King Hugh Capet 987- King Hugh ruled only a small area around Paris, but for the next couple of hundred years, subsequent French kings expanded this territory.
Joan of Arc Claimed to the French authorities that she was divinely inspired to lead men into battle, and gained military backing. She forced the Brits to retreat from Orleans, but was later captured by the French, tried by Brits, and burned at stake by French.
The Bourbons Series of French monarchs that unified France, which became a major power in Europe.
Queen Isabella The marriage of Queen Isabella of Castille to King Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469 united Spain under one crown. This pair of rulers united strongly with the Catholic Church, and began the Spanish Inquisition. They also heightened Spanish nationalism, and gained much wealth and glory. This successful period in Spanish history resulted in the spread of the Spanish language, customs, and Christianity to the New World.
King Ferdinand Married Isabella of Castille in 1469 to unite Spain.
Czar Russian Kings/Emperors that began with Ivan III in the late 1400s when he expanded Muscovy territory (the area surrounding Moscow).
Tatars Tatars were a group of Mongols from the East, whom Russia succumbed to in 1242. This group of Mongols was headed by Genghis Khan. The Tatars ruled a large piece of Russia for two centuries, which led to a cultural rift that further split eastern from western Europe.
Ivan the Terrible Mid-1500s Russian ruler from the House of Rurik that centralized power over the entire Russian sphere by horrible rule (hence the name) and using a secret police on his nobles. By this time, Russian nationalism was well under way.