Byzantine Empire Notes
<ul><li>EASTERN EUROPE </li></ul><ul><li>After Germanic tribes sack Rome in 5 th  century, focus of  </li></ul><ul><li>Rom...
Byzantine & Sassanid Empires, 6 c
Constantinople was the fortress capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, which later became the Byzantine Empire.  For hundred...
Arabia: A Threat to the Great Empires ? ?
Geographic Advantages <ul><li>Peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Safe harbors for trade </li></ul><ul><li>Great trade location fo...
Where was Constantinople? (Istanbul today)
What are the advantages of building a major city here?
 
Political Timeline <ul><li>313 Constantine becomes Emperor of Rome, converts to Christianity  </li></ul><ul><li>330  Moves...
Constantine’s City-- Constantinopolis
 
 
Age of Justinian 527- 565 <ul><li>Justinian  – greatest Byzantine Emperor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>532 Tax revolt threatens J...
Emperor Justinian  [r. 527-564]
Empress Theodora
Church of  Hagia Sophia  [Holy Wisdom]
Interior of the Church of  Hagia Sophia
Byzantine Empire After Justinian <ul><li>630-700 - Expansion of  Arab/Islamic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing attacks fro...
Religion <ul><li>Icon controversy  erupts  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No “graven images” (sculptures) of religious figures  </l...
 
Religion – Greek Orthodox <ul><li>1054  Final Schism divides RC and EO Churches  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Icon controversy, P...
Art and Intellect <ul><li>A) Preserved  </li></ul><ul><li>1)  Greek Philosophy, Literature, Science, Mathematics, Medicine...
Spread of Byzantine religion and culture to eastern Europe outside Russia:  Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania   Romania  Bulgaria ...
Byzantine Culture <ul><li>Education - important in Byzantine Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U of Constantinople opened 850 A...
Byzantine Economy <ul><li>Agricultural base of farmers, herders and laborers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy taxation by the g...
Social Structure <ul><li>hierarchy but not hereditary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals could move between classes </li></...
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AP Byzantine Empire And Islam Timeline

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  • Any on who looks at any diagram of the four evil empires spoken of in the book of Daniel chapter #7 verse #1-7 will see that the 3rd.beast represents the GREEK EMPIRE and the BYZANTINE EMPIRE WAS GREEK.THE 4TH.EVIL EMPIRE IS THE ROMAN EMPIRE AND IF YOU CHECK THE NATIONS WHICH CAME FROM THE ILLEGAL CROWING OF THE FRANKISH KING CHARLES THE GREAT KNOWN TO HISTORY AS 'CHARLEMANGE' BY POPE LEO THE 3RD. ON DECEMBER 25TH./800 A.D.YOU WILL SEE THAT THESE NATIONS ARE 'FRANCE,GERMANY,AND FOR A WHILE A MIDDLE KINGDOM OF LORRAIN,BURGUNDY,& TALY.ALL EUROPEAN NATIONS.YOU WILL ALSO COME ACROSS AMERICA & BRITAIN IN THERE ALSO.
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  • Transcript of "AP Byzantine Empire And Islam Timeline"

    1. 1. Byzantine Empire Notes
    2. 2. <ul><li>EASTERN EUROPE </li></ul><ul><li>After Germanic tribes sack Rome in 5 th century, focus of </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Empire shifts east->BYZANTINE (E. Roman) Empire, 330-1453 (source of political unity) </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern regions are culturally and linguistically GREEK; </li></ul><ul><li>Latin never takes root there. </li></ul><ul><li>A. Emperor CONSTANTINE founds new capital, CONSTANTINOPLE (former Byzantium), 330 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>makes Christianity state religion, 300 C.E. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Byzantine & Sassanid Empires, 6 c
    4. 4. Constantinople was the fortress capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, which later became the Byzantine Empire. For hundreds of years, Constantinople was one of the richest cities in the world. Constantinople
    5. 5. Arabia: A Threat to the Great Empires ? ?
    6. 6. Geographic Advantages <ul><li>Peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Safe harbors for trade </li></ul><ul><li>Great trade location for Europe to Asia; Med. Sea to Black Sea </li></ul><ul><li>City was heavily fortified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water on three sides plus a wall was built to protect the fourth side. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multi-ethnic city </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greeks, Persians, Italians, Turks, Slavs, Armenians, and Jews lived in the city </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Where was Constantinople? (Istanbul today)
    8. 8. What are the advantages of building a major city here?
    9. 10. Political Timeline <ul><li>313 Constantine becomes Emperor of Rome, converts to Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>330 Moves capital to Byzantium (Constantinople) for natural protections and trade into Middle East & Asia </li></ul><ul><li>395 Theodosius permanently divides Roman empire </li></ul><ul><li>476 Fall of Roman Empire </li></ul>
    10. 11. Constantine’s City-- Constantinopolis
    11. 14. Age of Justinian 527- 565 <ul><li>Justinian – greatest Byzantine Emperor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>532 Tax revolt threatens Justinian’s rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wife Theodora helps him save crown </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructed Church of Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>533 Begins re-conquest of Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lands in N. Africa, Italy and Spain lost by Rome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizes Roman law - Corpus Juris Civilis (Justinian Code) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>554 Greatest expansion of Byzantine Empire </li></ul><ul><li>565 Justinian’s rule ends – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>W/in 35 years many outlying territories lost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slavs, Avars, Lombards, then Arabs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 15. Emperor Justinian [r. 527-564]
    13. 16. Empress Theodora
    14. 17. Church of Hagia Sophia [Holy Wisdom]
    15. 18. Interior of the Church of Hagia Sophia
    16. 19. Byzantine Empire After Justinian <ul><li>630-700 - Expansion of Arab/Islamic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing attacks from east </li></ul></ul><ul><li>700 - Byzantine empire limited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily Greek lands and Asia Minor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empire strengthened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One language (Greek), religion (Greek Orthodox) & culture (Byzantine) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 20. Religion <ul><li>Icon controversy erupts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No “graven images” (sculptures) of religious figures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>843 Icon controversy resolved temporarily with pictures, but no statues </li></ul>
    18. 22. Religion – Greek Orthodox <ul><li>1054 Final Schism divides RC and EO Churches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Icon controversy, Papal supremacy, Other doctrinal issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1071 Battle of Manzikert </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Byzantines lose Asia Minor to Seljuk Turks (Muslim) – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to regain territory ==> loss of control of trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>↓ power of empire strained by war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1204 Byz Emperor asks Pope for help v. Seljuks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4th Crusade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Christian soldiers and Venetians sack Constantinople </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>W. Europeans establish Latin States - help of Venice & Genoa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforces rift between RC &EO Christianity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek emperor restored to Byzantine throne in 1260 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1453 Ottoman Turks conquer Constantinople </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fall of Byzantine Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic end to the primacy of Roman culture </li></ul></ul>
    19. 23. Art and Intellect <ul><li>A) Preserved </li></ul><ul><li>1) Greek Philosophy, Literature, Science, Mathematics, Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>2) Roman Political & Legal structures & ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precedent law, Justinian Code </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3) Christian Theology and Scriptures </li></ul><ul><li>B) Created </li></ul><ul><li>1) New Art forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Icons - 2 dimensional religious representations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosaics - pictures made w/ small pieces of stone or glass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illuminated manuscripts - highly ornate books </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) Eastern Orthodox Church - </li></ul><ul><li>C) Spread </li></ul><ul><li>Roman (Byzantine) ideas into E. Europe and Russian cities of Kiev and Moscow </li></ul>
    20. 24. Spread of Byzantine religion and culture to eastern Europe outside Russia: Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania Romania Bulgaria Serbia
    21. 25. Byzantine Culture <ul><li>Education - important in Byzantine Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U of Constantinople opened 850 A.D. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trained scholars and lawyers for government positions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Law, Medicine, math, philosophy, geometry, music, grammar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tutors for wealthy children and girls (usually did not attend school) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature - focused on religion, moral tales about God’s will and salvation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copied ancient Roman and Greek texts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Eastern Orthodox Christianity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyril & Methodius – Greek Orthodox Christianity spread to Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created Cyrillic alphabet used by Slavic Russians, Ukranians, Bulgarians & Serbs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vernacular versions of the Bible and ceremonies </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 26. Byzantine Economy <ul><li>Agricultural base of farmers, herders and laborers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy taxation by the government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade with many areas - East India and Ceylon, China, Middle East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silk production and weaving became major industries of Byzantine empire </li></ul></ul>
    23. 27. Social Structure <ul><li>hierarchy but not hereditary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals could move between classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on families - divorce was difficult, limited re-marriage allowed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded rights for women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separate living space - seclusion by custom, not law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Several empresses and regents, many educated and influential women </li></ul></ul></ul>

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