Dynamic Warm Up Study Why To Do So Along With Drills And Explanations On Why

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  • 1. Session Title: Dynamic Warm-up and Sport Specific Drills Presenters: Dynamic Warm-up Sport Specific Drills Jane M. Shimon, Ed.D., A.T.,C. Brian W. McGladrey Department of Kinesiology Department of Exercise & Sport Science Boise State University University of Utah 1910 University Dr. 850 E. 250 S. Boise, ID 83725-1710 Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (208) 426- 1531 (801) 581-7558 jshimon@boisestate.edu brian.mcgladrey@utah.edu The following sets of handouts will address various dynamic warm-up exercises and sport- specific drills to enhance flexibility, strength, balance, speed, agility, quickness, and body control. These activities and drills can be used and modified for students in K-12 physical education and athletics. 1DYNAMIC WARM-UP Traditional warm-ups performed in athletics and physical education classes have generally consisted of low-intensity jogging, followed by a series of static, sitting stretches. By the time all the static stretches have been completed, the heart rate has returned to near resting levels and the body has, in fact, cooled back down. A warm-up should prepare students and athletes to move towards more vigorous activity. Instead of using static stretching during warm-ups, it has been recommended to implement more dynamic movements during warm-up. Dynamic warm- ups include low-, moderate-, to high-intensity hops, skips, jumps, lunges, and other upper and lower body movements to help elevate core body temperature, maximize active ranges of motion, and excite motor units and kinesthetic awareness (Faigenbaum & McFarlane, 2007). In essence, dynamic exercises prepare the body for physical education lessons, athletic practices, and competition. The activities included in this presentation are intended to address NASPE Standard 3: Participates regularly in physical activity and Standard 4: Achieves and maintains a health- enhancing level of physical fitness. Directions. Design a 30 - 60 ft area (10-20 yds) for warm-up (or use the width of a basketball court). Place students in rows, 2-3 deep. The first person in each row goes first, followed by the next row, etc. Have rows stop at the end line and wait for the return activity. This organization allows for a ratio of work and rest. Low Intensity Dynamic Warm-up Exercises: 1. Walking Arm Circles. Arms complete forward circles for ½ the distance, then switch to backward circles for the remaining distance (involves the overall shoulder capsule). 2. Walking Arm Hugs. Both arms fly out (open chest, pectoralis stretch), then cross to hug the chest (mid-trapezius/rhomboid stretch).
  • 2. 3. Walking Fly Swatters. Both arms swing up and behind the head, touching the back of the neck (swatting bugs) with each step. This exercise involves external rotation with stretch to the triceps. Variations include: cross-arm swatters, moving one arm up and behind the neck, while the other arm travels low behind the back (top hand tries to touch bottom hand); arm flutters, moving both arms quickly out to the side, or moving both hands quickly forward and backward overhead. Low-to-Moderate Intensity Dynamic Warm-up Exercises: 4. Cheerleaders. Lateral shuffle down the floor while swinging arms up and out to the side and back, like a jumping jack. At the half-way point, turn and face the other way and continue. This exercise involves the hip abductors (outer hip) and adductors (groin), as well as the shoulders. 5. High Knee Lift. On each walking step, lift and hug one knee towards the chest while raising up on the toes. Variations include swinging arms in opposition or extending leg out as if crossing a hurdle. This exercise involves the hip flexors and stretches the gluteus maximus. 6. Stepping Trunk Turns. On each high-knee step, an elbow touches the opposite knee (R elbow to L knee; then L elbow to R knee). This exercise involves the hip flexors and core. 7. Frankensteins (Toe Touch and Walk). On each step, extend one leg straight out in front of the body and touch knee/toes. Do the same with the other leg during the next step. This exercise involves the hip flexors and stretches the hamstrings. 8. Airplanes. On each step, bend over and touch the floor while raising the rear leg into the air. Laterally lift the arms out to the side to mimic wings of an airplane. This exercise addresses hamstrings flexibility. 9. Inch Worm. Starting in a push-up position, walk feet
  • 3. toward the hands, keeping the legs straight. Then, walk the hands forward while keeping the arms and legs extended (plank to upside-down V to plank, etc.). This exercise address the core while the body is in a plank position, and the hamstrings/low back/ calves when in an upside-down V. 10. X Lunge. Lunge sideways with the R foot, then step behind with the L (forms an X). Finish the movement with a forward bend at the hips. Try to keep back leg (behind leg) straight. After half the distance has been completed, face the opposite direction (Lunge with L, step behind with R). This exercise stresses the lateral hip/IT band (iliotibial band) and hamstrings of the back leg. 11. Giant Lunge Steps. Take long steps forward and lunge with each step. After half the distance has been completed, turn around and continue stepping and lunging backwards as far as possible. Variations include raising arms overhead with each step. For higher intensity, add a knee hug between each lunge. Make sure to keep the head/trunk upright, the front knee inline with the foot, and the back knee off the floor. This exercise stretches the hip flexors of the rear leg and involves the quadriceps of the front leg. 12. Lunge Trunk Turns. One each step, lunge and touch the opposite elbow to the opposite knee. Make sure to keep the head/trunk upright, the front knee inline with the foot, and the back of the knee off the floor. This exercise stretches the hip flexors of the rear leg, and involves the quadriceps of the front leg and core. 13. Lateral Shuffles. In a ready position (semi-squat position), lateral shuffle with a long first step followed by a second quick step. After half the distance has been completed, face the opposite direction and continue. 14. Carioca. Laterally step down the floor while alternating one foot in front of the body and the other behind. Half way down the floor, switch position and face the opposite wall. Use arms to horizontally swing in opposition to each step. 15. Back Pedal. While keeping feet under the hips, take small quick steps backwards. 16. Backward Run. Reach back with one leg on each step. 17. High Knee Skips. While skipping, emphasize high knee-lift, alternating arm action, and pushing up off the toes. 18. Back-end kicks. Kick heel to the buttocks on each step.
  • 4. 19. Run & Go. Jog into a run for the first half of the distance and finish with a sprint. Quickly stop by bending knees and using short steps. Variations include doing a push-up first, then quickly jumping up to complete the exercise. Stationary Dynamic Exercises. Crunch Punches. Begin in a sit-up position with knees bent and arms crossed at the chest. Crunch up and punch out arms past the knees, then lower body and shoulders slowly back down to the floor. Repeat desired number of times. Variation includes alternating punches across the body past opposite knees. Standing Crunch Rotations. Using a wide base of support, bring arms laterally out to the side. While keeping arms extended, slowly lower the body and rotate arms one at a time to the opposite thigh, then knee, mid-calf, and ankle. Each crunch rotation can include pivoting on the balls of the feet. Standing Leg Cradle. While standing on one leg, lift the other leg using both hands. Turn the knee outward while lifting the lower leg up into a modified (standing) hurdler stretch (ankle high). An easier position includes being supine on the ground while assuming the position. Hamstring Rollover. Lie on the back with arms pointing to the ceiling. Slowly curl up while assuming a modified hurdler’s position and reach forward with the hands to stretch. Roll back down, and repeat with a curl and stretch to the opposite leg on the next repetition. The motion should be a continuous, slow, and controlled flowing motion. Stretch at the waist/hips, pretending to stretch over a bowling ball positioned in your lap. A variation includes both legs rising up to meet the hands at the start, and as the body slowly curls up, the legs assume a modified hurdler’s position prior to final the stretch. Hurdler’s Twist. Begin in a modified hurdler’s position. Reach out to stretch one leg, then lean back into a v-sit position while stretching out the other leg into position. Repeat. The motion should be slow and continuous. Stretch at the waist/hips, pretending to stretch over a bowling ball positioned in your lap. Wave Push-Ups. At the end of a push-up (plank position), lift one hand up and reach out in front of the body or lift one
  • 5. hand off the ground and wave to a partner. Repeat with the opposite hand before going back down for another push-up. Keep shoulders level on wave. References: Chu, D., Faigenbaum, and Falkel, L. (2006). Progressive plyometrics for kids. Monterey, CA: Healthy Learning. Faigenbaum, A, and McFarlane, J.E., Jr. (2007). Guidelines for implementing a dynamic warm- up for physical education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 78(3), 25-28. PE LESSONS TO DEVELOP SPORT-SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES AND INCREASE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Introduction These PE lesson activities address the development of students’ sport-specific techniques, motor skills, and fitness, while offering a conceptual alternative to more traditional PE activities. Borrowing from testing conducted of aspiring professional football players (NFL Combine), and training strategies designed for athletes interested in improving speed, agility, and quickness (Brown & Ferrigno, 2005), these activities are designed to assist students in developing agility, quickness, core stabilization, balance, flexibility, body control, strength, and endurance. At a minimum, the activities included in this presentation are intended to address NASPE Standards 1 and 2. The desired effect on students is that development of these sport-specific movement skills will result in achieving the objectives of NASPE Standards 3, 4, and 6. Whether participating in the activities or simply observing, participants will find the included handouts helpful to learning the agility drills, and to understanding how to organize them into a sequence that will serve as a PE lesson. Main Points An objective of the Sport Education model (Siedentop et al., 2004) is for students to develop sport-specific techniques, as well as fitness. In order to play any sport well, students must be able to “move quickly, jump, and have a particular level of stamina” (p. 9). A study of fifth and sixth grade students by Watson et al. (1999) reported that individuals who do not feel competent in activities that require physical skill tend to be the most inactive. As part of the National Standards, it is recommended that students be able to demonstrate competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities, and demonstrate understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities (NASPE, 2004). One of the many challenges faced by physical education (PE) teachers is the need to increase students’ time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Meeting objective 22-10 of Healthy People 2010 (Public Health Service, 2000) requires increasing the proportion of adolescents who spend at least 50 percent of school PE class time being physically active. Defining “being physically active,” objective 22-6 recommends teachers
  • 6. increase the proportion of adolescents who engage in moderate PA for at least 30 minutes on 5 or more of the previous 7 days, and recommends with objective 22-7 increasing the proportion of adolescents who engage in vigorous PA that promotes cardiorespiratory fitness 3 or more days per week for 20 or more minutes per occasion (Public Health Service, 2000). Addressing these objectives and concerns suggests that PE curricula be designed to include lessons intended to assist with development of sport-specific techniques and fitness, while at the same time increasing feelings of competence, confidence, and self efficacy in students.
  • 7. Objectives of Program • Borrowing from testing conducted of aspiring professional football players (NFL Combine), as well as training strategies designed for any athlete interested in improving speed, agility, and quickness (Brown & Ferrigno, 2005), activities will be presented and demonstrated that assist students in development of the following: foot speed, agility, quickness, core stabilization, balance, flexibility, body control, strength, and endurance. • How these activities address the development of students’ sport-specific techniques and fitness, as well as offering a conceptual alternative to more traditional PE activities will be discussed. • How teachers can integrate these activities into their PE programs, to include the Sport Education model, will be discussed. For example, teachers can elect to have students perform the agility drills with or without the additional stations listed below, and they can be performed by students multiple times, depending on lesson length and objectives. For purposes of increasing MVPA performing the agility drills in a sequence multiple times is recommended. What the Audience will Learn Conference attendees electing to participate in this activity session will learn the drills listed below, as well as gain an understanding of how they contribute to achieving the objectives stated above. Agility Drills (see diagrams below) ▪ 20-Yard Square ▪ X-Pattern Multi-Skill ▪ 20-Yard Shuttle ▪ 40-Yard Backpedal – Forward ▪ 30-Yard T-Drill ▪ Agility Ladder ▪ 40-Yard Square – Carioca Additional Activities ▪ Jump Rope ▪ Abdominal Crunches ▪ Push-Ups ▪ Med-Ball Throws Potential Drills/Activities Sequence ▪ 20-Yard Square ▪ Abdominal Crunches ▪ Med-Ball Throws ▪ 40-Yard Backpedal – Forward ▪ 30-Yard T-Drill ▪ Agility Ladder ▪ Push-Ups ▪ 20-Yard Shuttle ▪ Jump Rope ▪ 40-Yard Square – Carioca
  • 8. Illustrations of Agility Drills