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1UNIT1: SELECTED APPROACHES, METHODS ANDTECHNIQUESOF LANGUAGE TEACHINGIntroductionIn this unit we will try and look at the...
Can you imagine what happened when modern languages began to enter thecurriculumof European schools in the eighteenth cent...
the late nineteenth century, and did this by referring to general principles and theoriesconcerning how languages are lear...
are the major focus• Vocabulary selection isbased on reading texts• Words are taughtthrough dictionarystudy, memorisationa...
repetition andmemorization in orderto avoid errors at allcosts• It gives learnersnumerous opportunitiesto speak• Provides ...
language throughmastery of its rules.Situational Method It is a method based onstructural syllabus inwhich language is tau...
• Effectivecommunication issought• Teachers help learnersin any way thatmotivates them to workwith the language• Intrinsic...
According to Anthony’s model, approach is the level at which assumptions and beliefsabout language and language learning a...
From the exercise you can see that the organisational key is that techniques carry out amethod that is consistent with an ...
actively involved in the process of interpreting and negotiating meaning. Both listenerand speaker have a function to perf...
ReflectReflect upon what happens when you are listening to the:• News bulletin• Songs• Poems or the doctor’s instructions....
pronunciation of sounds, stress and rhythm and intonation in language as well asbecoming familiar with new words and struc...
(ii) Mentally stimulated or challenged(iii) Help in forming opinion(iv) Broaden your understanding(v) Develop closeness.• ...
5. Listening to instruction: Do you remember your sports lessons at school where youlistened to instructions from your spo...
1." Stories, anecdotes, jokes, talks, commentaries.How do we make these interesting and mind capturing? We may have these ...
he/she made you listen to that story? Could it have been that he/she encouraged you tolisten to the story simply for pleas...
replied. ‘It doesn’t. But this isn’t my dog.’Picture dictation:Unlike the traditional dictation in which you ask learners ...
• Maintain the degree of attention relevant to the purpose of listening• Look at the speaker in order to interpret verbal ...
Instructing,Apologising andTeaching.17Effective speakingWhat do we mean when we say, “Jane is a good speaker”? As you may ...
directions. However in a conversation although one person initiates, the speaker andthelistener are constantly changing ro...
• Learners need to use both receptive and productive skills to complete the activity.• The activity should be within the c...
Both of them create an environment for teaching and learning.A learning resource is an object that may serve as a medium o...
commercially made learning resources are usually difficult to find, they should beimprovised by using locally available ma...
which the learners are asked to project themselves. For example, they should be askedtoimprovise (in pairs) a scene of a m...
In the previous section, we discussed the importance of improvising T/Lmaterials. The materials you improvise are often th...
You may have observed that authentic texts such as newspapers are created tocommunicate something, while many typical clas...
Languages and word classes. We can assure you that the knowledge of major aspectsofEnglish and Zambian Languages grammar, ...
mucikolo (Tonga)tulamuyanda (Tonga)unkindness adzabweranso (Nyanja)anamangidwa (Nyanja)helpless meeno (Kaonde)lilepe (Lozi...
Such indicators enable a speaker of English to recognizeimplicitly the word class of an item, even if he has not metthat i...
verb ‘arrest’; - idw- is the suffix for the passive extension ‘be arrested’ and - a is part ofthe tense marker.Kaonde.If y...
Reflect upon what we have said so far in this unit and answer the followingquestions.1. What have we been talking about so...
what a morpheme is.3. In your Teacher Group discuss what you think grammar is and give examples.4. Give examples of nouns ...
inflection? Can you give examples of derivation and inflection in your local language?30Activity 4.3Look at each of the fo...
at your school, you are most of the time engaged in correcting pupils’ work. The extractgiven below is an example of such ...
4. On way to a shops .... On our way to the shops ...5. ... my friend ask me ... ... my friend asked me...6. ... if I has ...
3. Using the object pronoun ‘me’ instead of the subject or personal pronoun ‘I’.4. Failure to use the first person with ot...
ReflectReflect upon what you have been reading and answer the following questions.1. What name is given to the study of th...
such as words, clauses and sentences.We have said so many things about the way the English language arranges its words ins...
(Tonga).There are many differences between the arrangement of words in English and ZambianLanguages. You will notice, for ...
the principle of arranging words and clauses into the acceptable simple, complex aswellas compound sentences is the same.W...
looks at the class and says, “Well, I have told you that a noun is a name of something. Achair is a noun; a desk is a noun...
9. Did Mrs. J.C. answer Buupe’s question satisfactorily? Give reasons for youranswer.10. From this lesson, what do you con...
speech’.Dixon (1991:7) also echoes crystal’s words when he says that at the level of grammarwords can be arranged in word ...
words that have the same grammatical properties, althoughthe nature of these properties will vary, depending on thegrammat...
summarizes the argument as follows:In place of definitions based on meaning, there is nowa focus on the structural feature...
The boat will round the small island soon.AdverbWe walked round to the shop.NounIt’s your round. I’ll have a whiskey.Do yo...
(b) Lila bulilo‘Smear the floor’(c) Nikenezwi ki lila,‘Enemies entered my premises2 (a) Nibata kupata mali‘I want to hide ...
‘This year there is a drought’3 (a) Phula poto pa moto‘Take the pot off the fire’(b) Anadya phula cifukwa cosafunsa“He ate...
refer to these classes of words. They are called open because new words can be addedtothese classes. Dixon (1991:8) aptly ...
44Proper nouns name particular people, places, things, for example Tom, Lubinda,France,Kasama, Africa, the United Nations....
(I) We were rivals, but I felt no enmity for her.(j) My friend Smith was a member of the team that played with such courag...
We hope that from the examples you have given in the exercise above you are nowawarethat the four types of nouns you studi...
watch watchesbox boxesphoto photospiano pianoshippo hippos(c) baby babieslady ladiescountry countriesfly fliesbutchery but...
louse licegoose geesechild childrenox oxenbrother brethren or brothers(f) fish fishfruit fruitsheep sheepdeer deercattle c...
manservant menservants(I) ..................................... clothes..................................... trousers........
(Freeborn, 1995:41; Thomson and Martinet, 1979:8, 251, 253). Look at the followingexamples.1. He bought a ten-ton lorry.2....
(q) I will buy a scissors3. Give five examples of nouns of non-English origin and write their plural forms.4. As you are a...
precede the stem in a noun as a Noun prefix, thus:Umushi village instead ofu - + - mu - + shi - umushiNote also that as is...
Can you identify all the noun prefixes used in each of the seven official Zambianlanguages? Try to add stems to each prefi...
(d) In your Teacher Group discuss and list similarities and differencesbetween the shapes of the prefixes in Zambian langu...
f) treesg) boysh) oilPRONOUNSWe hope you still remember that pronouns belong to a closed word class (i.e. they areconstant...
3. Why are pronouns such as I, you, he, she, it and we called personal pronouns?4. Study the following table of personal p...
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  1. 1. 1UNIT1: SELECTED APPROACHES, METHODS ANDTECHNIQUESOF LANGUAGE TEACHINGIntroductionIn this unit we will try and look at the theories and approaches to teaching andlearning. I am sure you are not meeting this topic for the first time. This is arevision of what you did at pre-service training. We are briefly going to remind ourselveson the historical aspects of these approaches and methods.Learning OutcomesHaving successfully completed this unit the teacher should be able to:• Use appropriate approaches, methods and techniques of language teaching.A brief history of language TeachingRefresh your mind by reviewing what language teaching means? (Read ZATEC literacyand language module 1 page 83 to help you.)Do you realise that for centuries Latin was being studied as a foreign language all overthe world? The reason given for its study was that, it was the only language ofeducation,commerce, religion and government in the western world. However in the sixteencentury, French, Italian, and English gained in importance because of the politicalchanges in Europe, and so Latin gradually became displaced as a language of spokenandwritten communication. Do you have any idea what the children who entered "grammarschool" in the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries in England were taught?Well! They were initially and rigorously introduced to Latin grammar, which was taughtthrough rote learning of grammar rules, study of conjugation and translation of writtensentences and dialogues. An attempt to promote an alternative approach to grammartranslation method completely failed because everyone believed that Latin developedintellectual abilities.
  2. 2. Can you imagine what happened when modern languages began to enter thecurriculumof European schools in the eighteenth century? The same basic procedures that wereusedfor teaching Latin were applied. You may ask, what were these procedures? Theirtextbooks consisted of statements of abstract grammar rules, lists of vocabulary, andsentences for translation. In fact speaking a foreign language was not the goal, which iswhy those grammar sentences bore no relationship to the language of realcommunication.2By the nineteenth century, this approach based on the study of Latin had become thestandard way of studying foreign languages in schools. A typical textbook consisted ofchapters or lessons organised around grammar points. Each grammar point was listed,rules on its use were explained, and it was illustrated by sample sentences. Thisapproachto foreign language teaching became known as the Grammar-Translation Method.(Readpage 3 and 4 of Approaches and methods in language teaching to get the principalcharacteristics of the Grammar-Translation Method). In the mid- and late nineteenthcentury opposition to the Grammar –Translation Method developed in several Europeancountries. Communication among Europeans demanded for oral proficiency in foreignlanguages. Controversies emerged about the best way to teach foreign languages andideas were discussed and defended by different linguists. The linguists shared manybeliefs about the principles on which a new approach to teaching foreign languagesshould be based. The natural language learning principles brought about the ‘DirectMethod’. (Read pages 5 to 11 of Approaches and methods in language teaching.)Although the direct method was popular not everyone embraced it enthusiastically. Itoffered innovations at the level of teaching procedures but lacked a thoroughmethodological basis. Because of the short comings of the methods discussed abovethelinguists and language specialists sought to improve the quality of language teaching in
  3. 3. the late nineteenth century, and did this by referring to general principles and theoriesconcerning how languages are learned, how knowledge of language is represented andorganised in memory, or how language itself is structured.Approaches, Methods and TechniquesActivity 1.1As a teacher you have already studied some of the approaches and methods used inlanguage teaching.• Write a list of some of these approaches and methods that are used in languageteaching.• For each of these approaches try to give a brief description and some of the featuresthat distinguish it from the others.• Which one do you often use and why?• Do your learners benefit a lot because of using that method? Is there any evidence toshow that truly your learners benefit?• If your manager or supervisor walked into your classroom unexpectedly to monitoryou, would you proceed comfortably in your work using the chosen approach ormethod?3Your answer to activity 1.1 may have included the following approaches/methods,descriptions and features.Approaches and methods Brief description FeaturesGrammar translation Translation of grammarrules from the languagefamiliar to the learners tothe target language or viceversa.• Learning languagethrough detailedanalysis of grammarrules• Reading and writing
  4. 4. are the major focus• Vocabulary selection isbased on reading texts• Words are taughtthrough dictionarystudy, memorisationand bilingual word lists• Translation is a centraltechnique.Direct MethodTeaching directly in thetarget language throughthe use of demonstrationsand visual aids.• Lessons begin with abrief dialogue• No translation is used.• Exercises are given in atarget language• Grammar is taughtinductively with ruleexplanation at the end.Audio-lingual It stems from the fact thatlanguage learning is likeany other learning. Itemphasizes vocabularyacquisition throughexposure to its use insituations.• It involves habitformulation through
  5. 5. repetition andmemorization in orderto avoid errors at allcosts• It gives learnersnumerous opportunitiesto speak• Provides opportunityfor quick reinforcement• Attends to structureand form more thanmeaning• Native-speaker-likepronunciation is sought4• Linguistic competenceis the desired goal• The teacher is expectedto specify the languagethat students are to use.Cognitive Code An approach to languageteaching which stressesthe learners mastery of therules of the targetlanguage• It refers to mentalprocesses• It emphasizes linguisticcompetence andperformance• Speaker learns
  6. 6. language throughmastery of its rules.Situational Method It is a method based onstructural syllabus inwhich language is taughtby association withcharacteristics ofsurrounding pictures,gestures etc.• It uses real lifesituations to providemeaning• Rule explanation isoften given either at thebeginning or end• It involves visual andlinguistic situation.Communication LanguageteachingIt means using procedureswhere learners work inpairs or groups employinglanguage resources inproblem solving tasks,Richards and Rodgers(1995:66).• Meaning is paramount.• Contextualisation is abasic premise• Comprehensivepronunciation is sought
  7. 7. • Effectivecommunication issought• Teachers help learnersin any way thatmotivates them to workwith the language• Intrinsic motivationwill spring from aninterest in what is beingcommunicated by thelanguage.Table 1.15In case you have forgotten the differences among an Approach, a Method and aTechnique, American applied linguist EdwardAnthony explains as follows:-The organisational key is that the techniques carry out a method that is consistent withanapproach.An approach is a set of correlative assumptions dealing with the nature oflanguage teaching and learning. An approach is axiomatic (clear, does not need tobe proved). It describes the nature of the subject matter to be taught…A method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of languagematerial, no part or which contradicts, and all of which is based upon, the selectedapproach. An approach is axiomatic, a method is procedural.Within one approach, there can be many methods.A technique is implementational – that which actually takes place in aclassroom. It is a particular trick, stratagem, or contrivance used to accomplish animmediate objective. Techniques must be consistent with a method, and thereforein harmony with an approach as well. (Anthony 1963: 63-7)
  8. 8. According to Anthony’s model, approach is the level at which assumptions and beliefsabout language and language learning are specified; method is the level at which theoryis put into practice and at which choices are made about the particular skills to betaught, the content to be taught, and the order in which the content will be presented,technique is the level at which classroom procedures are described.Various approaches shall have distinctive features as shown in table 1.1 above.You could be asking yourself now: “What is the best approach or methodology?”There is surely no one best method. But if we are going to be good teachers thenwe need to blend or integrate two or more methods in order to come up with aworkable procedure in the classroom. The use of two or more methods or approaches iswhat is referred to as Eclecticism. (For more information on the methods andapproaches refer to’ ‘Approaches and methods in language teaching by Jack C.Richards.)Activity 1.2The following sentences have been written randomly, each belonging to "Approaches;Methods and Techniques". Arrange them correctly so that they fall under theappropriatecategory.61. These carry out a method2. A set of correlative assumptions dealing with the nature of language teaching andlearning3. It describes the nature of the subject matter to be taught4. It is axiomatic (can easily be seen, does not need to be proved.)5. An overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material6. It is procedural7. That which is implementational8. Takes place in the classroom.9. A particular trick, stratagem, or contrivance used to accomplish an immediateobjective10. That which must be consistent with a method and in harmony with an approach.
  9. 9. From the exercise you can see that the organisational key is that techniques carry out amethod that is consistent with an approach. Within one approach, there can be manymethods. A technique is implementational. It must be consistent with an approach.Summary• There are different approaches, methods and techniques in language teaching.• To be effective in teaching one needs to be eclectic i.e. integrate two or moremethods.• An approach describes the nature of the subject matter to be taught.• A method is an overall plan. It is procedural.• A technique is implementational- that which takes place in the classroom.• Grammar-Translation. A method of teaching grammar rules which learner use toillustrate.7UNIT 2: LISTENING AND SPEAKINGIntroduction.What is listening? It is the activity of paying attention to and trying to getmeaning from something we hear. To listen successfully to spoken language, we needtobe able to work out what speakers mean when they use particular words in particularways on particular occasions and not simply to understand the words themselves.Listening is a skill that many find difficult even in the mother tongue. The amount ofconcentration one can bring to a listening activity depends on one’s attention span, andthe stimulus given. Listening is not a passive skill. We cannot discuss listening inisolation from the other language skill of speaking for the two make up what is termedasoral communication. Look at Figure 2.1 illustrating the four language skills and howthey are related.Figure 2.1:(Byrne 1992: 8)What do you think receptive implies? You need to understand that receptive in this casedoes not imply passive. But that both in listening and reading, language users are
  10. 10. actively involved in the process of interpreting and negotiating meaning. Both listenerand speaker have a function to perform. In simple terms, the speaker has to encode,while the listener has to decode (or interpret a message).Learning outcomesHaving successfully completed this unit the teacher should be able to:• Teach purposes of listening• Teach good listening habits• Teach the tips for listening and speaking• Teach the purpose of speaking8Activity 2.1Answer all of the following questions.• What is your understanding of successful listening?• Do you always take in everything when you are listening?• When a friend is speaking to you, what helps you to comprehend their message?Write your answers somewhere because you will need to refer to them later.Effective Listening:What do you think is effective listening? Donn Byrne (Teaching Oral English) explainsthat effective listening involves a number of skills that are deployed simultaneously andthese are:• The spoken signals which have to be identified from the midst of the surroundingsounds.• The continuous stream of speech that has to be segmented into units, which have tobe recognised as known words.• The syntax of the utterances that has to be grasped and the speaker’s intendedmeaning which has to be understood.• The application of the linguistic knowledge to formulating a correct and appropriateresponse to what has been said.We know that the active nature of listening means that the listener must be motivated bya communicative purpose.
  11. 11. ReflectReflect upon what happens when you are listening to the:• News bulletin• Songs• Poems or the doctor’s instructions.• Do you maintain the same degree of attention in the above three instances oflistening?• Give reasons for your answer.People have various reasons for listening. You too, have your own reasons. Sometimeswe listen for pleasure, sometimes we listen for total comprehension and yet, other timesfor the retention of main ideas or points. The different purposes help us maintain thedegree of attention.9Activity 2.2Complete the table below to illustrate the purpose of listening.Situation PurposesFootball commentariesSpeech by your local counsellorOral comprehension passageSermon in the churchGiving directionsFootball matchNarration of family historyWatching a videoMany people find themselves in a variety of situations where they need to listen fordifferent purposes. The following are some of the main reasons for listening:• Improving the listening attitude where you listen for pleasure e.g. listening to musicplaying on radio, stories plays etc.• Developing aspects of language where listeners include listening to improve the
  12. 12. pronunciation of sounds, stress and rhythm and intonation in language as well asbecoming familiar with new words and structural patterns.• Reinforcing conceptual development where some spoken texts, such as stories canactas useful revision for reinforcing concepts.Providing support for literacy where listeners get encouraged to make connectionsbetween spoken and written language by picking out written words or statements whichare part of a spoken message. (Reading File: Volume 4: 1994)10Now look at what Byrne (1992:15) says on purpose and nature of listeningcomprehension programme:• To give the learners experience of listening to a wide variety of samples of spokenlanguage. The purpose therefore is exposure (as in the mother tongue) to:- different varieties of language (standard/regional, formal/informal) etc.- different text types (conversational, narrative, informative etc.). The motivation forthe learner should be pleasure, interest, and a growing confidence at being able tounderstand the spoken language without reference to the written form.• To train the learners to listen flexibly, e.g. for specific information, for the mainideas or to react to instructions (i.e. by doing something).• To provide, through listening, a stimulus for other activities e.g. discussion, readingand writing.• To give the learners opportunities to interact while listening, e.g. in a classroom thismust be done largely through discussion – type activities and games, where listeningforms a natural part of the activity.Steps to active listeningThe steps to be followed in order to enhance active listening are outlined below:• Be prepared to listen. This is done by turning out all distractions and makeyourself comfortable. As a listener, look at the speaker to pick up sable messageswhich could be conveyed by body language.• Decide the purpose of listening for each occasion. These can be attained through:(i) Information gathering
  13. 13. (ii) Mentally stimulated or challenged(iii) Help in forming opinion(iv) Broaden your understanding(v) Develop closeness.• Plan your fulfilment for the purpose of listening. This can be attained through:(i) Listening to gather information(ii) Forming an opinion(iii) Listening to develop closeness to a friend.Authentic listening situation:So far we have been discussing listening theoretically. I suggest that we now try to lookat listening in more practical terms by looking at situations that we find our selves inregularly.1. Listening to announcements: Imagine you are at a bus station, airport or railwaystation waiting for a friend. What do you hear? A baby crying; noise of a trainpulling out; shuffling of feet as people rush to go and board? What are you listeningfor? In a situation like this you are probably listening for the voice of your friend.11Do you realise that you are almost exclusively interested in extracting the relevantinformation from that of your friend’s voice while more or less ignoring the rest ofthe utterances.2. Listening to the radio: Do you sometimes find it difficult to listen to the radio?Have you ever thought why? In this situation as a listener you have very limitedknowledge of what is going to be said or who is going to say it. Therefore thelanguage of entertainment programmes on radio does certainly require a high level oflistening skill.3. Watching live performance: Have you ever watched a play at your school orperhaps in a theatre? What was your objective of watching that play?4. Listening on the telephone: You have probably done this simply to take a messageor have a conversation. Again like listening to the radio you are unable to see thespeaker and in addition have had problems in distinguishing the spoken soundsbecause of interference and distortion.
  14. 14. 5. Listening to instruction: Do you remember your sports lessons at school where youlistened to instructions from your sports teacher? You probably found that yourimmediate response to the task was often made easier by the visual support of theteacher.6. Listening to public speaking: What makes you listen to a speech, for example?When people attend rallies they are often as interested in the views and attitudes ofthe speaker as they are in the actual topic being spoken about.Can you now suggest some more authentic listening situations in addition to the abovelist?7……………………………………………………………………………………………8…………………………………………………………………………………………….9…………………………………………………………………………………………….10…………………………………………………………………………………………...Activity 2.3You and I have discussed some of the authentic listening situations. I believe you andyour pupils at one time have found yourselves in such situations. Can you try anddesigntasks that you can engage your pupils in to help them practise and develop theirlisteningskills, especially in the classroom. Share what you have written with your friends in the12Teachers’ Group. Try out one task with your friends before you can do it with yourpupils.Authentic listening tasksHave you ever exposed your pupils to listening to a variety of authentic texts so thattheypractise and develop their listening skills? As teachers it is important that we make ourpupils hear samples of un-simplified language from the earliest stages. The objective ofthis is not to discourage them but to demonstrate to them that they can interpret quite alot of the situational features even if they do not understand what is being said. Thematerial for the exposure as Byrne (1992: 16) puts it could include the following:
  15. 15. 1." Stories, anecdotes, jokes, talks, commentaries.How do we make these interesting and mind capturing? We may have these materialsrecorded or improvised by us. If we are giving a story or a talk we should try to be asspontaneous as possible. It may be better to use outline notes rather than read a script.2." Conversation, discussions, plays.In this case it is important to give pupils background e.g. about the speakers3. Songs (modern, western)Do you think this would provide a good form of listening? Well, it would because thepupils are generally very much concerned to make out the words. I am sure this couldbecombined with some task especially that of ‘ear-training’, where learners could be askedto distinguish between key sounds, stress and intonation patterns.4." Videos and films.Can you imagine what a great advantage it would be in using wherever possiblerecordedmaterial, where the pupils can see what is happening as well as listening.Note that these items should be followed by related tasks like asking pupils to writedown the words of a song for example which could begin as an individual task and thenlead on to class or group discussion or writing. However the main aim is to providepleasurable listening as an end in itself.Strategies for teaching listening skills1." Stories:Do you remember the times you listened to stories from your mother, father, and grandparents or indeed from brothers and sisters? Did you have an idea why those storieswere being told to you? Really, stories are a rich source of listening practice. In order todevelop listening skills, there are a number of different strategies that you can use in thecontext of listening to a story. For instance:13Getting the general picture:Think for a minute; remember an occasion when you were at school or at college. Drawyour mind to that lesson when your teacher/lecturer told a story. Why do you think
  16. 16. he/she made you listen to that story? Could it have been that he/she encouraged you tolisten to the story simply for pleasure? I believe your teacher’s intention was not for youto remember details but to get the general idea of what the story was about.Predicting:Your teacher/lecturer should have encouraged you to predict events in a story and thentocheck whether what you heard matched your expectations.2. Physical response:Instructions:This can either be done from instructions recorded on tape or instructions from you theteacher or perhaps more interestingly, between the learners themselves in theclassroom.Some of the well-known activities involving instructions are:Putting pictures in order.This is a very good while-listening activity. Present your learners with a number ofpictures. (See Figure 2.2 below). When re-arranged, the pictures form a logical story.The learners’ task is to listen to you narrating the story as shown in the transcript below,and then re-arrange the pictures in a logical order by merely putting letters A, B, C etc.against the Arabic numerals 1,2,3 etc.14Figure 2.2Transcript.Bwalya was out for a walk one day when she came to a gate in a wooden fence. ‘Iwonder,’ she said to herself, ‘where this leads to?’ She went through it and immediatelycame face to face with a very big fierce looking dog. It made her nervous. ‘Does yourdog bite?’ She asked the boy who was standing beside the dog. ‘No. it doesn’t, hereplied. Bwalya leaned forward to pat the dog on the head. ‘Nice doggie,’ she said. Butthe dog immediately jumped at her and, she ran for safety towards a tree, it ran afterher,growling, and tore a piece of cloth from her coat. ‘I thought you said your dog didn’tbite,’ she said to the boy as she hung from a branch of the tree. ‘That is right,’ he
  17. 17. replied. ‘It doesn’t. But this isn’t my dog.’Picture dictation:Unlike the traditional dictation in which you ask learners to remember large chunks oflanguage, picture dictation is an active process in which you ask learners to draw apicture that you the teacher (or another learner) talks about without showing them. Itcanbe any picture, but the description has to be entirely visual and simple, so that eventhoselearners that are not gifted in drawing can draw intelligibly. For example, you may saysomething like this:‘I want you to listen to what I am going to say to you about a certain village in LuapulaProvince. While you are listening, draw your impression about this village.’ So here wego.15‘There is a village in Luapula near lake Mweru. The huts are built close together. Theroofs are made of grass. There are palm trees all round this village. Just outside thisvillage there is a cemetery.’It is obvious that there will be a variety of versions for the above description dependingon how much an individual understood from the dictation.For more activities read Tutors’ Guide module 3 and 4 of literacy and language,TeachingOral English by Donn Byrne, Young Learners by Sara Phillips, Teacher TrainingReading File Chipata and Mansa. (Icon 8)SummaryListening is a skill that we acquire first in childhood. We have also learnt that there arevarious reasons why people listen and that some of these reasons are:• Pleasure• Total comprehension• Retention of main ideas or points and that to be good listeners people need to:• Choose what to listen to• Attend from the beginning
  18. 18. • Maintain the degree of attention relevant to the purpose of listening• Look at the speaker in order to interpret verbal and non-verbal cues accurately.16SpeakingIntroduction:Unlike listening, talking is something most people need little encouragement todo. But promoting free speaking in our pupils in our classrooms and especiallyin the second language can be difficult. What then should we do? As teachers we needto provide pupils with an interesting stimulus that will give them a natural purpose forspeaking. Can you remember what we said about oral communication in unit 2? Wesaidthat oral communication is a two way process, between the speaker and the listener.Wealso saw how communication could not take place unless the two skills were developed.Learning outcomesHaving successfully completed this unit the teacher should be able to: -• Teach purposes of speaking• Teach good speaking habitsReflect• Reflect on a situation when you were spoken to, and you failed to respond.• Reflect on a situation when you wanted to say something or give instructions and thelisteners could not respond.In both instances say why you think it was difficult to respond and suggest what shouldhave been done.Have you ever thought of why we speak? We speak in order to:• Express personal feelings From page 16-17• Convey messages• Get things done e.g.PersuadingCommanding,
  19. 19. Instructing,Apologising andTeaching.17Effective speakingWhat do we mean when we say, “Jane is a good speaker”? As you may be aware, agoodspeaker uses: -• Appropriate words• Appropriate gestures• Good pronunciation, stress and rhythm and pauses in order to get a feedback or checkthe effect of what they are saying. Good speakers avoid the use of unnecessaryfillers. They vary the pitch of their voices according to the situation.What is the purpose for teaching speaking?One of the main goals in teaching the productive skill of speaking is oral fluency. Wecan define this as the ability to express oneself intelligibly, reasonably accurately andwithout too much hesitation (otherwise communication may break down because thelistener loses interest or gets impatient). To attain this goal, we need to bring thelearnersfrom the stage where they are mainly imitating a model of some kind, or responding tocues, to the point where they can use the language freely to express their own ideas.Byrne (1992:9)We know that oral communication is a two-way process between speaker and listener.Study the Figure 2.3 (Byrne: 1992:10) below and see what happens in a speechsituationand what is involved in oral ability.Figure 2.3What do you learn from the diagram? You have noticed that one person may do all thespeaking e.g. in a lecture. In this situation the speaker initiates and simply keeps up theflow of speech. This can also happen sometimes when a person is giving instructions or
  20. 20. directions. However in a conversation although one person initiates, the speaker andthelistener are constantly changing roles, and consequently speaking involves respondingtowhat has been heard. We can, therefore, say speaking is an integral part of listening.How then do we ensure that the skills are integrated especially in our classroom? Do weintegrate through situations that permit and encourage authentic communication? (e.g.18especially through talk and discussion in small groups) or do we teach learners how tokeep the channel of communication open in such situations? (e.g. by asking forrepetitionand clarification ; by interrupting; by signalling agreement or disagreement etc.). Thinkabout it! (Byrne: 1992:11)Communicative activities:Take a minute or two to think about communicative activities. You often usecommunicative activities in your class, in your Teachers’ Groups. and you did some atcollege. What then do we mean by communicative activities? We may say thatlanguageteaching practice places considerable emphasis on introducing communicative tasks oractivities in the classroom in order to promote language use. We need to think of acommunicative activity as a piece of work that involves learners in using language inorder to get something done. We need to call upon learners to: -• Gather information in English or Zambian language• Exchange information• Work together in order to produce information in English or Zambian language.Activity 2.4Study the following points and use them to design task-based activities.• Let the activity be exciting, interesting and motivating for the learners.• Let it provide a suitable challenge for the age group. It should stretch them a littlewithout being too difficult.• Learners should focus on getting the task done rather than practising a language item.
  21. 21. • Learners need to use both receptive and productive skills to complete the activity.• The activity should be within the conceptual ability of the learners. (Promat:Language Methodology: Unit 1: 48)SummaryWe have learnt about:• Purposes of speaking• Effective speaking• Purpose of teaching speakingWe have also learnt that: -Oral communication is a two-way process• In real life situations we integrate the skills of listening and speaking.19UNIT 3: TEACHING / LEARNING RESOURCES AND THE USEOFAUTHENTIC MATERIALS.3.1. TEACHING AND LEARNING RESOURCES.IntroductionIn this unit we are going to discuss teaching and learning materials you have usedin the classroom. It is important to know the difference between teaching andlearning resources.Learning OutcomesAt the end of the unit teachers should be able to:• distinguish between teaching and learning resources and• use the learning resources appropriately.Teaching resources are materials used by the teacher in order to enhance theteaching process. The learning resources usually refer to textbooks that aresources of information for the learner. In most of the cases, it is difficult to draw adistinction between teaching and learning resources because they complement eachother.
  22. 22. Both of them create an environment for teaching and learning.A learning resource is an object that may serve as a medium of teaching on the part ofateacher, and learning on the part of a pupil. Experience has shown that the use oflearningaids can greatly increase and reinforce learning.Research evidence has shown that we learn and retain:10% of what we hear15% of what we see20% of what we both see and hear40% of what we discuss with others80% of what we experience directly or practice90% of what we attempt to teach othersFigure 3.120You may, as a teacher, have experienced that teaching can become more effective ifappropriate resources; human and physical are available. Language teachers should beresourceful and not only depend on already made or written teaching/learning materials.Being resourceful and improvising materials means that a language teacher shouldexploit the surrounding environment and make use of materials that can enable learnersto understand the lesson.What kind of learning resources do you use in your school? Do you know that it isimportant to use appropriate and suitable learning resources? Below are importantconsiderations for the use of learning resources:- How much information the T/L aid conveys.- The age level of pupils- The number of pupils- The characteristics of the learning aid itself.As a teacher you should use learning aids as a means of extending your ability tocommunicate and make instructions more effectively. You should create learningresources that will make your classroom interesting and challenging. Because
  23. 23. commercially made learning resources are usually difficult to find, they should beimprovised by using locally available materials.Some of the locally available materials that a teacher can use to assist learners to learneffectively and efficiently are: textbooks, teacher’s guides, work books, models,collection of plants, insects, artefacts, magazines and newspapers.It is important to remember the points below as we make teaching and learning aids:• Learning aids are an additional source of information and not a complete methodof teaching.• Learning aids should be relevant to the subject of the lesson.• Real objects or specimens are the best learning aids• Models are better than charts, pictures and maps. Let pupils handle models• Too many learning aids can distract learner attention from the main subject of thelesson• You must encourage pupils to collect and make learning aids• Use locally available materials for aids as much as possible• Aids should not be left in the classroom for too long.Activity 3.1Make a list of the kind of materials you would use in the classroom to help your pupilsdevelop their listening skills. For each material write the instructions you would give andthe activities the pupils would be involved in. Refer to unit 2 of this module on Listeningand Speaking for more information.21How often do you allow your learners in your class to improvise? Improvisationis a way of encouraging general confidence and fluency in language use by allowing thelearners to explore and exploit their communicative repertoire in any ways they wish. Italso encourages them to express their own imagination and individuality through thelanguage. This in turn helps them to relate the new language to their own personality.Her is an example of how you can allow improvisation in a language lesson. Thestartingpoint to make an improvisation may be to come up with a simple everyday situation into
  24. 24. which the learners are asked to project themselves. For example, they should be askedtoimprovise (in pairs) a scene of a meeting between old friends who have not seen eachother for several years. Other examples are to role-play or dramatise a scene.Activity 3.2:Why do you use teaching/learning resources in a lesson? Explain.Compare your answer with Macharia & Wario (1989:67) reasons for using teaching andlearning resources in a lesson:• stimulate pupils’ interest• capture pupils’ attention• evoke responses from the pupils• clarify abstract concepts by giving them concrete dimensions• provide variety in learning• encourage discussion in a language lesson• improve the classroom environment by providing excellent materials for display.ReflectLook around your classroom and answer the following questions:1. What teaching/learning materials do you use for teaching reading?2. How many of these materials have you improvised?3. Do you use improvised situations in order to teach reading? Give an example.Activity 3.3:What teaching/learning materials would you use to teach writing in Lower and MiddleBasic grades?22Summary• Teaching / learning materials are texts and aids used by the teacher andlearners in order to help the learner grasp the content.• These are prescribed or created by the teacher.3.2. USE OF AUTHENTIC MATERIALSIntroduction
  25. 25. In the previous section, we discussed the importance of improvising T/Lmaterials. The materials you improvise are often those you use in real life situations.These materials are real or genuine. They are therefore called authentic materials.Authentic materials are any materials that are not originally produced for use in theclassroom, but that could be used as a focus for all or part of a lesson.Examples of these might include: photographs, newspapers, advertisements, crosswordpuzzles, brochures, pamphlets, games, jokes, diaries, real objects, films, video, receiptsand many more.Learning Outcomes• To encourage teachers to be creative and improvise or produce their own materials.Activity 3.4:In your school discuss the various authentic materials that could be used withGrades 1 – 7. Then complete the table below:GradeSource of AuthenticMaterialsType of ActivityHow it could be used123234567Table 3.2.Modern thinking in language teaching stresses the importance of authenticmaterials, because they are samples of language in use – they arecommunicative. As a teacher you should ensure that language is used in real life toperform certain tasks in the classroom because language has functions.
  26. 26. You may have observed that authentic texts such as newspapers are created tocommunicate something, while many typical classroom texts are teacher generated inorder to focus on particular teaching point, for example, the past simple tense. Theseteacher-generated texts will be quite unnatural in that the frequency of instances of theteaching point will be far greater than would be found in the real world of authentic texts.While teacher-generated texts can be useful, it is more useful if something like the pastsimple tense can be taught in the context in which it is found in the real world, say in thenewspaper report.Activity 3.5:Make a survey in your school and explain how different authentic materials are stored.Reflect1. Do you use authentic materials in your class?2. Have you thought of categorising them in terms of topic and theme? Giveexamples.Activity 3.6Make any teaching material that you would use for authentic teaching. Explain how youwould use it.24Summary• Authentic materials are used in language learning because they are:appropriate, unique, true, holistic, everywhere, natural, textual, interesting andcommunicative = AUTHENTIC.• Authentic materials ensure that language is used in real life situations.25UNIT 4: GRAMMARIntroductionYou are now going to look at one of the most interesting aspects of language study. Youwill spend time examining major parts of the grammar of English and ZambianLanguages. As you read on you will discover that this unit is dealing with the structureof words, the rules of arranging words into sentences in both English and Zambian
  27. 27. Languages and word classes. We can assure you that the knowledge of major aspectsofEnglish and Zambian Languages grammar, which you will gain from reading this unit,will give you enough confidence to be an effective teacher of both languages.Learning OutcomesAt the end of your reading we expect you to:• Demonstrate ability to understand the structure of both English and ZambianLanguages.• Use your knowledge of the way English and Zambian Languages work todetermine which aspects of language structure need emphasing in yourlessons.• Determine which aspects of language structure cause less learning difficultiesfor pupils.• Do a contrastive analysis of grammatical elements and Zambian Languages inorder to identify similarities and differences between the former and the latter.• Use the knowledge of contrastive analysis to both predict Zambian pupilslearning difficulties in English and find remedies before you present yourlessons.The structure of wordsWe assume that before you began reading this sentence you had read the title of thisunit.Look at it again. What ideas do you form in your mind when you read this title ‘TheStructure of Words’? Pause for a moment and write a sentence explaining the meaningof this title.Did it occur to you, while you were thinking about the meaning of the title of this unit,that you were actually getting ready to study parts of words?26Activity 4.1.Look at the following words and divide them into their constituent parts.English Zambian Languagesplayful basankwa (Tonga)
  28. 28. mucikolo (Tonga)tulamuyanda (Tonga)unkindness adzabweranso (Nyanja)anamangidwa (Nyanja)helpless meeno (Kaonde)lilepe (Lozi)unfaithfulness kulobala (Lozi)jumping tatulaabamona (Bemba)ducks balapeelana (Bemba)If you have problems in dividing the words given above into parts, ask for assistancefrom fellow teachers or, in the case of Zambian languages, people who know thelanguages we have drawn examples from.The exercise you have done above is a test for you to judge whether or not you knowthestructure of words in English or, indeed, Zambian languages. What was your division ofwords into parts like? Check if you divided the words properly.The word playful has two parts, the stem play and the suffix - ful which marks this wordas a member of a particular class of words called adjectives. Note, however, that not alladjectives end in -ful. Unkindness has three parts, un- a prefix which carries a negativemeaning, - kind is the stem, - ness is a suffix which- expresses a state or quality and/oroften marks an item as a noun (Quirk, et al, 1985:69; Crystal, 1987:90). There are twoparts in helpless, the stem help and the suffix - less which marks an item as anadjective.Unfaithfulness has even more parts, un - which carries a negative meaning, - faith - as astem, - ful - the adjective suffix and - ness which marks the item as a noun (Langacker,1967:74 - 75). In jumping, jump is the stem while the - ing suffix helps to convey asense of duration (Crystal, 1987:90). The word ducks consists of duck and the suffix - swhich expresses plural (Ibid).We hope you found the above analysis fascinating. We also hope you noticed that thestructure of each word indicated what class or part of speech it belonged to. Quirk, et al(1985:69) summarizes this phenomenon thus:
  29. 29. Such indicators enable a speaker of English to recognizeimplicitly the word class of an item, even if he has not metthat item before, purely on the basis of its form.27Were you able to recognize the word class of each linguistic item you came across inEnglish before you read this unit? Let’s now turn to the Zambian languages words youwere asked to divide into parts. Was it easier for you to divide Zambian languageswordsinto parts than the English ones? Here are the words in the five of the local officiallanguages.TongaThe word basankwa, young men or boys, in Tonga belongs to class two nouns. It hastwo parts, ba - is a prefix which expresses plural while - sankwa is the stem whichcarries the meaning youngman or boy. The singular is musankwa (class 1), young manor boy, from mu - - sankwa. Mucikolo, inside the school, has three parts, the extraprefix of the locative class (i.e. class 18) mu - carries the meaning ‘inside’; - ci - is aclass7 prefix which expresses singular and - kolo, as a stem, carries the meaning school.Tulamuyanda, we want him or her, is a verb which consists of five parts: tu - carries themeaning ‘we’; - la - is part of the tense marker (ie. the present simple) - mu - is theobjectpersonal pronoun ‘him’ or ‘her’; - yand - is the stem of the verb ‘want’ and - a, as asuffix, is tense marker two.NyanjaAdzabweranso, he/she will come again, is a verb with five parts: the prefix a -representsthe subject pronoun ‘He’ or ‘She’; - dza - is a tense marker which carries the meaning‘future’ or ‘will’; - bwer -, carries the meaning of the verb ‘come’; - a - is a second tensemarker and -nso expresses the meaning ‘again’. In anamangidwa, they/she/he wasarrested, there are equally five parts: the prefix a - expresses the subject pronoun ‘he’,‘she’ or ‘they’; - na - helps to convey the notion ‘in the past’; - mang - is the stem for the
  30. 30. verb ‘arrest’; - idw- is the suffix for the passive extension ‘be arrested’ and - a is part ofthe tense marker.Kaonde.If you had problems in dividing these words when you looked at them for the first time, itmust be much easier now for you to do so. To identify the parts in the word ‘meeno’,‘teeth’, you need to know that in this language, ‘tooth’ is called jiino from ji - whichexpresses singular and -ino, the stem which carries the meaning ‘tooth’. Therefore, in‘meeno’, ‘teeth’, there are two parts: ma -, the class 6 noun prefix which expressespluralin most Zambian languages, and -ino which carries the meaning ‘tooth’. You may askwhat happens to the vowels ‘a’ and ‘i’ in the prefix and the stem, respectively, in orderfor us to have the ‘ee’ we see in ‘meeno’, ‘teeth’. Well, this is a result of vowelcoalescence or fusion of vowels within a word. In most Zambian languages vowel ‘a’fuses with ‘i’ to form a long vowel ‘ee’. Can you think of other examples? Please writethem down.LoziIn this language the noun lilepe means ‘axes’. It has two parts: the prefix li - whichcarries the meaning plural and the stem - lepe which conveys the meaning ‘axe’.28Kulobala, to sleep, is an infinitive verb with three parts: ku - expresses ‘to’; - lobal -carries the meaning ‘sleep’ and the suffix - a denotes the present simple tense.BembaThe word tatulaabamona, we have not yet seen them, has six parts: ta-, -tu-, - laa -,-ba-, - mon - and - a. The prefix ta - carries a negative meaning; - tu - stands for thesubject pronoun ‘we’; - laa - conveys a sense of duration or the notion ‘have ... yet’; - ba- represents the object pronoun ‘them’; - mon - carries the meaning ‘see’ and the suffix -a is part of the tense marker - laa -. In balapeelana, they give each other, there are fiveparts: the verb prefix ba - stands for ‘they’; - la - is part of the tense marker (ie. presentsimple tense); - peel - is the verb stem which carries the meaning ‘give’; - a - is tensemarker two and - na carries the reciprocal extension meaning ‘each other’.Reflect
  31. 31. Reflect upon what we have said so far in this unit and answer the followingquestions.1. What have we been talking about so far in this unit?2. From the examples given in both English and Zambian languages, give similarities and/or differences between the forms ofwords.3. Do you think the knowledge obtained from this unit will be more relevant to thepupils than the teacher? Give reasons for your answer.4. What term is used to describe the study of the structure of words?5. Give examples of words in English and a particular Zambian language you speakwhich do not have an internal grammatical structure we have identified in theexamples given so far.If you have read books that talk about the structure of words, you probably know thatthisstudy deals with the minimum meaningful grammatical units of a language and how theyare combined to make words. It is called morphology. Dixon (1991:4) says morphologydeals with the structure of words. We hope you have now understood that in this unit weare learning about morphology or the internal grammatical structure of words.We are very sure that if we asked you to divide the word unfriendliness into parts, youwould know that it consists of four parts: un-friend-li-ness and that each of these partshas a meaning. The parts of a word are the elements we refer to as minimummeaningfulgrammatical units. Do you know what these parts are called? They are known asmorphemes.Do you know that morphology is one of the components of the aspect of the scientificstudy of language that is usually called Grammar? Read what Crystal (1987:90) says:Morphology: This branch of grammar studies the structure of words.29Activity 4.2Answer the following questions1. What is morphology?2. With the help of examples from both English and Zambian languages explain
  32. 32. what a morpheme is.3. In your Teacher Group discuss what you think grammar is and give examples.4. Give examples of nouns and verbs that have between two and six parts in theZambian language you know very well and explain the meaning of each part.5. Prepare a forty minute lesson plan in which you teach pupils nouns that beginwith the prefix un - and end in the suffix - ness.Let’s go back to the term morpheme. Linguists sometimes distinguish betweenfree and bound morphemes. Look at the following words in English and identifyfree and bound morphemes.boy, quickly, unable, sadness, dogs, sad, rapidlyFree morphemes are those that can stand alone as independent words (e.g. tie, sad;bwera, ‘come’ in Nyanja and ine, ‘me’ in Bemba). All the others that cannot stand aloneas independent words are said to be bound morphemes as is the case with the pluralmorpheme s in dogs, the -ness of sadness, the -ly of rapidly (Langacker, 1967:75 - 77),and the prefix a - as well as infix or tense marker - dza - ‘will’ in adzabwera, He/shewill come, in Nyanja. In the Bemba word nkaya, I will go, the personal pronoun n - ‘I’and the tense marker - ka -, ‘will’ are bound morphemes while - ya, ‘go’ is a freemorpheme.Are you aware that morphology is linked to the concepts of derivation and inflection?What do these terms mean? Dixon (1991:4) provides the answer to this question:If a morpheme is added to a word and yields a word of adifferent kind, this is called a derivation, e.g. the formationof adjective beautiful from the noun beauty, noun decisionfrom verb decide ...If a morpheme just adds some extra element of meaning to aword, which is required by the grammar of the language,then it is called an inflection, e.g. the verb kill inflects forpast tense, becoming killed, and the noun horse inflects forplural number, becoming horses.Does the above explanation help you to understand the difference between derivationand
  33. 33. inflection? Can you give examples of derivation and inflection in your local language?30Activity 4.3Look at each of the following examples and state whether it is a case of inflection orderivation:• manga, arrest, - mangidwa, be arrested.• saka, want, - sakilwa, be wanted• bomba, work, - umubomfi, a worker• butuka, run, - butukisha, run hard (ie.faster).• konka, follow, - umukonshi, a follower or disciple• lata, love, - mulatiwa, one who is loved• yanda, want, - yandwa, be wanted• tuma, send, - intumi, a messenger.Activity 4.4Go over the work starting immediately below the questions in Activity 4.2 and thenanswer the following questions:1. Explain and illustrate the difference between:(a) free and bound morphemes(b) inflection and derivation.2. Prepare a lesson plan in which you teach pupils how to form nouns from verbs ina particular Zambian language that is offered to learners at your school.3. In your Teacher Group compile a list of derivatives and another one of inflectedwords in both English and at least two Zambian languages.4. After discussing with fellow teachers, write a short paper stating the similaritiesand differences between inflection in English and Zambian languages.5. Conduct an action research aimed at establishing the extent to which pupils inyour class use derivations and inflections in their written and spoken discourse inboth English and Zambian languages.Getting it rightAs a teacher of either English or a particular Zambian language that is offered tolearners
  34. 34. at your school, you are most of the time engaged in correcting pupils’ work. The extractgiven below is an example of such work. The teacher had asked her pupils to write acomposition about what they did last weekend and the people they met.I last weekend was enjoy myself. Me and my friend Lufoma go forshopping. On way to a shops my friend ask me if I has money enough.31I telling her that I has not many money. After walk for ten minutes wemeet a friend of ours, Chansa. My friend Lufoma ask me if I seeChansa. I tell her that I have. She asks as were we going. When wetell him she decides to follow.Activity 4.5Imagine that you have been asked to correct the above excerpt from a pupil’scomposition and then answer the following questions:1. Name the prominent tense pupils were supposed to use in this composition.2. Did the pupil who wrote the above extract know how to use this tense? Givereasons for your answer.3. Identify and list the errors in the above extract.4. Classify the nature of the problems this pupil had in writing this composition.5. Examine each of the sentences in the above extract and correct the error or errors6. Discuss the whole exercise you have been doing with a fellow teacher andconfirm the correctness of your re-written sentences.We hope that in this Activity you were able to identify that the pupil who wrote theextract did not know how to use the past simple tense. We also hope that you identified,listed and corrected the following errors.No. Errors Corrections1. I last weekend ... Last weekend I ...2. ... was enjoy myself ... enjoyed myself3. Me and my friend Lufoma go forshopping.My friend Lufoma and I wentshopping ...
  35. 35. 4. On way to a shops .... On our way to the shops ...5. ... my friend ask me ... ... my friend asked me...6. ... if I has money enough. .... if I had enough money.7. I telling her ... I told her ...8. ... that I has not many money ... that I didn’t have much money9. After walk for ten minutes .... After walking for ten minutes ....10. ... we meet a friend of ours, Chansa. ... we met our friend, Chansa.11. My friend Lufoma ask me if I seeChansaMy friend Lufoma asked me if I hadseen Chansa.12. I tell her that I have I told her that I had.13. She asks as were we going. she asked us where we were going.14. When we tell him.... When we told her ....15. ... She decides to follow .... She decided to follow.Were you able to explain the nature of the problems this pupil had in writing thiscomposition? Compare the answers you wrote in Activity 1, question 4 with the onesbelow:321. Failure to use the past simple and past perfect tenses, e.g.(a) .... ‘was enjoy myself’ instead of ‘I enjoyed myself.’(b) ‘My friend ask me’ instead of ‘My friend asked me.’(c) ‘... we meet ...’ instead of ‘... we met ...’(d) ‘My friend Lufoma ask me if I see Chansa’ instead of ‘My friend Lufomaasked me if I had seen Chansa’.(e) ‘I tell her that I have’ instead of ‘I told her that I had’.(f) ‘She asks ...’ instead of ‘She asked ...’(g) ‘When we tell ...’ instead of ‘When we told ...’(h) ‘... she decides to follow.’ instead of ‘... she decided to follow.’2. Wrong position of the adverb of time ‘last weekend’; ‘I last weekend ...’ insteadof ‘Last weekend I ...’
  36. 36. 3. Using the object pronoun ‘me’ instead of the subject or personal pronoun ‘I’.4. Failure to use the first person with other nouns and pronouns in the correct order,e.g. ‘Me and my friend ...’ instead of ‘My friend and I ...’5. Wrong use of the preposition ‘for’ to express purpose, e.g. ‘... go for shopping’instead of ‘...go shopping’.6. Omission of the adjective ‘our’ and use of the indefinite instead of the definitearticle, e.g. ‘On way to a shops’ instead of ‘On our way to the shops.’7. Using a wrong auxiliary verb ‘has’ instead of ‘have’ after ‘I’, e.g. ‘... if I has ..’instead of ‘.... if I have ...’8. Wrong position of adjective ‘enough’, e.g. ‘... money enough,’ instead of ‘...enough money.’9. Use of the determiner or adjective of quantity ‘many’ with an uncountable noun,e.g. ‘... many money’ instead of ‘... much money.’10. Failure to use the - ing form of the verb after ‘after’ e.g. ‘After walk for tenminutes ...’ instead of ‘After walking for ten minutes ...’11. Using the possessive pronoun ‘ours’ instead of the adjective ‘our’ e.g. ‘... a friendof ours ...’ instead of ‘... our friend...’12. Use of wrong words ‘as’ instead of the object pronoun ‘us’; and the auxiliary verb‘were’ instead of the adverb ‘where’13. Use of the masculine object pronoun ‘him’ instead of the feminine ‘her’ to refer toa female, e.g. ‘When we tell him...’ instead of ‘When we tell her ...’Did you get everything right? Can you identify what we have been doing in trying toidentify, classify and correct the errors? You probably think this is a good exercise inerror analysis, don’t you? Well, you could be right. In our analysis of the extract fromthe composition written by a pupil, we have been doing the following things:• discussing the rules for the combination or arrangement of words into sentences.• pointing out how the English language arranges its words in sentences.• talking about the rules people use when speaking or writing English.33The three bullets above we are talking about the same thing which we are going tomention later.
  37. 37. ReflectReflect upon what you have been reading and answer the following questions.1. What name is given to the study of the way in which words are combinedtogether?2. The study of the way in which words are combined together is one of the twocomponents of this aspect of the scientific study of language.What term is used to refer to this aspect of the scientific study of language?3. As a teacher of English, how does this knowledge of the rules people use whenspeaking or writing English help you to teach your subject?4. In your Teachers’ Group examine pupils’ written work or spoken discourse,identify their common errors and discuss the nature of the problems they have inwriting or speaking English.5. Using the information obtained in question 4 above, suggest the aspects oflanguage structure which should be taught in order to address the pupils’ learningdifficulties.In the previous section, we said that morphology is a component of grammar.We hope by now you know that when we talk about the way in which words arecombined together within (and sometimes between) sentences, we are referring to thesyntax (Dixon, 1991:4, Crystal, 1987:94). For example: In English an adjective comesbefore a noun (e.g. a big house) and not ‘big a house’.We also assume that from the Reflection exercise, question 2, you know that syntax isanother component of the aspect of the scientific study of language, which is usuallycalled grammar.Now, if grammar consists of syntax and morphology, what definition can we give it?Mcathur (1983:38) says grammar is the rules people use when speaking or writing alanguage. Compare this to Stevick’s definition of grammar (1988:187):Grammar is a way of telling, as accurately and clearly aspossible, just how a particular language arranges itssmaller forms - its word stems, prefixes, suffixes,intonations and the like - within its larger constructions
  38. 38. such as words, clauses and sentences.We have said so many things about the way the English language arranges its words insentences. Are you aware that even in Zambian languages the arrangement of words isnot arbitrary? Do you know that when you speak or write Bemba, Kaonde, Lozi, Lunda,Luvale, Nyanja or Tonga, you combine words together in a particular way? The exercisebelow will help you observe this phenomenon.34Activity 4.61. Translate the following sentences into a particular Zambian language you speakand answer the questions that follow:a) The tall young man is eating an orange.b) My big tooth is shaking.c) That small turtle dove is flyingd) Those white rabbits are sleeping.e) The strong axes are lost.2. Look at the translated version of each sentence and write down at least two rulesexplaining the arrangement of words and the emerging pattern.3. Compare the original sentences in English with the ones you have translated into aZambian language and state the difference(s) between the arrangement of wordsin the former and the latter.4. Identify and state the similarities, if any, between the English and Zambianlanguages sets of sentences.5. In your Teacher Group, discuss how the difference you have identified in questionabove would affect pupils’ learning of English and suggest remedies.6. Using the knowledge gained from your comparison in questions 3 and 5, go backto the extract of the pupil’s composition under the section marked Getting it rightand explain why she made such errors.There may be some similarities between the sentence patterns in English andZambian languages. For example, the pattern ‘Noun phrase + verb phrase’ isreflected in both cases as in My big tooth/ is shaking, and Iliino lyandi ilikulu/ lileetenta(Bemba); Liino laka lelituna/ lashekesha (Lozi); Lino lyangu lipati/ lilazungaana
  39. 39. (Tonga).There are many differences between the arrangement of words in English and ZambianLanguages. You will notice, for example, that in Zambian Languages the noun ‘tooth’(iliino, liino or lino) precedes the possessive adjective ‘my’ (lyandi, laka, lyangu) and isrendered as a possessive pronoun ‘mine’ and that the adjective ‘big’ (ilikulu, lelituna,lipati) comes after the noun it modifies and is rendered as a relativized verb (i.e. a verbused in a relative clause) ‘which is big’. We hope you can also see that just as the noun‘tooth’ in English requires the auxiliary verb ‘is’ in its concord and ‘teeth’ will demandthat we use ‘are’, iliino, tooth, in Bemba, requires the agreement lya- (in lyandi, mine)and ili - (in ilikulu, which is big). In this language (Bemba) the plural ‘teeth’ is renderedas ‘ameeno’. The plural form of the noun automatically calls for a different pattern ofagreement in Zambian languages. For example, Ameeno yandi ayakulu yaleetenta, Mybig teeth are shaking.Have you seen that when you speak or write a Zambian language you arrange words inacertain order in the same way you observe rules, consciously or unconsciously, whenyoucombine English words together to form sentences? Are you aware that if you were to35maintain the word order used in the English sentence My big tooth is shaking, youwouldcome up with a very awkward sentence Lyandi ilikulu iliino lileetenta, Mine which is bigtooth is shaking, in Zambian languages? Conversely, the permitted word order inZambian languages is unacceptable in English, Tooth mine which is big is shaking .We hope you have seen that both the English language and Zambian languagesarrangetheir words in sentences in a particular way. This is what we call syntax - the way inwhich words are combined together. The various sentence patterns you can think of ineither English or a particular Zambian language you speak are also part of syntaxbecause
  40. 40. the principle of arranging words and clauses into the acceptable simple, complex aswellas compound sentences is the same.Word ClassesIntroductionAs a teacher you would probably like to know the way your friends present theirlessons. Please read the following passage!It is exactly 08.00 hours. Mrs. J.C., as the pupils affectionately referred to their teacher,enters her Grade 6 class. She greets the pupils and waits for them to settle down beforeshe presents her lesson. “Now class,” she begins, “today we are going to discuss partsofspeech in both English and Bemba. At the end of this lesson, you will be able to identifyand classify words into their categories.”The pupils look puzzled because most of them do not know what the term ‘parts ofspeech’ means. “What does that mean?” one pupil whispers to his friend.“Well,” says the other pupil, “I think it is a machine with many parts.”The other pupils who are near these two burst into laughter. “Shut up and listen!”Shrieks Mrs. J.C., “I’m telling you that today’s lesson is about parts of speech or sets ofwords which are in different categories. Some are called nouns; others are verbs,adjectives and so on. Now, what is a noun? What is a verb? What is an adjective?” Upto this time the pupils are just looking at the teacher. After the teacher’s sharpreprimandto those who laughed, all the pupils are too scared to say anything. Besides, it appearsthey are not following the lesson. The teacher also seems to notice that the pupils are ataloss. “Now, listen,” she says, “a noun is a name of something; a verb is a doing word; anadjective is a word that describes a noun.”At this point Bwika, one of the intelligent girls plucks up enough courage to saysomething. “Madam,” she begins, “can you give us an example of a noun?”The teacher is surprised at the pupil asking such a question. She thinks for a moment,
  41. 41. looks at the class and says, “Well, I have told you that a noun is a name of something. Achair is a noun; a desk is a noun; a book is a noun. Your name, Bwika, is a noun; and inBemba there are nouns such as ukuulu ‘a leg’, umumana ‘a river’, and ulupili ‘a hill’.36Most of the pupils brighten up now and, during this excitement, Buupe, another clevergirl, says, “Madam, you have said a noun is a name of something, and you have givenusexamples, but is ubusuma ‘beauty’ also a ‘thing’?”Mrs. J.C. is again surprised at a Grade 6 pupil asking such a challenging question. Sherubs her nose and says, “Yes, beauty is also a noun, a name of something. Now, repeatthese definitions after me: A noun is a name of something; ‘doer’ is a noun; a verb is adoing word or an action word; jump’ is a verb; an adjective is a word that describes anoun; ‘big’ is an adjective; ...”For some time the lesson goes on like this. Then the teacher says, “Don’t ask me if ‘is’isan action word; you know it is a helping verb, so it is an action word. Now, I want you towrite down examples of nouns, verbs and adjectives in your exercise books.”Reflect1. What was good about the way this lesson began?2. What kind of teacher was Mrs. J.C.? Give reasons for your answer.3. Did pupils in this class like their teacher? Support your answer by citing evidencefrom information given in the lesson procedure.4. In your Teacher’s Group look at the lesson procedure again and then discusswhether the teacher used a traditional or a modern approach to teach thesecategories of words. Give reasons to support your arguments.5. Why did some pupils in this class burst into laughter?6. Name the categories of words that the teacher mentioned in her lesson and theexamples she gave.7. In your opinion, why were the pupils in this class ‘at a loss?’8. Look at the lesson procedure again and discuss with your mentor whether this isan example of a teacher or learner - centred lesson. Give reasons for your answer.
  42. 42. 9. Did Mrs. J.C. answer Buupe’s question satisfactorily? Give reasons for youranswer.10. From this lesson, what do you consider to be the major weaknesses in givingdefinitions of groups of words based on meaning?3711. What, do you think, should be the alternative to giving definitions of words basedon meaning?12. Explain and illustrate the teacher’s failure to distinguish between an ‘action word’and a ‘being word’ in this lesson.13. In your Teacher Group discuss whether the above categories of words are part ofthe grammar of English or any other language one is studying. Give reasons foryour answers.14. Do you think the teacher achieved the objective of this lesson? Why?We hope you have learnt something from the lesson procedure given at the beginningofthis unit and the subsequent questions in the reflection part. Do you remember the termused to refer to word classes in the old grammar books? Don’t look back at Mrs. J.C.’slesson. Search your memory and write down this term. Did you get it right? The term isparts of speech.Activity 4.7We are now going to ask you questions related to what you studied in the sectionabout the structure of words. Do you remember parts of the words that indicate theclasses they belong to? Is it the prefixes or suffixes? Do you still remember words inEnglish that end in -ly, -ness, -ion, -less, etc? Give examples of these words andindicatetheir class or, in traditional grammar, what part of speech each one of them is.By now you ought to be getting familiar with the concept of word classes. Do you knowthat when we talk about word classes we are still discussing grammar? Read thefollowing quotation from crystal (1987:91):Since the early days of grammatical study, words have beengrouped into word classes, traditionally labelled the ‘parts of
  43. 43. speech’.Dixon (1991:7) also echoes crystal’s words when he says that at the level of grammarwords can be arranged in word classes (traditionally called ‘parts of speech’), withcommon morphological and syntactic properties.As crystal (1987:91) and Burton (1984:22) state, in most grammars, there are eightwordclasses, illustrated here from English:Nouns e.g. boy, machine, beautyPronouns e.g. she, it, whoAdjectives e.g. happy, three, both38Verbs e.g. go, frighten, beAdverbs e.g. happily, soon, oftenPrepositions e.g. in, under, withConjunctions e.g. and, because, ifInterjections e.g. gosh, alas, cooReflectReflect upon what we have said so far about word classes and the examples wehave drawn from English, and then answer the following questions.1. Do such word classes exist in the Zambian language you speak?2. Write at least two examples for each of the eight word classes from the Zambianlanguage that is offered to learners at your school.3. In your Teacher’s group examine a two-paragraph text from any piece of writtenliterature in a local language and identify as well as group the words in it (i.e. thetext) into their classes.4. Discuss with your mentor the difference between the examples of words given ineach word class in English and a local language.We hope you did well in the above exercise. What answer did you give toquestion 1? Were you aware that word classes exist in every language? Readwhat Dixon (1991:7) says:For every language we can recognize word classes, sets of
  44. 44. words that have the same grammatical properties, althoughthe nature of these properties will vary, depending on thegrammatical profile of the language.The above quotation should have cleared your doubts, if you had any, about theexistenceof word classes in Zambian languages.In this unit we have repeatedly used the terms ‘parts of speech’ and ‘word classes’ interchangeably. Do these terms mean the same thing? Think for a while and share youranswer with your fellow teachers. Now, let us read what crystal (1987:91) says aboutthis:39Modern approaches classify words, too, but the use of thelabel ‘word class’ rather than ‘part of speech’ represents achange in emphasis. Modern linguists are reluctant to usethe notional definitions found in traditional grammar - suchas a noun being the ‘name of something’. The eagerness ofthese definitions has often been criticized...Does this quotation remind you of Mrs. J.C.’s lesson at the beginning of this unit? Doyou remember, specifically, why one of the pupils, Buupe, asked whether ubusuma‘beauty’ was also a ‘thing’? Can you now understand why pupils in Mrs. J.C. ‘s classfound it difficult to comprehend what she was teaching?Perhaps we should examine the notional definitions Mrs. J.C. used and identify theirweakness. When she said, “... a noun is a name of something,” Buupe, one of thepupils,asked if ‘beauty’ was also a ‘thing’. Indeed, would we say sweetness, justice, speed,compassion, happiness, etc. are names of ‘things’? Aren’t these non-material ‘things’ orqualities, states and concepts that exist only in our minds (Burton, 1984: 23, 116)? Isn’tit vague to refer to intangible states of mind, qualities and feelings (ibid) as ‘names ofthings’? Isn’t the adjective red also a ‘name’ of a colour? Would we therefore, say redis also a ‘name of something’? Have you noticed the vagueness and/or inadequacies ofnotional definitions? Having pointed out the above shortcomings, crystal (1987:91)
  45. 45. summarizes the argument as follows:In place of definitions based on meaning, there is nowa focus on the structural features that signal the way inwhich groups of words behave in a language. In English,for example, the definite or indefinite article is onecriterion that can be used to signal the presence of afollowing noun (the car) ... Above all, the modern aim is toestablish word classes that are coherent: all the wordswithin a class should behave in the same way. Forexample, jump, walk and cook form a coherent classbecause all the grammatical operations that apply to oneof these words apply to the others also: they all take athird person singular form in the present tense (hejumps/walks/cooks), they all have a past tense ending in-ed (jumped/walked/cooked), and so on.Crystal (ibid) further says many other words display the same (or closely similar)behaviour and that this would lead us to establish the important class of ‘verbs’ inEnglish.Let us look at another good argument for classifying words according to the way they‘behave’ in a language instead of definitions based on meaning. Are you aware that youcannot tell what class a word belongs to simply by looking at it? Crystal (1987:92) sayseverything depends on how the word ‘behaves’ in a sentence. According to Crystal(ibid)40round is a good illustration of this principle in action, for it can belong to any of the fiveword classes, depending on the grammatical context.AdjectiveMary bought a round table.PrepositionThe car went round the corner.Verb
  46. 46. The boat will round the small island soon.AdverbWe walked round to the shop.NounIt’s your round. I’ll have a whiskey.Do you know other words in English, which can ‘behave’ like round in differentsentences? Look at these two sentences:1 (a) Aikayo will record the minutes of tomorrow’s meeting.(b) Aikayo will keep a record of his expenses.Have you seen that the word record in sentences 1(a) and 1(b) behaves in differentways? Can you identify that in these sentences it belongs to two word classes (i.e. verband noun, respectively)? We hope you’ve noticed that the same word can belong tomorethan one word class (Freeborn, 1995:37). Does this phenomenon exist in ZambianLanguages? Look at these examples:BEMBA1 (a) Mpeela akapanga nteme icilu. ‘Give me a small sword soI can cut a pole.(b) Ponde akapanga umupando mailo, ‘Ponde will make a chairtomorrow.’2 (a) Ubula ubu buutali ‘This intestine is long’41(b) Ubula amapaapa yamuti ‘Strip bark from a tree’3 (a) Akanwa ubwalwa mailo ‘He/she will drink beer tomorrow(b) Akanwa kandi kaakulu ‘My mouth is big’4 (a) Kabilo wa mfumu aleebila imbila ‘The Chief’s councillor is making apublic announcement’(b) Bwembya, imbila imfumu “Bwembya sing for the chief’LOZI1 (a) Sibeso ukula lila‘Sibeso is suffering from intestine pain’
  47. 47. (b) Lila bulilo‘Smear the floor’(c) Nikenezwi ki lila,‘Enemies entered my premises2 (a) Nibata kupata mali‘I want to hide money’(b) Mwana una ni pata yebunolo‘The child has a smooth face’(c) Mundia una ni pata‘Mundia has good luck’(d) Poto yapata‘The pot is boiling’3 (a) Bona Zaezize Mwendabayi‘See what Mwendabayi has done’(b) Bona baziba‘Them they know’(c) Ndu ki yabona‘This house is theirs’4 (a) Taha Kwanu‘Come here’42(b) Taha ieza sialeto‘The weaver bird is making a nest’NYANJA1 (a) Yangana bala lija‘Look at that scar’(b) Bala mwana‘Bear a child’2 (a) Ng’amba nsalu iyo‘Tear that cloth’(b) Chaka cino kuli ng’amba
  48. 48. ‘This year there is a drought’3 (a) Phula poto pa moto‘Take the pot off the fire’(b) Anadya phula cifukwa cosafunsa“He ate wax because he didn’t bother to find out what it was’4 (a) Kamba ndi mnyamata uja‘Talk to that boy’(b) Anyamata paulendo ananyamula kamba wambiri‘The boys carried a lot of food for their journey’We hope you have understood the significance of identifying the way a word‘behaves’ in a sentence before you can tell the class it belongs to. We alsoassume that you know that the shift from using the notional definitions as a basis forclassifying words to a focus on the structural features that signal the way in whichgroupsof words ‘behave’ in language has led to the use of the label ‘word class’ instead of ‘partof speech’Now that you have covered enough groundwork on word classes, we should talk aboutthe two sorts of word classes, namely minor and major word classes. The minor wordclasses consist of structure or function words (Freeborn, 1995:36) such as articles,prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions and interjections. The minor classes have limitedmembership and cannot readily be added to. For example there are just seven personalpronouns in English - I, we, you, he, she, it, they (Dixon, 1991:7; Burton, 1984:119). Doyou know the other term used to refer to minor word classes? They are also known asclosed word classes because no new words can be added; they are constant innumber.43Major word classes comprise content or lexical words such as nouns, verbs, adverbsandadjectives. As Dixon (1991:7) and Freeborn (1995:36) observe, these classes have alarge and potentially unlimited membership. Open word classes is another term used to
  49. 49. refer to these classes of words. They are called open because new words can be addedtothese classes. Dixon (1991:8) aptly describes this phenomenon thus:It is impossible to give an exhaustive list of the manythousands of nouns, since new ones are being coined allthe time (and others will gradually be dropping out ofuse).If you read more grammar books, you will discover that some linguists use the termsclosed and open sets of words to refer to what we have discussed above.ReflectReflect upon what you have just read above and then answer the followingquestions.1. List the terms used to describe the two main categories of words.2. With the help of examples, explain the difference between the two maincategories of words you have stated in question 1 above.3. Justify the use of all the terminologies mentioned in question 1.4. In your Teacher’s Group compile examples of the two main categories of wordsin both English and a Zambian language that is offered to learners at your school.5. Write a short essay in which you explain how knowledge of word classes and thetwo sorts of word classes can help you teach English and Zambian languagesmore effectively.Bearing in mind that the parts of speech are the classes into which words are placedaccording to the work that they do in a sentence (Burton, 1984:22), we shall proceed tolook at each of the eight word classes.NOUNSAre you aware that there are basically four kinds of nouns in English? Here are the fourmain groups (Burton, 1984:116; Thomson and Martinet, 1979:6; Freeborn, 1995:39).Common nouns name members of a class of people or things who share the name incommon with all the other members of their class, for example woman, farmer, book,dog, table.
  50. 50. 44Proper nouns name particular people, places, things, for example Tom, Lubinda,France,Kasama, Africa, the United Nations.Abstract nouns name non-material things, i.e. qualities, states, concepts that exist onlyin our minds, e.g. charity, beauty, fear, courage, joy, sorrow.Collective nouns name groups or collections of people or things, regarded as a whole,forexample swarm, team, crowd, flock, group, class.Do you know that there are two other terminologies used to refer to types of nouns?Have you heard of count and mass nouns? Read the following definitions:Count nouns: nouns that refer to people and things that can be counted (i.e. those thatcan take plurals), e.g. asses, houses, lambs, knives, skies.Mass nouns: those nouns that cannot take plurals, e.g. sheep, deer, cattle, music.Note that most scholars prefer the term mass to non-count or uncountable which areambiguous: they can refer to mass or may include words that are plurals only.Remember also that whereas abstract nouns tend to be mass nouns, concrete nounstendto be count nouns (Freeborn, 1995:39).Activity 4.81. Pick out each noun, in each of the following sentences, and say what kind it is(Burton, 1984:23 - 25).(a) Helen wrote to Jean.(b) Justice need not exclude mercy.(c) A crowd gathered to watch the fleet sail.(d) His father bought him a bicycle.(e) When Mr. Banda was in the bush he saw a pride of lions chasing a herd ofantelopes.(f) My birthday falls on a Tuesday this year.(g) He had no friends or relations and lived-in solitude.(h) As a player, his sportsmanship was outstanding.
  51. 51. (I) We were rivals, but I felt no enmity for her.(j) My friend Smith was a member of the team that played with such courageto win the cup.2. Prepare a thirty-minute lesson plan in which you teach your Grade five (5) classcommon and proper nouns.3. Explain and illustrate the difference between the following:45(a) abstract and concrete nouns(b) count and mass nouns4. In your Teacher’s Group list collective nouns and discuss(a) the contexts in which they can be used.(b) the strategies you can use in class to teach such nouns.5. Look at the types of nouns in English again and then give two examples of eachtype in at least two Zambian languages.6. Write a short seminar paper in which you contrast and illustrate the four types ofnouns in English and Zambian languages.7. Complete the following table of types of nouns in the Zambian languagesindicated. Give two examples in each case.Language CommonNounsProper Nouns AbstractNounsCollectiveNounsBembaKaondeLoziLundaLuvaleNyanjaTonga
  52. 52. We hope that from the examples you have given in the exercise above you are nowawarethat the four types of nouns you studied in English exist in Zambian languages as well.Let us now look at the plural forms of nouns in English. First of all read whatBurton (1984:116) says:A noun is either singular or plural, according to whetherit names one or more than one person, place, idea orthing.From the aforesaid we can conclude that number plays a big role in determining theformof the noun. However, before we cover this in more detail, let us look at the type ofplurals that Freeborn (1995:40) refers to:Most plural nouns in English are marked with the suffix -s. This is the regular form. There is a small number ofother, mostly very familiar, irregular plurals, which havekept their form of old English...46Activity 4.91. Explain and illustrate the concepts of singular and plural as well as regular andirregular in reference to nouns.2. At this level of your education you are probably aware that in making the pluralforms of nouns we follow certain rules. Look at the following examples of thesingular and plural forms of nouns and then write down the rules followed inmaking the plurals in each case (Freeborn, 1995:40 - 41). Thomson and Martinet,1979:7 - 9).(a) boy boysplace placesmistake mistakes(b) tomato tomatoeskiss kissesbrush brushes
  53. 53. watch watchesbox boxesphoto photospiano pianoshippo hippos(c) baby babieslady ladiescountry countriesfly fliesbutchery butcheriesdonkey donkeysday daysvalley valleysmonkey monkeys(d) wife wiveslife livesknife knivesleaf leavesloaf loavesthief thievesscarf scarfs or scarveshoof hoofs or hooveschief chiefscliff cliffshandkerchief handkerchiefsbelief beliefs47(e) foot feetman menwoman womenmouse mice
  54. 54. louse licegoose geesechild childrenox oxenbrother brethren or brothers(f) fish fishfruit fruitsheep sheepdeer deercattle cattlemusic music(g) oasis oasesradius radiiappendix appendicesmedium mediaformula formulae or formulassyllabus syllabi or syllabusesstadium stadia or stadiumsagendum agendacriterion criteriamemorandum memoranda(h) armchair armchairsbookcase bookcasesgrown-up grown-upsboy-friend boy-friendsbreak-in break-inslorry driver lorry driverspasser-by passers - byhead of department heads of departmentbrother - in - law brothers - in - lawhead of state heads of state
  55. 55. manservant menservants(I) ..................................... clothes..................................... trousers..................................... underpants..................................... knickers..................................... scissors3. From the examples given above there is a group of nouns that have what linguistscall zero plural. Identify and list these nouns and then explain what linguistsmean when they say such nouns have zero plural.484. What learning difficulties are the pupils likely to face with the plural forms ofnouns? Suggest remedies for these learning difficulties.5. In your Teacher Groups examine the singular and plural forms of nouns inZambian languages and English and then discuss similarities (if any) as well asdifferences. After this discussion, write a short report highlighting and illustratingyour findings.6. Prepare a thirty - minute lesson plan in which you teach pupils how to makeplurals of nouns in the Zambian Language offered at your school.As a teacher of English you need to acquaint yourself with all the spelling rulesyou have studied in the plural forms of nouns. We hope you are also aware thatwhereas the plural form of a noun in English is obtained by adding ‘s’ to the singularform, the prefixes in Zambian languages indicate whether the noun is in singular orpluralform. Look at the following examples:Bemba: umumana, river; imimana, riversKaonde: muzhi, village; mizhi, villagesLozi: mulikani, friend; balikani, friendsTonga: musimbi, girl; basimbi, girls.There is another important thing you need to know about the concept of zero plural wetalked about earlier on. This is that there is a very common zero plural which is usedwith nouns of measurement which follow numerals of determiners expressing quantity
  56. 56. (Freeborn, 1995:41; Thomson and Martinet, 1979:8, 251, 253). Look at the followingexamples.1. He bought a ten-ton lorry.2. She has just come back from her two-month holiday.3. I met Mr. Mundia’s ten-year - old daughter.4. Her nine-month pregnancy does not stop her from cleaning her house.Activity 4.101. Write five sentences to illustrate the use of zero plural as indicated in theexamples that precede this exercise.2. Most speakers of English as a second language make the errors illustrated belowwhen they use nouns in sentences.49(i) Identify and underline the error or errors in each sentence.(ii) Explain the type of error(iii) Rewrite each sentence and correct the error or errors in it.(a) A cat have four legs(b) The tomatoes are many in my garden(c) That criteria is wrong(d) Neither Lubinda nor Moonde are here.(e) Some of the girls in my class speaks good French(f) Most of the business men has cars.(g) The childrens’ shoes are clean.(h) The wife of Mr. Bwalya has come(I) The chair’s legs are broken(j) The tail of the black cat is long(k) Mr. Mumpanga’s house is five minutes walk from here.(l) We bought a two-month’s - old dog(m) I saw my father’s - in - law farm(n) This is a days’ work(o) Either Banda or Silumesii are coming(p) English is used as a media of instruction in our schools.
  57. 57. (q) I will buy a scissors3. Give five examples of nouns of non-English origin and write their plural forms.4. As you are aware count nouns such as house, knife, boy can take plurals (i.e. theycan be counted). For example, we can say many houses, three houses, twoknives, etc(a) With the help of examples explain how you would qualify or count massnouns such as milk, sand, ink, hair, grass, dust, sugar, oil, furniture andluggage.(b) Give at least six examples of expressions used to count mass nouns in anyZambian languageWe hope you still remember us referring to noun prefixes in Zambian languagesindicating whether the noun is in singular or plural form. It is important at thispoint to state that the morphological structure of nouns in Zambian languages, just likeother Bantu languages, is basically of two types:(i) Noun prefix + stem, e.g.Kaonde: muzhi villagemizhi villages50Lozi: mutu personbatu personsTonga: musamu treemisamu treesMasamu(ii) Augment + Noun Prefix + stem, e.g.Bemba: umushi villageimishi villagesumuntu personabantu personsYou should remember that an augment is simply defined as any morpheme thatnormallyprecedes a Noun prefix. However, some grammar books refer to all the morphemes that
  58. 58. precede the stem in a noun as a Noun prefix, thus:Umushi village instead ofu - + - mu - + shi - umushiNote also that as is characteristic of all Bantu languages, every noun in any Zambianlanguage belongs to a class. Most nouns show what class they belong to by a prefix;thatis by the way they begin. There are between 18 and 20 noun classes in most Zambianofficial languages, as indicated in the list of noun prefixes below.ClassNumberBemba Kaonde Lozi Lunda Luvale Nyanja Tonga1 umu- mu- mu- mu- mu- mu-,m- mu-2 aba- ba- ba- a- a- a- ba-3 umu- mu- mu- mu- mu- mu-, m- mu-4 imi- mi- mi- nyi- mi- mi- mi-5 ili-, I- ji- li- di-, I- li- dzi-, li- li-, I-6 ama- ma- ma- ma- ma- ma- ma-7. ici- ki- si- chi- chi- ci- ci8. ifi- bi- li- yi- vi- zi- zi9. in- n- n- n- n- n- n-10. in- n- li- n- zhi- n- n-11. ulu- lu- lu- lu- lu- lu- lu-12. aka- ka- ka- ka- ka- ka- ka-13. utu- tu- tu- tu- tu- ti- tu-14. ubu- bu- bu- u- u- u- bu-15. uku- ku- ku- ku- ku- ku- ku-16. pa- pa- fa- ha- ha- pa- a-17. ku- ku- kwa- ku- ku- ku- ku-18. mu- mu- mwa- mu- mu- mu- mu5119 si-20 bi-
  59. 59. Can you identify all the noun prefixes used in each of the seven official Zambianlanguages? Try to add stems to each prefix in every language and see how manynounsyou can form. Note that while the stem of a noun may remain constant, the prefix canchange. For example, munzi, village and minzi, villages in Tonga. You should alsoremember that the prefix of every noun shows not only the noun class but also the kindofagreements the noun requires in verbs, adjectives demonstratives and other wordsusedwith it, say, in a sentence. For instance in icipeele cilya icikulu naacimwene cileeliishaakaana kaaciko ‘that big turtle dove I saw it (yesterday) feeding its chick’ the nounicipeele ‘turtle dove’ has class 7 prefix ici (ici - + - peele) agreeing with it ademonstrative adjective cilya ‘that’, an adjective icikulu ‘big’, a verbal subjectivepronoun cileeliisha ‘it is feeding’, a verbal object pronoun naacimwene ‘I saw it’ and aspecial (or diminutive) possessive form kaaciko ‘its’, while the prefix of the possessiveform agrees with akaana ‘young’ (Mann, et al, 1977:19; Mann and Carter, 1975:37).Note the changes that would take place if you changed ‘turtle dove’ to ‘turtle doves’thus:ifipeele filya ifikulu naafimwene fileeliisha utwana twafiko ‘those big turtle doves I sawthem (yesterday) feeding their chicks’. We hope you have seen that the noun class istreated as a system of concordial agreement.Read Reference1. Study the list of noun prefixes given in the seven official Zambian languages, aswell as other information on noun classes, and then answer the followingquestions:(a) With the help of examples explain the concept of noun classes.(b) Identify and list the nouns which occur in two classes and then explain thedifference between them.(c) What is the difference between the way nouns in Bantu languages areclassified now and the way they were classified when grammars of theselanguages were written in the nineteenth century?
  60. 60. (d) In your Teacher Group discuss and list similarities and differencesbetween the shapes of the prefixes in Zambian languages(e) What are the similarities and differences between nouns in classes 9 and10 in most Zambian languages?(f) Identify and illustrate prefixes that give nouns diminutive, augmentative,pejorative and abstract meaning.52(g) What is the difference between class 1 and class 3 nouns?(h) Illustrate cases of nouns that change their classes when they form theirplural.(i) List three noun prefixes which can give you mass or uncountable nouns inany Zambian language and give examples.(j) What is peculiar to class 15 nouns in most Zambian languages?(k) List all the locative classes in any Zambian Language and illustrate theway they are used.(l) Explain and illustrate the three different meanings of each of Lozi prefixesin classes 19 and 20.2. Explain and illustrate how your awareness of the concept of noun classes in Bantulanguages can help you to both understand the way Zambian languages work andteach pupils plurals, special use or function of nouns in classes 11, 12, 13, 14, 19and 20 and how to construct correct sentences in Zambian languages.3. Design a filling in exercise, with very clear instructions, for a Grade 3 class, inwhich you test pupils’ ability to identify and use correct noun, verb and adjectiveprefixes in at least eight noun classes.4. Translate the following nouns into any Zambian language and indicate the classeach noun belongs to:a) povertyb) an eggc) elephantsd) a hille) a girl
  61. 61. f) treesg) boysh) oilPRONOUNSWe hope you still remember that pronouns belong to a closed word class (i.e. they areconstant in number). What are pronouns? Do you remember examples of pronouns?Think about these questions.Read Reference531. Read the following passage and then state what kind of pronouns the words inbold type are.Mr. Kwandangala was annoyed. He looked at the pupils whowere still chatting excitedly and said, “Shut up and look at me!”All the pupils sat quietly. They were afraid of telling Mr.Kwandangala what had happened. He was a very strictteacher.“Why were you making noise?” asked Mr. Kwandangala.Mary, who was the youngest girl in class, stood up. Shecoughed lightly and said, “John is to blame for the uproar inthis class. He grabbed a book from Cynthia and threw it ontothe floor. Cynthia grabbed him by the collar and slapped him.Then the rest of the pupils became excited. They clapped andcheered.”“Did you also clap and cheer, Mary?” Mr. Kwandangalaasked.“No, sir. I remained silent throughout this period,” answeredMary.“Sit down, Mary,” said Mr. Kwandangala, “I will punish all ofyou except Mary because she has been honest.”2. With the help of examples from the above passage explain why pronouns arereferred to as words that can replace nouns or noun phrases.
  62. 62. 3. Why are pronouns such as I, you, he, she, it and we called personal pronouns?4. Study the following table of personal pronouns in English and then answer thequestions below (Freeborn, 1995:76; Burton, 1984:119).Personal Pronouns in Standard EnglishPerson Subjective Objective PossessiveSingular1st person 1 me mine2nd person you you yours3rd person masculine he him his3rd person feminine she her hersimpersonal one one one’sPlural541st person we us ours2nd person you you yours3rd person they them theirs(a) Write and explain the terms used to refer to changes of word-formthat personal pronouns make to signal person; number andfunction.(b) Write three words that describe personal pronouns in terms ofgender.(c) Form the possessive adjective from each of the following personalpronouns:I, you, he, she, it, we and they(d) Explain and illustrate the similarities and differences between possessiveadjectives and possessive pronouns.(e) State two important things about the use of you as a personal pronoun, asillustrated in the table.(f) What is the difference between subjective and objective pronouns? Giveexamples to support your explanation.(g) Write a statement about the use of it as a personal pronoun, as shown in

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