أثر حوكمة-المستشفيات-على-أخلاقيات-المهنة-الطبية
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أثر حوكمة-المستشفيات-على-أخلاقيات-المهنة-الطبية

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  • 1.  –          ‫ﻳﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﺘﻘﻰ‬‫ﺣﻮﻝ‬:    ‫ﻳﻮﻣﻲ‬06-07‫ﻣﺎﻱ‬2012 ‫ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺧﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬: ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬‫ﺟﻴﺠﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺸﻔﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬: ‫ﺃ‬.‫ﻓﻮﺯﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺮﺍﺵ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬‫ﺟﻴﺠﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬:Ziyamekkrache@yahoo.com ‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺟﻮﻫﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻄﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻜﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺧﻴﻀﺮ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬:Djouhara07@voila.fr ‫ﺍﳌﺨﱪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ‬:‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺩ‬/‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻛﺮ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﺘﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺲ‬:‫ﺩ‬.‫ﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺲ‬:‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺩ‬/‫ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﻏﻮﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻮﻙ‬ ،‫ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﲟﺨﱪ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬: ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ‬:laboratoire_lfbm@yahoo.fr ‫ﻫﺎﺗﻒ‬/‫ﻓﺎﻛﺲ‬:033742199
  • 2.         672012   ‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ‬: ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺪﻓﺖ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺑﻌﺎﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺀ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺑﻌﺎﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﻭﺿﻮﺡ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﺔ‬ ، ،‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ‬‫ﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺸﻔﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺠﻞ‬.‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﰎ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬114،‫ﻣﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ‬SPSS‫ﺗﻮﺻﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬‫ﻣﺴ‬ ‫ﻳﻄﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺠﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬. ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﳚﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺪﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﳉﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬.‫ﻭﻗﺪﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ‬:‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺸﻔﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬‫ﺟﻴﺠﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ‬. Abstract : This study aimed to investigated the impact of Hospital Governance in term of transparency, board and management information, audit committees, and management remuneration, on medical job ethics in term of self control, loyality, role clarity, and skills development, at the Hospital of Jijel. We used a questionnaire was distributed to 114 employees and we analysed the data through SPSS program, the study found that the hospital was emplement the governance dimensions; and the employees had a high level of job ethical. Also the results assures that the transparency and management remuneration had a direct positive effect on medical job ethics, whearese board and management information, and audit committees hadn’t effect on medical job ethics. The explanations and recommendations are also proposed. Key words : Hospital Governance, Transparency, Board and Management Information, Audit Committees, Management Remuneration, medical job ethics, Hospital of Jijel.
  • 3.         672012   ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬: ‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﳘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺒﺢ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ‬20‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺸﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬(Newell, 2007, p2).‫ﻭﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻞ‬(Newell, 2007, p3). ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬. ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬:‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬)‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎ‬‫ﳘﲔ‬.(‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﳎﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﺘﻢ‬‫ﻭ‬: ‫ﻭﺗﺼﺎﺩﻡ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﺩﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺭﺗﺒﻄﺖ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ‬(Ryan et al, 2010, p 674).‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬‫ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺮﺯﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﺲ‬ ،‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﲔ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﲟﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬ ‫ﲨﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺿﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﲢﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ،‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﲟﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﺰﻡ‬‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ،‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻨﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻇﻬﻮﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬ‬‫ﻨﺔ‬.‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﻝ‬:‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻞ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺟﻴﺠﻞ؟‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺸﻔﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬: 1.‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬:‫ﺗﻌﱪ‬‫ﺍﳍﻴ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳛﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﳏﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﱀ‬ ‫ﻟﲑﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺮﻱ‬‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ‬. 2.‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺘﺰﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻬﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﳏﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﲟﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌ‬‫ﻬﻨﻴﺔ‬. ü‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬:‫ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﱪ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﳛﺪﺙ‬. ü‫ﳉﻨﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬:‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﳉﻨﺔ‬‫ﻦ‬‫ﺣﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﺪﻕ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‬‫ﺑﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬. ü‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﺎﻟﺲ‬:‫ﻟﺒﺲ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﱏ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺣﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻇﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬. ü‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬:‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﻀﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺿﻮﺡ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﱪ‬‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎﻡ‬. 3.‫ﺍﻟﻄﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬:،‫ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﲟﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﺋ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﻪ‬ ،‫ﺩﻭﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻮﺡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬.
  • 4.         672012   ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬: 1.‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬:Corporate Governance ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺳﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺣﻈﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﳌﺎ‬ ‫ﻇﻬﻮﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻘﺎﺵ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑﺍ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺰﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﻐﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﳝﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﺕ‬.‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ، ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬Cadbury‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬ 1992‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ‬1995‫ﻓﺪﺭﺱ‬Greenbury‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﲔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﺀ‬‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬1998‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ‬Hampel‫ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺱ‬‫ﺃﻭﺳﻊ‬‫ﻛﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬)Kirkbride & Letza, 2004, P.85(. ‫ﺃﻛﺪ‬)Ryan., et al, 2010, P. 673(‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬‫ﺗﺸﻤﻞ‬‫ﻋ‬‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﳍﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺘﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﲣﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬.‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﳝﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻄﻮﻱ‬:‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬.‫ﻓﺎﳉ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﻀﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ‬ ‫ﺎﻧﺐ‬. ‫ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻇﻬﻮﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ‬ ‫ﻳﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬.‫ﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻄﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﳒﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ‬.‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺑﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺖ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺠﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻏﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪﻣﺖ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬. ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﳉﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺪﺍﺧﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﳉﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ‬‫ﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﻀﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲝﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬)Ryan., et al, 2010, P. 673(. ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﻠﻘﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺎﺿﺖ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻨﺠﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺎﻝ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬.‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑ‬ ‫ﺎﳉﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺳﺖ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻫﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺎﺭﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺳﺖ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﻼﺕ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﲡﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﻼﺹ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬‫ﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﰿ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﳎﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬،‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﺎﺭﺏ‬....‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳎﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ‬ ‫ﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﱁ‬)Ryan., et al, 2010, P. 673(. ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬)Davis, 2005, P.143(‫ﺗﺘﺄﻟﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﲢﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳋ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺤﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ،‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‬ ،‫ﻳﻮﺟﻬﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﺪﺩ‬ ،‫ﻋﻠﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﲤﺎﺭﺳﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬‫ﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﲢﻘﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ‬‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬.‫ﻭ‬‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺪﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻇﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﳛﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺪﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳛﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﳏﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﳌﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﻌﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺮﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ‬‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﲟﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﳉﺔ‬. 1.‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬:Hospital Governance ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﳘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬‫ﲜﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬‫ﺃﲰﻲ‬‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻊ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻓﲑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ‬‫ﺘﻤﻊ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬.‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻬﺞ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‬.‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻋﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﻳﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺮﻯ‬
  • 5.         672012   ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ‬.‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﻓﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﲎ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ‬،‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻋﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﺭﺕ‬)Murphy & O’Donohoe, 2006, P.14(. ‫ﻭﺿﺢ‬)Savedoff, 2011, P. 4(‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬.‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺵ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺑﺄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﲢﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﳏﺪﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﳎﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻞ‬.‫ﺑﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﳏﺪﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬ ‫ﻭﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﻦ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬.‫ﻛﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﲢﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﲟﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬.‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃﻏ‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ﻳﺮﻛﺰﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﲢﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﲟﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬. ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻷ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺑﺄ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻑ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬.‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﳒﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲔ‬ ‫ﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬)Murphy & O’Donohoe, 2006, P.15(.‫ﻭﺃﻛﺪ‬)Bogue., et al, 2007, P. 18(‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬‫ﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬،‫ﺑﺎﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﲔ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﳍﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺍﺋﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﲟﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬.‫ﻋﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬)Savedoff, 2011, P. 5(‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎ‬‫ﺕ‬‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺑﺄ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻴﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻓﺮ‬.‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻴﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺫﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﺍﻓﺰ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬. ‫ﻭﻳﺸﲑ‬)Savedoff, 2011, P. 5(‫ﳊ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ؛‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻓﺈ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻓﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺄﺛﲑ‬ ‫ﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﺍﻓﺰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬.‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺰﻳﺪ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺳﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬ ‫ﲜﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﳝﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﳊﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﱀ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬‫ﻛﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ‬. ‫ﻳﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬)Murphy & O’Donohoe, 2006, P.15(‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬‫ﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﰲ‬‫ﺗﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ‬‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬‫ﺍ‬ ،‫ﻭﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻨﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺫ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ‬‫ﱂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫ﺗ‬‫ﻌﺎﰿ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻏﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻛﺰﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺣﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺪﻯ‬. ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫ﺗﻄﺮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺍﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻭﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ‬‫ﺇﱃ‬‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑ‬ ‫ﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬‫ﺎﺕ‬. ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻭﺓ‬‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ،‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺞ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳ‬‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺘﻘﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲝﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﺕ‬‫ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻲ‬‫ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﳕﺎﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﲝﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ،‫ﻣﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﲏ‬ ‫ﺍﳍ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬‫ﺘﻤﻊ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﱘ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺪﻑ‬)Bogue., et al, 2007, P. 18(. ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬:،‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ،‫ﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬.‫ﺑﺈﳚﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺡ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬. ü‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬:Transparency
  • 6.         672012   ‫ﻭﺗﻨﻄﻮﻱ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺪﺃ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺟﻮﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺴﻄﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ،‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﲡﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﱵ‬ )Chung et al, 2010, P. 266(.‫ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭ‬)Frynas, 2010, P.169(‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﳌﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺮﺍﺩﻑ‬.‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫ﻟﻠﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺁﺛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﲢﺴﲔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬.‫ﻭﻳﻨﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﺠﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬. ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫ﻳﺮﻯ‬)Roohani., et al, 2009, P. 356(‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬‫ﻛﺒﲑ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬‫ﺷﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﳌ‬‫ﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﻛﺸﻒ‬‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬‫ﺗﺸﲑ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬.‫ﲟﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻋﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺘﺰﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﳉ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌ‬ ‫ﻮﺩﺓ‬‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﺍ‬ ،‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﺰﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬.‫ﻭﺃﺿﺎﻑ‬)Roohani., et al, 2009, P. 356(‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺠﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﳑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﺰﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻲ‬.‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻄﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬.‫ﺍﳌﻨ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺛﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﳛﺐ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬‫ﻟﻠ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺷﺮﻳﻄﺔ‬ ،‫ﺎﺳﺐ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ،‫ﻭﻓﻬﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ‬.‫ﺍﳌ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻲ‬‫ﺷﺒﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﱪ‬ ‫ﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻨﻮﺍﺕ‬. ü‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬:(Audit Committees) ‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭ‬)Davies, 2009, P. 44(‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬1992‫ﺃﻭﺻﻰ‬Cadbury‫ﺗﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‬ ‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﲰﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬.‫ﻓ‬‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﰎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﳘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻈﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﻛ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﲡﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﲣﺎﺫ‬‫ﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻞ‬‫ﺃﻛﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻢ‬‫ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻪ‬.‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻹ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﻨﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ‬ ،‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬‫ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﲑ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬.‫ﻣﻨﺤﺼﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﺈﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺸﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺴﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬. ‫ﺍﻹﺩ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻌﺐ‬‫ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺤﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﲡﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﻔﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻓﺰﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﳜﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﲡﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫ﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺼﺪﺍﻗﻴﺔ‬.‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻳﻀﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬)Chatterjee, 2011, P. 69(. ü‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬:(Board and management information) ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺻﺪ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺼﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺴﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﳘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺄﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺁﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ‬‫ﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮﻙ‬‫ﻮ‬‫ﺍﳌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﺎﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ،‫ﻭﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺸﻮﺭﺓ‬.‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻳﺰﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻷﺻﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﻜﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻓﺼﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬.‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ‬‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺬﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺰﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺪﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬)Andres & Vallelado, 2008, P. 571(.
  • 7.         672012   ‫ﻭﻳﺮﻯ‬)Machuga & Teitel,2009, P. 3(‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﳛﺴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺰﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪﺍﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻠﺲ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﲢﺴﲔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺄﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬. ‫ﺃﻛﺪ‬)Lee., et al, 2009, P.823(‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺁﺓ‬‫ﻓﺘﻮﻓﺮ‬ ،‫ﺎ‬‫ﳐﺮﺟﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻌﺎﻛﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﲑ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺬﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻠﺲ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﳍﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﳚﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺰﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬‫ﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬. ‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻭﺓ‬،‫ﻳﺘﺨﺬﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺈﻥ‬‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﻀﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﲡﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬ ،‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ‬‫ﺟﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺇﺳﻬﺎﻣﺎﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬‫ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑﺍ‬ ‫ﺻﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲟﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺛﺮ‬. ü‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬:(Management Remuneration) ‫ﻭﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﲣﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﺠﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬.‫ﺍﻋﺘﱪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﳎﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬Conyon & Mallin‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬1997.‫ﻭ‬‫ﺃﳘﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺔ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﰲ‬‫ﻛﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﻘﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬ ‫ﳋﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﲔ‬)Confyon & Peck, 1998, P. 147(. ‫ﻳﺮﻯ‬)Tsipouri & Xanthakis, 2004, P. 18(‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﱄ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻇﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ‬ ،‫ﲢﺎﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺍﻟﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﺴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻤﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻳﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﲣﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﻀﺎﺕ‬. ‫ﻭ‬‫ﺃﻛﺪ‬)O’Hare, 2009, P. 10(‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ‬.‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺘﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ‬‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﻀﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺨﻄﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺑﺎﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻀﻐﻮﻁ‬.‫ﻭﺃﺿﺎﻑ‬)O’Hare, 2009, P. 12(‫ﺃ‬‫ﲢﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎ‬‫ﰲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﲣﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬،‫ﲟﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺭﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻔﺎﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﺭﲰﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﺎﺩﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬.‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﱃ‬‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬‫ﲟﻬﺎﻣﻬﺎ‬‫ﳉﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﺷﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻣﲔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳍﻴﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻂ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺍﺑﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﲑ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺒﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ‬: H1:‫ﺗﻄﺒ‬‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺸﻔﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬. 2.‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬:(Business Ethics) ‫ﺗﺘﻌﻠ‬‫ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﲣﺎﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﲜﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻖ‬‫ﻭﺧﺼﺎﺋﺼﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻊ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺘﺤﺪﺩ‬ ،)،‫ﻗﻴﻢ‬ ،‫ﺃﻋﺮﺍﻑ‬ ،‫ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻳﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬(‫ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬(John, 2009, P 13).
  • 8.         672012   ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﺒﻂ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻄﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤ‬‫ﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﳌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‬‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻼﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﲣﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺘﻤﻊ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲤﺲ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ‬(Aggarwal, 2011).‫ﺍﻟﻌ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻢ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬(Newell, 2007, p 1).‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ‬:‫ﻭﺍﶈﺘﻤﻠﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺑ‬‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﳉﻨﺲ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬...‫ﺍﱁ‬.‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ‬‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﺎﺩﻡ‬:‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺆﺩﻱ‬‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬.‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ‬:‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻼﻣﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬.‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ‬‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺊ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻠ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬(Newell, 2007, p5). 3.‫ﺃﺧ‬‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬:(Job Ethics) ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻢ‬.‫ﻭﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﳌﻬﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﱪ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﺘﻐﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ،‫ﺘﻤﻊ‬‫ﺍ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻢ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬‫ﺎ‬(Center for Career Giudance)‫ﻓﺄﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎ‬ ،‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻓﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬.‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﰎ‬‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬‫ﺍﳋ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﳝﺮ‬ ‫ﻄﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬:1.‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﲝﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﻻﻧﻀﺒﺎﻁ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﱯ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﺿﺒﻂ‬ ،‫ﻻﳒﺎﺯﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺎﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ،‫ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺎﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﻀﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻋﻼﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬.2.‫ﺍﻟﺘ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳌﺸﺮﻑ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬‫ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬‫ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ‬‫ﳛﺴﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺰﻣﻼﺀ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻼﻗﺘﻪ‬،‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬: ،‫ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺀ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳒﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ‬.3.،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻕ‬‫ﲝﻴﺚ‬‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳒﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ،‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‬ ،‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﳓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻶﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﳎﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺹ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺢ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻳﻖ‬‫ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬.4.‫ﻳﻌﻄﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﲝﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﲔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻬﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻟﺰﻣﻼﺋﻪ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬.5.‫ﻓ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ‬‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺐ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻇﻒ‬.6.،‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﲢﺴﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻃﺮﻕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬.7.‫ﺇﺫ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﳚﺐ‬‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣ‬‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻬﺎﻣﻪ‬.8.‫ﻟﻔﻈﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻔﻈﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﳝﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻠﻰ‬ ،‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﲝﻴﺚ‬‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ‬‫ﺑﺎﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ‬.9.‫ﻣ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬‫ﻦ‬‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺎﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﳊﻞ‬ ‫ﳌ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬.10.‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ‬ ،‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ‬‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬‫ﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﳌﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﰲ‬.(Center for Career Giudance) 4.‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬:Job Ethics)Medical( ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺐ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ‬‫ﻓﻦ‬‫ﻭﻣﻬﻨﺔ‬‫ﺗ‬‫ﻭﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﲝﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬‫ﺍﳌﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺔ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮﻳﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬(John, 2009, P 17)‫ﺣﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﳍﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ‬ ،  ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺩﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻊ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﰲ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﻤﻊ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﳚﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻳﺰﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﺁﻻﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺃ‬‫ﻳﻮﻣﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬.‫ﻓﺎﺭﺗﺒﻄﺖ‬‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﺳﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻠﻔﺔ‬‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‬،‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻵﺩﺍﺏ‬ ،‫ﻭ‬،‫ﺍﻷﻣﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻋﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﰎ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫ﰲ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺓ‬،‫ﺑﻌﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺭﺑﻄﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬‫ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬:
  • 9.         672012   ‫ﺍﻟﺼﱪ‬ ،‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺿﻊ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻫﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮﻳﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺔ‬‫ﻭ‬،‫ﺃﺳﺮﺍﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻆ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ‬‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬ ، ‫ﺘﻤﻊ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺮ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬،‫ﲡﻨﺐ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻨﻘﺪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﱯ‬‫ﻟﺰﻣﻼﺀ‬‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬...‫ﺍﱁ‬(World Health 3)-Organization, 1998, p 1‫ﻭﻳﺮﻯ‬(John, 2009, P 22)‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺃﺑﻌ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ‬،‫ﺑﺎﳌﺮﻳﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﰎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﰎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﲤﺲ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬‫ﻫﺬ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬ ،‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻩ‬:،‫ﻟﻠﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻻﺀ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺿﻮﺡ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﺔ‬.‫ﻭﻳﺮﻯ‬(John, 2009, P 27)‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻄﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻊ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻴﻢ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ‬. ü‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬(Self Control):‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﻬﺎ‬(Learned resourcefulness)‫ﻭﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﲡﻨﺐ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺿﻐﻮﻁ‬ ‫ﲢﻤﻞ‬ ،‫ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳒﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﲡﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﳚﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﺄ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ‬ ،...‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﳛﻜﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﲝﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﱁ‬‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻛﻪ‬، ‫ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻗﻔﻪ‬ ،‫ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻪ‬(Lightsey et al, 2011, pp 144-145).‫ﺗﺼ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻒ‬‫ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲡﻨﺐ‬‫ﳍﺎ‬‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬‫ﺗﻔﻮﻕ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺰﺍﻳﺎ‬‫ﻋﻮﺍ‬‫ﺋﺪ‬‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ‬.‫ﻧﻘﺺ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻄ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻃﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﲡﻨﺐ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻬﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ‬. ü‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻮﺡ‬(Role Clarity):‫ﻋﺮﻑ‬(Donnelly. Jr. and Ivancevich, 1975, p 73)‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻮﺡ‬‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﳛﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬.‫ﻭﻟ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺪﻗﺔ‬‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺺ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻮﺡ‬‫ﻣ‬‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻄﻠﻮﺏ‬‫ﲝﻴﺚ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻮﺡ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬. ü‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬(skills Devlelopment):‫ﻋﺮﻑ‬(Toner, 2011, p 11)‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺮﺟﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﰎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ‬.‫ﻭ‬‫ﺃﻛﺪ‬ )Oyewole et al, 2011, P.984(‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺘﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﳛﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻴﺎﺩﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺎﻻﺕ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬.‫ﺃﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬(Haan, 2010, p 317)‫ﺇ‬‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﱃ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﳋﱪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻦ‬. ü‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺀ‬(loyality):‫ﻋﺮ‬‫ﻑ‬(Gill, 2011, p 25)‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺟﺤﲔ‬ ‫ﳚﻌﻠﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻓﻬﻢ‬‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﳍﻴﻜﻞ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺘﺮﺟﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ،‫ﳍﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻀﻞ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ‬: H2:‫ﻟﺪ‬‫ﺟﻴﺠﻞ‬ ‫ﲟﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﻯ‬،‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻮﺡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻻﺀ‬. ‫ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺎﺕ‬: •‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬: ‫ﺿ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺢ‬(Ryan et al, 2010)‫ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴ‬‫ﺌﻮﻟﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺪﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬‫ﲔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻌﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﲔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻮ‬‫ﺭﻱ‬‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﰲ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﳛﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺸﲑﻭﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﻀﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳛﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬.‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬
  • 10.         672012   ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺠﻬﺔ‬‫ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺛﺮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻰ‬ ‫ﳝﺜﻠﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬. ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫ﺩﺭﺳﺖ‬(Obay, 2009)‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﰊ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﶈﻴﻂ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻮﺭﺩﻳﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﲔ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﲡﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺭﻛﺰﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬. ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬،‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﳍﻴﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻮﺓ‬.‫ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﻜﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﳜﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﺮﺍﻕ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺷﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻸﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳍﺬﻩ‬،‫ﺍﻷﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺮﺯﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬‫ﻧﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺔ‬‫ﻳﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻭﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻏﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬.‫ﻭ‬‫ﺃﻛﺪﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﲔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺎﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎ‬‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻗﻲ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻼﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﺻﻠﺖ‬‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬.‫ﺍﳋﲑﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﳘﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺮﺿﺖ‬‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬:‫ﻭﻛﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻋﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬(Red Crescent)،‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳏﻴﻂ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺲ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﺔ‬‫ﺍﳋﲑﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻌﺾ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻣﻴﺬ‬. ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬‫ﺩﺭﺱ‬Wilson‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬2000‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﻟﻸﺧﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻐﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ،‫ﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﲡﻌﻞ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﲢﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﳊﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﻛﻀﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻀﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﺪﺙ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺍﺀ‬.‫ﻭ‬‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬Othman & Rahman‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬ 2011،‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺮﺳﻴﺦ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬.‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﺠﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺆ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﳌﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ‬‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﺑﺸﻤﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ‬.‫ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻘﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺰﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﱰﺍﻫﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺅﻳﺘﻬﺎ‬. ü‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺔ‬: ‫ﺩﺭﺱ‬)McGivern & Fischer, 2011(‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺭﺩﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺗﻮﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻌ‬‫ﺗﻔ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺸﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﲟﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺮﺋﻴﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻘﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻊ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬.‫ﺍﲡﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺭﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﲢﺴﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻏﻞ‬ ‫ﳜﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﲟﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬. ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﺿﲔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﻐﻮﻁ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻳﻜ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﲔ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﳚﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻧﻄﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻛﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻓﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬ‬ ‫ﺿﺌﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﺿﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﲡﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﺘﻘﺪ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻞ‬‫ﻓﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺷ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﺼﻮﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ،‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺰﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ‬،‫ﳌﻬﺎﺭﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻌﻮﺭﻩ‬
  • 11.         672012   ‫ﻭﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﳜﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﲡﺎﻫﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺨﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻐﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬: H3:‫ﺇﳚﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑ‬ ‫ﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ﺟﻴﺠﻞ‬ ‫ﲟﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬. ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺪﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﺰﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺷﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﲤﻠﻚ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ‬: H4:‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﳚﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑ‬ ‫ﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬‫ﺟﻴﺠﻞ‬ ‫ﲟﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻄﱯ‬. H5:‫ﺟﻴﺠﻞ‬ ‫ﲟﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﳚﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑ‬ ‫ﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬. ü‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳎﺎﻟﺲ‬: ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬)Teoh & Lim, 2002(‫ﺑ‬‫ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬‫ﰲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻶﺛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﺎ‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﺎﻥ‬.‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﺎﺣﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳕﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻇﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻇﻬﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ،‫ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﻣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﺰﻡ‬.‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳊﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻋﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻀﻮﺍﺑﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬. ‫ﺩﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳎﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬)Tremblay & Gendron, 2011(‫ﻣﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﳌ‬‫ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻣﺘﺜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺰﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺠﺰﺀ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻛﺠﺰﺀ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﺻﻼ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻮﺍﺑﻂ‬.‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺛﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻔﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻇﻬﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬. ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﳌﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻓﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺰﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬‫ﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻊ‬‫ﺑﺎ‬. ‫ﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻘﺪ‬‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺗﻘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻛﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻃﻼﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻲ‬ ‫ﳕﻂ‬ ‫ﺳﲑﺳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬‫ﻨﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬‫ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﳏﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻛﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺰﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﳒﺎﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺴﺎﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬. ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫ﻣﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺭﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻯ‬‫ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﲟﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻢ‬‫ﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻼﺀﻡ‬.‫ﻳﺰﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺇﳚﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﲡﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﳜﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻃﻤﺌﻨﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﳜﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﲢﻘ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻌﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻳﺸﻐﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﲡﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﳜﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺷﺄﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻬﺎ‬.‫ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ‬: H6:‫ﺟﻴﺠﻞ‬ ‫ﲟﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﳚﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑ‬ ‫ﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﳕﻮﺫﺝ‬: ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳌﺘﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬.
  • 12.         672012   ‫ﺭﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬)1( ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ‬ 1.‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﳎﺘﻤﻊ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﳎﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻤﻞ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬‫ﺟﻴﺠﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺸﻔﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬‫ﻭﻻﻳﺔ‬‫ﺟﻴﺠﻞ‬‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﰎ‬‫ﺍﻷﻃﺒﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﳝﺜﻠﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺿﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﳝﺜﻠﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻤﺮﺿﲔ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳉﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲨﻊ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺴﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﺕ‬‫ﻭﺍﳉﻬﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﺍ‬،‫ﻭ‬‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﰎ‬150 ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺎﻥ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻮﻇﻔﻲ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﰎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬114‫ﺍﺳﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ‬‫ﺑﻠﻐﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬76℅. 1.‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺒﺬﺓ‬: ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﺸﻰ‬"‫ﺟﻴﺠﻞ‬"‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬1933‫ﺍﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻄﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬"Fantz Fanon"‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻴﻮﺵ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻴﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﻟﻄﺒﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬. ‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬1947‫ﻭﻻﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻔﺼﻠﺖ‬"‫ﺟﻴﺠﻞ‬"‫ﻭﻻﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻳﺎ‬"‫ﻗﺴﻨﻄ‬‫ﻴﻨﺔ‬"‫ﺍﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﳛﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﰎ‬ ،"‫ﳛﲕ‬ ‫ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬"‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬"Fantz Fanon"‫ﻳﻠﱯ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﱂ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻼﺝ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ‬. ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺷﲔ‬ ‫ﰎ‬"‫ﳛﲕ‬ ‫ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬"‫ﻳﻮﻡ‬08‫ﻧﻮﻓﻤﱪ‬1983‫ﺭﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺭ‬24281.‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﲢﺖ‬"‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‬"‫ﺭﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺤﻮﻝ‬07-140‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ‬19‫ﻣﺎﻱ‬2007‫ﺍﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻄﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺢ‬ "‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﻔﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬"‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺢ‬ ،‫ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻊ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘ‬‫ﻼﻝ‬‫ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‬‫ﻭﻳﻮﺿﻊ‬‫ﲢﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺎﻳﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﱄ‬‫ﻭﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻫﻴﻜﻞ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺨﻴﺺ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﺝ‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﻔﺎﺀ‬‫ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻫﻴﻞ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬)‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﲰﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﻳﺪﺓ‬.( 2.‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬: ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺼﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳉﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻛﺄﺩﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﺕ‬:‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬.‫ﺻﻤﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ‬Likert‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﲝﺚ‬ ،1‫ﺇﱃ‬5‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‬.‫ﻭﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑ‬ ‫ﳎﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳉﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﺕ‬)(Doherty & Terry, 2009, PP.112‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻇﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﲑ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬700‫ﻣﻮﻇﻒ‬.‫ﴰﻞ‬‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﺃﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬: ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‬ ‫ﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳋﱪﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ‬ ،‫ﺍﳉﻨﺲ‬.(‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻤﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬)40(‫ﻓﻘﺮﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻄﻲ‬. ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺎﺕ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺿﻮﺡ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺀ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ‬( ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬
  • 13.         672012   ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬: •‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬: ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬)1(:‫ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ‬ ،‫ﺍﳉﻨﺲ‬ ‫ﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻘﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬،‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬. ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬(%)‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬(%) ‫ﺍﳉﻨﺲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺬ‬‫ﻛﻮﺭ‬7364,0‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ‬18-292017,5 ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺎﺙ‬4136,030-395144,7 ‫ﻤﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬114100,040-493631,6 ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻞ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬20000‫ﺩﺝ‬0050-5976,1 20000-40000‫ﺩﺝ‬6960,560‫ﻓﺄﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬00 40001-60000‫ﺩﺝ‬1916,7‫ﻤﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬114100 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬60000‫ﺩﺝ‬2622,8‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻱ‬87,0 ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻲ‬8070,2 ‫ﻋﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬2622,8 ‫ﻤﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬114100 ‫ﻤﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬114100,0 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﴰﻠﺖ‬114،‫ﻣﻮﻇﻒ‬64.0) %73‫ﻣﻮﻇﻒ‬(‫ﻓﻴﻤﺜﻠﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ،‫ﺫﻛﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺒﲔ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬36.0) %41‫ﻣﻮﻇﻔ‬‫ﺔ‬.(‫ﻭ‬‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻴﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬‫ﺫﻛﻮﺭ‬.‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺸﻔﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﺭﻫﻢ‬‫ﺑﲔ‬30-39‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬44.7% ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺒﲔ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ‬.‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬‫ﻳﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻴﺒﲔ‬:‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﺭﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬18-29‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬17.5%‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬ ، ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﺭﻫﻢ‬30-39‫ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬44.7%‫ﺍﻟﺬ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﺭﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﻦ‬40-49‫ﻓﻨﺴﺒﺘﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬31.6%،‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﺭﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬50-59‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻬﻢ‬6.1℅.‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫ﻳﺒ‬‫ﲔ‬‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬)1(‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ،‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻴﺒﲔ‬‫ﻳﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬:‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﺃﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﺧﻠﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬20000‫ﺩﺝ‬، ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺩﺧﻠﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬20000-40000‫ﻓﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺝ‬60.5%‫ﺩﺧﻠﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ،40001-60000‫ﳝﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﺧﻠﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺝ‬ 16.7%‫ﺩﺧﻠﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ،60001-‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻛﺜﺮ‬22.8.%‫ﻓﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﳜﺺ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ 7.0%‫ﺍﳌ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺫﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬‫ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬‫ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬70.2%‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻴ‬‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺜﻠﻮﻥ‬22.8.% ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺛﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺻﺪﻕ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺛﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬‫ﺘﲔ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺗﺴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﻭﻣﺒﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬70%‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻻ‬.‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭ‬)Navarro., et al,2010, P. 53(‫ﺃﻥ‬Carmines and Zeller (1979)‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬‫ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﻭﻣﺒﺎﺥ‬0.707.‫ﺑﺎﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬)2(‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﳏﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﻭﻣﺒﺎﺥ‬0.716 ‫ﻭ‬0.755‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﱪ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬0.707‫ﳏﻘﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺬﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﲢﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﻛﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ،.
  • 14.         672012   ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬)2:(‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺛﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬: ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﲔ‬)3(‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬2‫ﺃﻱ‬‫ﳌ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺏ‬‫ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬H1‫ﻭ‬H2‫ﺃﻱ‬ ،‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺟﻴﺠﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺸﻔﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬‫ﺗ‬‫ﻄﺒ‬‫ﻖ‬‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻭﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻭﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬. ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬)3(‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬4,001,001,2459 ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬5,001,001,3770 ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬4,001,001,2787 ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬4,001,001,4343 ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬4,001,001,2951 ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺀ‬4,001,001,3445 ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻮﺡ‬4,001,001,3115 ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬4,001,001,4098 ‫ﻳﻮﺿﺢ‬‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬)4(‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﲑ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬0.537‫ﻭ‬0.275‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬1℅‫ﻭ‬5℅‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬.‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﳉﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬. ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬. ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ‬‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬‫ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬Cronbach’s Alpha ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬11440,752 ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬11430,731 ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬11440,716 ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬11440,717 ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬11440,719 ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺀ‬‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ‬11440,719 ‫ﻭﺿﻮﺡ‬‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻗﺔ‬11440,749 ‫ﺍﳌﻬ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬11440,755
  • 15.         672012   ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬)4:(‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬‫ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬‫ﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ‬:‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬)5(‫ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ،0.341‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﲏ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ،34.1%‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ )‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬(‫ﺍﳌ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺮ‬‫ﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‬)‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬.(‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬F‫ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬0.000‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ >0.001‫ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﳘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ،. ‫ﺑﺎﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺎ‬)6(،،‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬‫ﺔ‬T)‫ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬(‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﱪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬0.05)0.626‫ﻭ‬0.670‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬(‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﻓﺎﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺘﲔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺳﺔ‬‫ﻣﺮﻓﻮﺿﺘﺎﻥ‬. ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻐﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﳚﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬Beta‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬0.347‫ﻭ‬ 0.142‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬1℅‫ﻭ‬5℅‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬.‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬34.7℅،‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬14.2℅‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬.‫ﻓﺎﻟﻔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺮﺿﻴﺘﲔ‬‫ﻭﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ‬‫ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﺘﲔ‬. ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬)5:(‫ﻟﻼﳓﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﲢﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬)Analysis of Variances)(‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻊ‬=‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬( ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ‬‫ﳎﻤﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬F‫ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺑﺔ‬‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ F ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬²R ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ )R( 1‫ﺍﻻﳓﺪﺍﺭ‬3,75340,9387,245,000,341,584 ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﺄ‬7,252109,130 ‫ﻤﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍ‬11,005114 ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬)6:(‫ﺍﻻﳓﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﲢﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﻲ‬)Simple Regression Analysis(‫ﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ‬ Model ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ‬‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬T ‫ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬T B‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﺄ‬Beta 1‫ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬Constant1,698,1889,050,000 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬,347,075,5244,615,000 ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬-,030,061-,053-,491,626 ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬-,030,072-,047-,416,670 ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬,142,071,2212,005,050 ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺴﲑ‬: Ã‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻠﺖ‬‫ﻟﺪ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺠﻞ‬ ‫ﲟﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﳌﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺪﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻊ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻨﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻘﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻤﺮﺿﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻃﺒﺎﺀ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﳚﻌﻠﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻃﺒﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺮﲨﺔ‬‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ‬‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬.‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺐ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ‬ Correlations ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﲑﺳﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ -,099 ,132 ,537** ,275* ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫.ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ (2-tailed) ,447 ,311 ,000 ,032 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ 114 114 114 114 *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
  • 16.         672012   ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺨﺮﻁ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﲡﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻨﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬،‫ﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﻻﺀ‬‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬‫ﲢﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﳚﻌﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻢ‬‫ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻛﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬. Ã‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻭﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﻄﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺼﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﻯ‬‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻜﺎﻙ‬‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳉﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﺑﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﲟﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻲ‬‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﲔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﱘ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻜﻞ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ‬. Ã‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﳚﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻠﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﳚﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﲡﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻓﻌﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ‬.‫ﻭﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬‫ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻓﺰ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺪ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻠﻤﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬‫ﺑﺄﺩﻭﺍﺭﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬.‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺃﻛﺪ‬ )Shah, 2011, P. 68(‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺭﻣﻮﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﳉﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻫﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﲏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺛﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻬﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﺧﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬‫ﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﲣﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻌﺰﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‬. Ã‫ﺍﻟﻄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﱯ‬‫ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﲡﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﲟﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺘﻪ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﲟﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺛﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻹ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﳚﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﻭﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﱘ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﲡﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﲟﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺘﻪ‬‫ﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬ‬ ‫ﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺔ‬. Ã‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺴﺮ‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺼﲔ‬ ‫ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺠﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻨﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻃﺒﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﳓ‬ ‫ﻡ‬‫ﺗﻘﺪﱘ‬ ‫ﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬.‫ﻳﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﲡﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻬﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬)‫ﺘﻤﻊ‬‫ﻭﺍ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﲢﺴﲔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﳉﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺪﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬.‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺮﺟﻢ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳝﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ‬: Ã‫ﺑﺄﳘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺟﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳉﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻏﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺪﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﻢ‬ ،‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻋ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﺎﺩﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﺎﺩﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳉﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺑﺮﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬‫ﺑﺎﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻲ‬. Ã‫ﻗ‬‫ﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ‬‫ﻣ‬‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﲡﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬،‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬. Ã‫ﻳ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺼﻒ‬‫ﻣﻮﻇﻔﻲ‬‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ‬‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﺎﻝ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬.
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