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Open Access Week (Oct 26, 2011) Open Content and Comparative Educational Development Alfonso Sintjago UMN PhD StudentComparative and International Development Education
Knowledge By Mark Hill – Flickr (Brick Wall) – CC-BY By Janine Nelson – Flickr (Metal Bars) – CC-BY
From The Personal Only Some Have AccessGrowth in Internet Access To Academic Journal Articles By Matsuyuki – Flickr (Dice) – CC-BY-SA (both) By DamienHR – Flickr (Barrios de Caracas II)
Definitions Merriam-Webster.com• College: A part of a university offering a specialized group of courses• Education: the knowledge and development resulting from an educational process• Human: susceptible to or representative of the sympathies and frailties of human nature• Development: the state of being developed <a project in development>
History of Reconsidering Development• The journal has published two issues (8 articles).• They are expecting to receive submissions by Oct 31, 2011. – (Submissions exceeded expectations)• The journal users a peer review system that is mostly traditional (3 or 4 tiers).• Students decided to create a system where scholars from anywhere could publish.• The journal is run by students but it has a general audience• Organizers make extensive use of web tools for communication – Pbworks, Skype.• Knowledge is seen as a dynamic entity.
How is RD Open?• Anyone Can Access – Redefining Access• Anyone Can Contribute – Redefining Knowledge Construction
Finances• Obtained a significant grant• They do not want to include ads• Will perhaps link to Amazon books• Web hosting – 7 dollars a month• Most labor is by volunteers• Concerns from faculty about their sustainability if they because Open Access
Casey Stafford• What is the Value of Knowledge – Knowledge is valuable but it should be free – RD is helping to translate knowledge. We help translating a paper and make it academic. – If you are going to have that philosophy you have to be open access.
Tryggvi Thayer• There are some things that we dont feel we should pay for.• If there is resistance to expectations, then individuals work themselves around those who resist the change, and those that resist become irrelevant.• OSS uses concurrent versioning systems…This is used by newcomers use a learning tool… CVS made perfect sense to me• Today there is so much stuff out there• A reason for creating an open access journal is not simply to increase the readership but also so that the information within it stays dynamic.
Methodology• Reconsidering Development Interviews – Two founding members of an Open Access Journal• Focus Groups (4 Focus Groups) (Krueger and Casey, 2009) – 3 Face to Face – CEHD Graduate Students – 1 Online Focus Group – Goal – To Reach a Saturation Point
A Few Terms• Free Culture• Open Access• Open Source Software• Open Data• Open Education Resources• Open Content• Open Course Ware
Open• What do you think those terms mean? – if stuff is openly available then it would get reused. – The journal would be available from a computer and a mobile phone. We wanted people to be able to access it from anywhere. – With a broader audience you will have more feedback.. With that feedback you can improve your research – Helping individuals who are not academics to publish – Distinction between open education and open access… to me its all about access – I can access it anywhere. – Ability to be a knowledge dispenser, as well as a knowledge receiver – Some sort of transparency in the knowledge development process
Influence• To what extent is the ability to access information freely on the internet influencing the type of information you consume? (not at all, some (little), a lot, a great deal)? – The article said exactly what I wanted to know but I had to redesign my project. – Looking for research for my “plan b” topic I found an article and couldn’t access it – Students usually make do with whatever they have because there may be a deadline – without my UMN sign in, I would not be able to do the research. – If I cant access the information then I will shift my research slightly – If they require subscription, I don’t even bother examining them
Access• To what extent is the lack of access to information a problem? (not at all, some (little), a lot, a great deal)? – We [at UMN] have more access than smaller schools – I get very frustrated when I try to access something from off-site and [because of access problems] it sucks up the twenty minutes that I had – Most of the time I find something else [to use for my research], no big deal. – They can read more authors, more studies. Whatever they needed. If it is open available… The more you have, the more difficult it is to sort things out. – The majority of the HE journals are subscription-based. The Chronicle of Higher Education is also subscription only. I would find one of my friends and use their log in.
Outside Academia• What is the impact of Open Access Journals outside academia? – My dad was able to find a lot of stuff online. I know that he was able to find. If something was not there it would have been frustrating. – You do whatever you can. But if you get a hold of one article or two that are very good for your students, ah you share… An article becomes a very valuable thing that you have to share with the students in the class. – I think it can be very helpful for those organizations (non-profit). Having access to current research can be very important. – It would be received with gratefulness. They have a small budget and staff, and they have a lot of things to do, and they may not be trained in the academic area of that topic. – There are electronic boards where people post asking for the papers that they want. It’s a black market open access. When I was back in china... there is no way that you can pay for them.
Outside Academia Continuation• What is a priority.. the access to information to satisfy my curiosity or obey the laws of the economy, of money, and ethics. I don’t really care about these laws when I am thinking of my curiosity... to access knowledge. Specially when you think of people who don’t have access, and are not affiliated with any formal institutions especially outside of the states…. Long term, open access is definitely for the whole advancement of humanity. That’s the long term choice.
Generational• To what extent do you think there is a generational difference in the support for openness, and open access journals? – I remember one of my professors saying, “open access articles are not reliable so be careful”. – I wonder if today’s kids who known the internet the entire life are going to put up with this structure. – I think it just depends on who is around you. Who is pushing you to do it where. – A lot of professors do not know about open access stuff. I been to workshops that are taking about publishing in the humanities and social sciences and people who were presenting were asked well what about open access, and the presenter said you cant do that, you have to publish traditionally, you have to sign away all of your copy right.
Sustainability• To what extent do you consider Open Access Journals to be sustainable? What do you think needs to happen for them to be sustainable? – Maybe there is a transition where your readership will increase ten times and 1% donates something, and mixed with another business model, you can sustain it. – Can you sustain a system where everyone asks for 5 dollars? – Money has to come from somewhere. If they are not securing the funding through subscription, they have to find it somewhere else. – The funding is going to have to shift from subscription and its going to have to come from somewhere. The transaction is going to have to happen between somebody.
Voices• Journals that are run by big organizations, like the UN or the World Bank, they give access. But in the process to me is that you have one view of things. Is a good way to guiding you into something. You cant be very critical because you dont know what others have said on it.• You don’t know what others have said. Open Access is an advantage to propagating an agenda.• But I think there would actually be people, who might know what you are talking about and might actually read it. By Riza Nugraha – Flickr CC-BY (Kuta Beach People)
Public vs. Private• Is there a difference between privately sponsored research and publically sponsored research in terms of access by the public? – form personal experience, I think the medical field is doing a good job about it and it should be as open as possible. – In terms of access should anything be private? – Is there anything that shouldn’t be public – It only makes sense that if the taxpayers paid for the research, then it should be available…. But if it is private they would have more freedom to choose whether they want to or not.
Quality• To what extent do you feel openness increases the quality of scholarship? (strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree) – Found an older article that I found, but as I was reading through, it seemed that it had not been accurately translated. – If everybody was doing it, then there would be a quality control. You want your stuff to look good anyway. – I heard of other open access journals that have the same multiple line reviewers. – If it’s open access, will “structures” be put in place that ensure the validity, reliability, and integrity of the material? Can you be open access and peer-reviewed at the same time? – There a lot of [open] sites but the credibility is an issue. I think the main journals in my field are all subscription
Moral Obligation• To what extent do you feel opening or increasing access to information is a moral obligation for educators, for the CEHD? – “We have to keep our secrets about teaching and learning nobody can know” – Access to education and knowledge should be a basic human right. … Information piracy sometimes is warranted because we all have a responsibility to serve the common good. – If people feel that they need to follow unethical avenues, then we need to restructure the way information is accessed. Information piracy is a social ill not an individual ill. We need to make it possible for anyone who is seeking information to do so ethically… reworking the way we think… – Academic institution, human, we have a moral obligation to connect with each other and tell our stories.
Innovation• To what extent do you think open access encourages or discourages innovation? – Everything should be there. You see, we are doing something funny, we are trying to discover really good things, but then we put them in a box and lock them up. There are very wonderful things that haven’t been read…. I tried to access this article, and could access it. I thought this guy did a very good job, but what does that mean, I just forget it. I can’t pay the 39 dollars. – I think it would increase competition maybe.. they may want to create a business out of windmills. That’s apparently what businesses want, more competition. – If authors aren’t innovative (and if publishers aren’t innovative), readers will gravitate to other authors/publishers
Future• Projecting yourself two, five and ten years into the future what role do you see open access playing for academia and society? – [natural] sciences are leading the movement, humanities are way behind. – Overtime there will be quality. How are other journals doing it. I just don’t know but its doable – if everyone is invested in it, there would be a quality control. You want your stuff to look good anyway. Academia is notoriously slow. – I just did a presentation for one of my courses and I used three articles from that journal alone (IRRODL) – Open access will develop layers – some layers are important to be accessible to all. Some part of it will need to be complex.
Choices• Which one of these three journals would you choose as the site through which to submit your article and what are some of the reasons you would chose this journal (please indicate what would be the most important aspect in making this decision)? – I probably chose the last one, because I am doing a PhD, there is a pressure… When we are looking for a job... Maybe after 10, 20 years of being a professor then I can do that because I wouldn’t not care… then I can just share ideas. – Top thing is creating a strong professional image. making a name for myself in the academy. – A hierarchy of journal prestige always exists. Researchers are always trying to get their articles accepted by the most prestigious journal they can. – I would look at whatever is usually being done in that area. As sad as it sound, if the procedures are pretty well established then everyone has to go through it and I would publish were other publish. – in the end because I would like to support the open access movement (and potentially have more people read my work – The first consideration is going to be about quality, journal or site.
Impact• Publishing has become a central question in my career decision. I can choose to stop and find a job or go into a PhD track. I hate to say this, but when I look at the reward structure, it’s a game to me. My choice could be to ditch a system of doing work to publish something that teachers are never going to see.
Copyright• To what extent are you aware of who owns the copyright for an article that you publish and the author’s right to retain copyright? – Copyright is not a common discussion in graduate school, perhaps in the sense of plagiarism. – I definitely do not want to fully sign away my copyright.
What Does This Mean for CEHD, UMN By Andrew Bowden – Flickr CC-BY- SA (All Roads Lead)
“Openness” isgrowing and it canhave a positiveimpact foracademia, butwithout the supportof faculty membersstudents areapprehensive aboutcontributing more tothe movement Flickr – CC-BY-SA (All) Sarah Reid – “Thumbs Up” Jason Rodgers – “Coins” Ben+Sam W – “Change Flask”
A Few StatsSOAP Symposium, Berlin - January, 2011
A Few StatsSOAP Symposium, Berlin - January, 2011
The Tower Meets The Cloud (Katz, 2010) Flickr CC-BY – “Tower “- Amber de Bruin Flickr CC BY – “Cloud” – Karin Dalziel
Digital = No Tragedy of Commons• Do not lose their quality when replicated!• Can be replicated an infinite number of times.• How do we harness this capability for the benefit of society UMN Minnesota USA World
Greater Copyright Awareness• Traditional Copyright• What Does Creative Commons Allow For? – CC-BY – CC-BY-SA – CC-BY-ND – CC-BY-NC – CC-BY-NC-ND-SA – Any Other Combination
Open ….. Closed Open – Allows Access Closed – Denies AccessAnd Perhaps Modification Or Perhaps Modification 4 Rs of OC - reuse, revise, remix, redistribute Flickr – CC-BY John Martinez Pavliga - “Open” http://opencontent.org/definition/
How do We Open Up? First– By publishing in Open Access Journals Second– By using the Creative Commons licenses under certain circumstances.– By joining the Open Courseware Movement– Encourage the government to fund Open Research– Along with many other possibilities!
Why Open!• Because it decreases cost for students• Because it’s a historical component of knowledge transfer.• Because it flattens access worldwide• Because it can help establish an Open Meritocracy• Because it accelerates innovation• Because it goes in line with the mission or goal of education “The University of Minnesota, founded in the belief that all people are enriched by understanding, is dedicated to the advancement of learning and the search for truth; to the sharing of this knowledge through education for a diverse community; and to the application of this knowledge to benefit the people of the state, the nation, and the world.“