Reformation of the Christian Church The Protesters (Protestants) build a whole new system for the Christian Church designed around faith and a personal relationship with God rather than works and traditional authority.
Protestant Reformation A “ protest ” against church abuses, & a “ reform ” movement throughout the Christian Church.
E157angel/devLastJ Angel & Devil at last judgment
Destroyed unity of “Catholic” church
Built power of political Leaders because of the power vacuum when the Church was fighting itself.
Protestants stimulated to education because everyone needed to be able to read the Scriptures
Ended up causing a lot of wars all around Europe (Age of Religious and Civil Wars).
Catholic Schism, simony, pluralism and
Indulgences (selling the right to have your sins forgiven)
Growth of Nation states to
support those protesting
the Church’s corruption
Nation States (kings) as
rivals to the Church (Pope,
Early religious Reformers
Joan of Arc, Brothers of Common Good, John Wycliffe in England, John Huss in Czechoslovakia, Savonarola in Florence, and many others (all burned)
Pope (Julius II and Leo X) decided to build a new St. Peters and fight the Papal Wars to retake central Italy
The Church raised taxes on the land they owned around Europe
General frustration of peasants, rulers and people of Northern Europe (especially Germany) because of poverty, disease and lack of concern from Rome
Secularism, Humanism and Individualism caused people to think, question and then doubt the church as they never had before
Development Timeline Oct 31, 1517 – In his 95 Thesis statements at Wittenburg, Luther openly criticized the Catholic Church on its actions/ doctrines; especially indulgences 1517 - Printing Press spreads the word around Europe 1521 – Luther is required to recant his ideals or face death 1521 – Papal Bull, Diet of Worms and Luther’s banishment - Luther refuses to recant and Frederick of Saxony protects him from Church 1521-26 – Luther translates German Bible and lays foundation for Lutheranism 1516 - Johann Tetzel--famous for his cry, " Once the coin into the coffer clings, a soul from purgatory heavenward springs ." His sale of indulgences in Luther's back yard provided the spark that touched off The Reformation . Tetzel
Johan Tetzl: The Coin in the Coffer…
Martin Luther: Rebel with a Cause “ The just shall live by faith ”
Diet of Worms
Frederick of Saxony
Choose to Protect Luther from HRE and Pope after the Diet of Worms
Important Prince in HRE; one of the 7 Electors who choose the HRE
Loved to collect “Relics”
One of the leaders of the Protestant Princes who revolted against Catholicism
Reliquary holding the heads of the three wise men & others
E185Head of JohnBaptist Relic: One of the heads of St. John the Baptist! (in Germany)
The Diet at Augsburg: 1530 1530, Emperor Charles V called for an imperial diet to meet in Augsburg, Germany. He desired a united empire against the Turkish Invasion of Eastern Europe and intended that all religious disunity come to an end . It failed .
The Confession of Augsburg
Led by Frederick the Wise of Saxony, the princes and cities that held to Luther's teachings decided to make a common confession and agree to disagree with the Catholics.
This is the start of Lutheranism
The Augsburg Confession - 1530 gathered and written by Luther’s friend Melanchthon
Eliminated 5 of the 7 Sacraments; (kept Baptism and Communion)
Personal faith - not what you do - gets you into heaven
Separation of Church and state slowly grew in importance for Lutherans
Ulrich Zwingli: 1 st Split in Protestantism
Transubstantiation – actual body and blood (C and L)
or Consubstantiation (symbolic Zwingli and Baptists)
The Catholics and Luther believe that the bread and the wine actually change into the Body and Blood of Christ at the moment of Holy Communion (Trans)
Zwingli and some Anabaptists believe that the Holy Communion is a symbolic remembrance of the Bread and the Wine (Con)
Zwingli’s Weapons and Chalice
2 nd Split: Ana-Baptists
The Lutherans kept two Sacraments. The first two splits were both over these Sacraments.
Zwingli split over Communion
Ana-Baptists split over Baptism
Ana-baptists believed that you had to choose to be baptized for it to count so infant Baptism (practiced by both the Catholics and Lutherans) didn’t work.
- Must be Baptized as an adult by your choice
Execution of Ana-Baptists
Lutherans and Catholics tag team the Baptists
The Ana-baptists; and some other splinter groups were attacked by both C and P
Unitarians and Anti-Trinitarians denied the Trinity and were usually burned at the state
Michael Servetus was burned alive in Geneva
Even as late as 1612 the authorities in England burned two men who held views like those of Servetus Thirty-nine people were burned at the stake for heresy between May of 1547 and March of 1550. The 16th century was not a time of great tolerance of heresy in any place in Europe.
Anyone different – Mennonites, Jews, Muslims, Witches were all lumped together and executed or burned
3 rd Split: John Calvin Predestination vs. Free Will “ Always I have faithfully attempted what I believed to be for the glory of God.” -- John Calvin • Calvinism, believed in predestination belief that certain people are chosen by God for salvation.
Calvin’s Birthplace: Noyon, France
Calvin, Predestination, Geneva and the Striving for Perfection
Geneva was "Calvin’s city" and had the reputation of a God-fearing, law-abiding theocracy with strict habits and customs,
under the undeniable rule of the Church,
Hard work, self-discipline and simple living were the marks of these Puritans
They worked so hard at being righteous because they believed a person was Predestined for Heaven or Hell and the only way you could tell was by the way the person acted on earth.
So act good and others will love you. Act bad and they burn you.
John Knox in Scotland - Presbyterians
Puritans in England, Netherlands and the English colonies; especially in New England with the Pilgrims
Huguenots in France
They took their passion for
No frivilous activity with them wherever they went
(no holidays, no gambling, no drunkeness, no card playing)
John Knox Scottish Presbyterian Church
iconoclasm (destruction of Icons and Relics and distracting Art in Church) increases
For example, Antwerp Cathedral icons were destroyed, churches throughout the Netherlands—particularly in the north—are sacked, and countless artworks destroyed when Philip II took office as King of Spain (and ruler of the Netherlands) in 1560
Henry VIII of England, founder of the Anglican Church
Medal Depicting Henry as Defender of the Faith by Leo X for his help against Luther
Henry VIII • Founded Church of England (Anglican/Episcopalian Church) • Act of Supremacy (1534): King is now the head of the English Church Married 6 times
The Big Question
Henry VIII (1491-1547)
1531--Henry VIII wishes to divorce Catherine of Aragón because the marriage has not produced a male heir. He wants to marry Anne Boleyn
His marriage normally would be illegal under ecclesiastical law because Catharine was the widow of his brother, but it had been allowed by a special dispensation from the pope. Henry claims that the papal dispensation contradicted ecclesiastical law and that therefore the marriage is invalid. The pope upholds the validity of the dispensation and refuses to annul the marriage.
Henry VIII’s Refomation
Zwingli considers Henry's marriage invalid, but Luther accepts
Before the Reformation this type of disagreement would never have happened
1533--Henry marries Anne Boleyn, and two months later he had the archbishop of Canterbury pronounce his divorce from Catherine.
1533--Henry is excommunicated by the Pope.
1534--Henry has Parliament pass the Act of Supremacy appointing the king and his successors supreme head of the Church of England , thus establishing an independent national Anglican church.
Henry’s Decision: I rule the land, the church and the Kingdom but no other changes are made
1536-1539--The monasteries are suppressed, the monks sent home, and their property seized.
1539--The Act of Six Articles makes it heretical to deny the main theological tenets of medieval Roman Catholicism. Obedience to the papacy remains a criminal offense. Lutherans are burned as heretics, and Roman Catholics who refuse to recognize the ecclesiastical supremacy of the king (most notably, Sir Thomas More) are executed.
There is an easy way to remember what happened to the wives of Henry VIII: Divorced, beheaded, died, Divorced, beheaded, survived. The wives, in order, were: 1) Katherine of Aragon, 2) Anne Boleyn, 3) Jane Seymour, 4) Anne of Cleves, 5) Katherine Howard, 6) Katherine Parr. The Wives of Henry VIII
Catherine of Aragon, 1st wife of Henry VIII, mother of “Bloody Mary”
Holbein: Portrait of Jane Seymour
Holbein: Portraits of Anne of Cleves
Holbein: Portrait of Edward VI
Edward VI 1537-53 King Edward VI: A young and weak king controlled by his advisors His advisors are mostly Puritan Reformers and so the Protestant doctrines and practices opposed by Henry VIII are slowly introduced into the Anglican church. 1547--The Act of Six Articles is repealed. 1549--A complete vernacular Book of Common Prayer is issued to provide uniformity of service in the Anglican church, and its use is enforced by law. 1552--42 articles of Faith are adopted and England is Puritan
Confusion and Chaos
When Edward died and Mary Tudor was half-Spanish and thus cousin to the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, the succession crisis interested most of the major powers of Europe - France, the Hapsburg Empire, Italy (the Pope hoped to bring England back to his authority), and the Protestant princes of Germany. When Edward VI died in 1553, all of these nations waited to see who would triumph. Mary.... Elizabeth.... Mary of Scotland.... Jane Grey.... Which would become queen?
Lady Jane Grey Lady Jane Grey - Queen at 15 Jane was executed by Mary I after nine days as Queen, Mary's first act was to repeal the Protestant legislation of her brother, Edward VI, hurling England into a phase of severe religious persecution.
141MaryTudor”Bloody” Mary Tudor, “Bloody Mary” m. Philip II of Spain
Mary I: 1516-58 (Bloody Mary)
Mary I genealogy
Daughter of Catherine of Aragon
Married Phillip II of Spain
Restored Roman Catholicism as the state religion
suffered through a terrible childhood of neglect, intolerance, and ill-health.
She married Philip II of Spain in 1555, but was unable to produce a child.
Philip II: King of Spain
Devoted to preserving Catholicism
cold and indifferent to both Mary and her realm
He coerced Mary to enter into war with France, resulting in defeat and the loss of the last English continental possession, Calais.
• Protestant daughter of Henry VIII & Anne Boleyn. Elizabeth I • Returned Protestantism to England by popular request Executed her Catholic half sister, Mary Queen of Scots to prevent her from becoming Queen Politique – allowed people to believe what they wanted so long as they remained loyal to Queen and Country
The Catholic Response
Catholic Counter Reformation
Three main parts:
Council of Trent – 1545-63
Examined Catholic Doctrine and decided it was perfect
no doctrinal changes were made
Changes in practices were recommended. Clergy should be better educated and better supervised, indulgences should be sold less, simony and pluralism should decrease.
Papal Decrees : Excommunicate Protestants, Spanish and Italian Inquisitions, and the Index of Forbidden Books
Jesuits : Religious Order of priests & monks who were loyal to the Pope; established excel. schools, & engaged in the global Missionary enterprise .
99 St. Ignatius Loyola St. Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Jesuits
103St.Francis Xavier St. Francis Xavier, Jesuit missionary to Japan
Why weren’t the Catholics more successful?
Although, the Catholics tried to prevent people from leaving the Church but they were prevented from greater success because
The had to fight other wars at the same time
Ottoman Turks/Muslims in Eastern Europe
French & Spanish attacks on Rome (Hapsburg-Valois Wars)
Renaissance ideals of humanism and individualism (which had been supported by the Popes) caused people to think for themselves
Huge distances between the different rebellions
Printing Press allowed Protestants to communicate quickly and prevented Pope from executing Protestors before their message could spread
1.Emigration for religious freedom. 2. Increase in power & influence of Absolute Monarchs. 3. European Wars: Religious/Political 4. Global Missionary Enterprise . Results/Lasting Significance of the Protestant Reformation
Durer – Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
Durer: Self Portait
Albrecht Durer Knight, Death and the Devil 1513
Bosch The Garden of Delights 1510-15
Counter Reformation - Titian
Question: How did the Reformation change Europe?
The Reformation caused great change in Europe. After the Renaissance, people were ready for new ideas. The Reformation changed Europe politically, socially and religiously.
The Reformation caused Europe to change politically, socially and religiously. Because of the Renaissance ideals of humanism, scientific analysis as well as the corruption in the Catholic church leadership, people were ready for new ideas. The Reformation changed Europe politically by allowing kings to gain power, socially by granting women and the poor more freedom and religiously by giving Europeans more options to worship.
Write 2 body paragraphs
Main idea that relates to a reason in your thesis (politics, social or religion)
10 facts (name, place, date, event, quote, book, war or similar)
3 explanations of how your facts prove the thesis about politics, social change or religious change
1 summary sentence that answers to question specifically and leads into the next body paragraph