Fallacies:<br />Begging the Question<br />Appeal to Doubtful Authority<br />Non Sequitur<br />Emily Hurt, PJ Johnson, Paige Kramer, Sydney Settle, Madison Wathan<br />
Begging the Question<br />A logical fallacy that assumes in the premise what the arguer should be trying to prove in the conclusion<br />Asks readers to agree that certain points are self-evident when they are not.<br />
Murder is morally wrong. Therefore, abortion is morally wrong<br />Executions are moral because we must have a death penalty to discourage violent crime<br />It’s not uncommon to find religious arguments that commit the “Begging the Question” fallacy:<br />It says in the Bible that God exists. Since the Bible is God’s word, and God never speaks falsely, then everything in the Bible must be true. So, God must exist<br />examples<br />
Citing people who may have name recognition but no authority on an issue<br />References to experts or famous people are only valid when the person referred to is an expert in the area being discussed.<br />Example:<br />According to Ted Koppel, interest rates will remain low during the next fiscal year (Ted Koppel is not an expert in business or finance).<br />Appeal to Doubtful Authority<br />
Non Sequitur <br />(It Does Not Follow)<br />When a statement does not logically follow from a previous statement<br />Examples:<br />Bill lives in a large building, so his apartment must be large<br />Tens of thousands of Americans have seen lights in the night sky which they could not identify. The existence of life on other planets is fast becoming certainty <br />
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