬٤٠–٤٩‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬٥٠ ٣-‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل‬‫ﻲ‬: ‫ﻋﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻜﺎﻟﻭﺭﻴﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺜﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﺒﺘﺩﺍﺌﻲ‬ ٤-‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬١-٤‫ﻤﻥ‬٥-٩‫ﻤﻥ‬١٠-١٤‫ﻤﻥ‬١٥-٢٠‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬٢٠‫ﺴﻨﻪ‬
  • ١٤١ ٥-‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل‬٢٠٠٠‫ﻤﻥ‬٢٠٠٠–٣٩٩٩‫ﻤﻥ‬٤٠٠٠–٥٩٩٩ ‫ﻤﻥ‬٦٠٠٠-٧٩٩٩‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬٨٠٠٠
  • ١٤٢ ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺎ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻀﻊ‬( / )‫ﺭﺃﻴﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎﻡ‬٠ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒـــ‬‫ـــــــﺎﺭﺓ‬‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﺩﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﺩﺓ‬ ١‫ﺃﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ‬ ٢‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺠﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺩل‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ٣‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ٤‫ﻤﻘﺘﺭﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺴﻤﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ٥‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﻭﻴﺽ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬‫ﻻﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ٦‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ٧‫ﻭﻋﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ٨‫ﺯﻤﻼﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺭﻨﻲ‬ ٩‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﺘﺯﻡ‬ ١٠‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻅﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺤﺘﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺵ‬
  • ١٤٣ ‫ﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌــــــﺒــــــﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬‫ﺍﺩﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﺩﺓ‬ ١١‫ﻭﻀﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺘﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺘﻘﺎﻀﻰ‬ ١٢‫ﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ‬ ١٣‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺘﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ١٤‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺯﻤﻼﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺘﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﺔ‬ ١٥‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺘﺒﻲ‬ ١٦‫ﻴﺅﻫﻠﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ١٧‫ﺠﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻓﻀل‬ ١٨‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺠﺩ‬ ١٩‫ﻭﺍﻹﺘﻘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ٢٠‫ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺨﺒﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻜﺘﺴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ٢١‫ﺍﻵﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻠﺤﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻁﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺜﺭ‬ ٢٢‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺴﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ ٢٣‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﻋﻴﺩ‬ ٢٤‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺼﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﺒﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬
  • ١٤٤ ‫ﺜﺎﻟﺜﺎ‬:‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬: ١-‫؟‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻀﻌﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺒﻭل‬ ‫ﺠﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺠﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺘﺎﺯ‬ ٢-‫؟‬ ‫ﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺘﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻀﻌﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺒﻭل‬ ‫ﺠﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺠﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺘﺎﺯ‬ ٣-‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫؟‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻀﻌﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺒﻭل‬ ‫ﺠﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺠﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺘﺎﺯ‬ ٤‫؟‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﻀﻌﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺒـﻭل‬ ‫ﺠﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺠﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺘﺎﺯ‬ ٥-‫ﺒﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺄﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺘﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﻫل‬‫؟‬ ‫ﺒﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻜﻼ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻋﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ‬ ٦-‫؟‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺨﺎﻟﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﺸﻔﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺒل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻻ‬١-٣‫ﻤﻥ‬٤-٦‫ﻤﻥ‬٧–٩١٠‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬
  • ١٤٥ ٧-‫؟‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨـــﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨــﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴـﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻠـﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸـﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺨﻁﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻻ‬١-٣٤‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ٨-‫؟‬ ‫ﻋﻤـﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨــﻴﺭﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻀﺕ‬ ‫ﻫل‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺓ‬ ٩-‫؟‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺘﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﻫل‬ ‫ﻨـﺎﺩﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﺤــﻴﺎﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺌــﻤﺎ‬ ١٠-‫؟‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺘﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﻫل‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺌــﻤﺎ‬‫ﻨـﺎﺩﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﺤــﻴﺎﻨﺎ‬ ١١-‫؟‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻀﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺘﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻙ‬ ‫ﻫل‬ ‫ﻜـﻼ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ‬ ١٢-‫ﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻬﺎ؟‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺘﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺘﺭﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻌـــــــــــــــــﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬‫ﺃﺅﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺅﻴﺩ‬‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻴﺩ‬ ١‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ٢‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ٣‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ٤‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻭﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﺤل‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻁﺎﻟﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺎﻉ‬ ٥‫ﺍﻹﻀﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺹ‬ ٦‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬
  • ١٤٦ ٧‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬
  • ١٤٧ ١٥-‫؟‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻨﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻫل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒـــــــــــﺎﺭﺓ‬‫ﺃﻭﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻴﺩ‬ ١‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺫﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ٢‫ﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ )‫ﻜﻤﺒﻴﻭﺘﺭ‬–‫ﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺸﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬( ٣‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺸﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺽ‬ ٤‫ﺘ‬‫ﻭﺍﺴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﻼﺤﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻔﻭﻴﺽ‬ ٥‫ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺩﻴﺏ‬ ٦‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺎﻋﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺭﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻴﺎﺘ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺒﻠﻭﺍ‬‫ﻲ‬،،،،،،
  • ‫ﺕ‬ Naif Academic Arabian for security science. Higher studies college Administration department Research Abstract Research title: - The occupational satisfaction and its relation ship tuzth the production. - Practical study for Riyadh custom . - Prepared by: Ali - Supervised by: - Discussion committee: - Supervisor and discussioner: Dr. member Dr. member ١٤٢٤Discussion date / / - ٢٠٠٣/ / Abstract: The study aims to identify on the occupational satisfaction and it’s relation with the production of the custom corporation employees in Riyadh region. This study is applied through analyze and apply the occupational satisfaction measurement relating to some demographical factors for sea, service periods, educational qualification, age, in the level of the occupational satisfaction and the role of the occupational factors such as wages, occupational security, work circumstances, the relation ship between the employees and the employers, the promotion and the occupational development in it’s supporting the occupational satisfaction and it’s supporting the production level through the evaluation and the enthusiasm and the production of the employees effect in increasing and decreasing of the occupational satisfaction. So, the study identify the researchers views a bout the effective factors in increasing the satisfaction the production. The ٢٠٤study population contains of inspectors those who work in the custom. The ١٧٧male reached - ٨٨٫٥٪percentage is . The ٢٣female reached . percentage ١١٫٥٪is which are represent the whole level studies. The study tools contain of three divisions: The first division is the C.Vs of the inspectors. The second division is occupational satisfy-action in it’s five scopes for the inspectors who works in the custom corporation in Riyadh region.
  • ‫ﺙ‬ The third division about the average production of the employees, custom. The researcher deposal on the statistical average, standard deviation, the percentage and parson link to measure the relation between the satisfaction and production, (T). Test (T) is designed & identify the differences between the demographical variables and the satisfaction level. Square (K) which demonstrate the abstraction degree among the variables. For more illustration comprehension of the sapless characteristics, the research is supported by diagrams. The study has indicated denoted that there is a strung relation ship between the employment satisfaction and the production ٢٨level. ( ,٩٩٢). In ٠٫٠١the level ٠٫٠١parson linkage, in the level ٨٫٠١ (I.d). Which indicate that there is a proportional relationship between the two variables, and that means when the satisfaction increased the production will be increased and rice-versa. The production influences by the work circumstances. So, the promotion doesn’t link with the efficiency which value to decrease the satisfaction. Moreover, the salary which is quiver to the employee, is not satisfactory, for the salary has been. Located in the last level in distribution of the sample, according to the measurement of satisfaction. Also this study demonstrates, that me administration doesn’t obligate tar the health insurance. In addition to that, there are statistical differences, which inelicated to the sex variation. The satisfaction increased for the female. The study has demonstrated the following: - There are statistical difference indicated to the age reriation. (which means, the more age increased the satisfaction decreased). - The study demonstrate that there are statistical differences in the ٠٫٠١level for the high salary gainers. - Also the study found that there are stastical difference in the ٠٫٠١level demonstrating the increasing of the satisfaction for the employees those whose who work hisser service periods. - The study has demonstrated, there are statishical differences in the level ٠٫٠١ demonstrating increasing of satisfaction for the lower qualification employees.