(c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 20131
6th Editi...
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REPORTS ON...
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LICENSE
Th...
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EXECUTIVE ...
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AGENDA - L...
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JAPAN’S RE...
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JAPAN’S NA...
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1.Realiz...
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Because ...
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•reduce ...
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1.Sophis...
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PRIMARY EN...
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PRIMARY EN...
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ELECTRICIT...
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ELECTRICIT...
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JAPAN’S PR...
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STRUCTURE ...
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STRUCTURE ...
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THE 10 REG...
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THE 10 REG...
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THE GRID
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REGIONAL E...
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GRID LIMIT...
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THE 50HZ/6...
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THE 50HZ/6...
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THE 50HZ/6...
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JEPX
JAPAN...
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IMPACT OFT...
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IMPACT OFT...
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THE ROLE O...
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THE ROLE O...
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RENEWABLE ...
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FEED INTAR...
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LEGAL BASI...
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APPROVAL B...
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FEED-INTAR...
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FEED-INTAR...
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JAPAN’S RE...
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WATER POWE...
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WATER POWE...
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PUMP STORA...
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The firs...
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PUMP STORA...
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PUMP-STORA...
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WORLD’S FI...
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GEO-THERMA...
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GEO-THERMA...
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SOLAR ENER...
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SOLAR ENER...
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SOLAR IRRA...
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SOLAR IRRA...
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SOLAR IRRA...
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SOLAR ENER...
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SOLAR PANE...
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MEGA-SOLAR...
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PANASONIC ...
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WIND POWER...
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EURUS ENER...
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JAPAN WIND...
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BIO-MASS P...
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MARINE REN...
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OSMOTIC PO...
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OSMOTIC PO...
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WAVE POWER...
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WAVE POWER...
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RENEWABLE ...
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RENEWABLE ...
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GLOSSARY
1...
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GLOSSARY
1...
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SUMMARY
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SUMMARY:
R...
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EUROTECHNO...
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EUROTECHNO...
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EUROTECHNO...
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GERHARD FA...
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GERHARD FA...
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“POST GALA...
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“POST GALA...
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CONTACT AN...
Renewable energy in Japan
Renewable energy in Japan
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Renewable energy in Japan

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The March 11, 2011 disaster created the need to review Japan’s energy architecture. We believe that it will take about 10 years for Japan to fully decide on a new energy and electricity architecture, and it will take about 3 years to reach decisions on the future of Japan’s nuclear power generation. Japan has taken a careful approach towards the development of renewable power, and renewable power - except for hydropower - is substantially lower than in most other advanced countries. Japan’s potential for renewable energy is very high, especially wind and geo-thermal power, and will required substantial changes in laws and regulations, and a decentralized and democratic approach to grid management. Necessary liberalization of Japan’s electricity markets is in preparation, and we will see a rapid development of renewable energy. This report reviews the current situation and the future potential of renewable electrical power in Japan.

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Renewable energy in Japan

  1. 1. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 20131 6th Edition,August 27, 2013 by Gerhard Fasol, PhD, Eurotechnology Japan KK http://www.eurotechnology.com/ fasol@eurotechnology.com This is an outline version with a few selected pages. Purchase and download latest version of full report or subscribe here: http://www.eurotechnology.com/store/j_renewable/ RENEWABLE ENERGY IN JAPAN
  2. 2. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY IN JAPAN 2 Subscribe to this report, and we will regularly send you the latest versions. subscription, monthly payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU24934888016 subscription, annual payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU30316666940 Version Date Content added, updates first report, environmental techn. ... pre-versions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1996-1997 environmental bus. strategy work 1997 - 2012 updates, and projects 2012-2013 energy strategy work, research March 26, 2013 first version March 28, 2013 updates and corrections April 17, 2013 FIT updates (January 2013) May 31, 2013 Fit updates (Jan+ Feb 2013) August 24, 2013 Fit updates (March-May 2013) August 27, 2013 online FIT capacity added
  3. 3. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 REPORTS ON JAPAN’S ENERGY SECTOR 3 •Japan’s energy landscape •approx. 277 pages, 94 Figures, 55 tables, frequent updates •information: •http://www.eurotechnology.com/store/j_energy/ •purchase current edition: •http://store.esellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU44952975839 •subscription, monthly payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): •http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU50334810626 •subscription, annual payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): •http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU20789254886 •Renewable energy in Japan •approx. 188 pages, 94 Figures, 32 tables, frequent updates •information: •http://www.eurotechnology.com/store/j_renewable/ •purchase current edition: •http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU72243111298 •subscription, monthly payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): •http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU24934888016 •subscription, annual payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): •http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU30316666940 •Solid state lighting, GaN LEDs and lasers •approx. 122 pages, 25 Figures, 21 photographs, 9 tables, frequent updates •information: http://www.eurotechnology.com/store/solidstatelighting/ •purchase current edition (single copy license): http://store.esellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR651896906&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU6322569155 •purchase current edition (corporate license): http://store.esellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU05361071140
  4. 4. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 LICENSE Thank you for purchasing licenses to our reports, and for your cooperation with our licensing conditions. Only through your purchases can we continue to produce high-quality market reports from Japan INTHE CASE OF SINGLE LICENSE: If you have purchased a single copy license of this report, you are not permitted to copy this report except for a single back-up copy INTHE CASE OF CORPORATE LICENSE: in the case that your company has purchased a corporate license, you may distribute this report inside your company including protected corporate information servers locked to the outside, but you cannot distribute this report outside your company ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION: we offer annual subscriptions for a particular report, and also for all our reports in one single transaction at a great discount - please contact us for details. Corporations subscribing will receive all updates at the time of publication, so that you can be sure to have the latest up-to-date information This research report comes without any warranty of any kind.The authors and Eurotechnology Japan K. K. do not warrant that the information in this report is without error, nor that the information serves any particular purpose. For legal advice please consult properly licensed legal professionals, for investment advice please consult properly licensed financial advisors.Trademarks mentioned are the property of their owners. Eurotechnology is a trademark or registered trademark in Japan and other countries. 4
  5. 5. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: RENEWABLE ENERGY IN JAPAN 5 Before the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011, Japan had settled on a traditional top-down national energy architecture including about 30% electricity from nuclear power, to be increased to 50%, where electricity is produced by large centralized power stations and then distributed down to customers. Renewable energy - except for water power - was kept below 1%.The March 11, 2011 disaster caused a total review of this architecture, and opened opportunities for a new approach in Japan to renewable energies, and a liberalization of Japan’s electricity markets. Japan has substantial installed hydropower capacity, however only about 50% of possible capacity has been developed. Geo-Thermal, wind power, and bio-mass are all at the early stage of development in Japan. Especially geo-thermal and wind power have very excellent development potential in Japan, however lead times are long, both because of the necessary technology development and planning, and also because of the current legal and regulatory restrictions, and because of the necessity to reach cooperation of stake holders such as onsen resort operators and fishermen in the case of wind. Solar energy is quickest to deploy, and has been emphasized because of the perceived advantage of Japan’s electronics industry, however capacity long-term is limited compared to wind and other renewable energies. The report gives detailed statistics of installed generation capacity, and produced power, and development scenarios, as well as information on important market participants.
  6. 6. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 AGENDA - LIST OF CONTENTS 6 •Executive summary: Renewable energy in Japan •Japan’s renewable energy situation, summary •Japan’s national energy strategy plan:The “innovative energy and environmental strategy” of Sept 14, 2012 •Japan’s primary energy supply and self-sufficiency, •Electricity generation: installed generation capacity, electricity generated, renewable energy contributions •Japan’s present electrical architecture •The 10 regional electrical operators and J-Power, renewable energy contributions •The grid,The 50Hz/60Hz issue •JEPX - Japan Electrical Power ExchangeTokyo •Impact of the Fukushima disaster •Renewable energy •Feed-inTariffs (FIT) for renewable energy •Water power •Geo-thermal •Solar energy •Wind power, on-shore, off-shore, installed capacity, off-shore wind map •Bio-mass power •Ocean power •Renewable energy investment funds •Glossary •Summary
  7. 7. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 JAPAN’S RENEWABLE ENERGY SITUATION 7
  8. 8. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 JAPAN’S NATIONAL ENERGY STRATEGY PLAN: “INNOVATIVE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY” OF SEPTEMBER 14, 2012 (CABINET OFFICE) 9
  9. 9. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 201310 1.Realizing a nuclear free society “one day earlier than possible 1.1.three principles 1.2.five policies 2.Implementing the green energy revolution 2.1.Reduce electricity and energy consumption 2.2.Large scale introduction of renewable energy 3.Guaranteeing a stable energy supply 4.Electrical power system reform 5.Realization of global warming counter measures 6.Adjusted by Cabinet Decision (“Kakugikettei of Sept 19, 2012) JAPAN’S NATIONAL ENERGY STRATEGY PLAN - OUTLINE
  10. 10. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 201311 Because of cost and instability, and lack of necessary infrastructure, renewable energy has not been introduced on a large scale yet in Japan. Depending on each citizens situation, every citizen will need to move from a passive consumer of electricity to a distributed producer of energy, and to a smart saver of power. As solar plants, storage batteries and fuel cells spread as a matter of course, homes and regions will move from regular payments for electricity bills to receiving money for electricity sold. In a similar way as the IT revolution in the second half of the 1990s, the green energy revolution will be driven by the whole population two components: 1.reduce electricity/energy consumption 2.renewable energy 2. IMPLEMENTINGTHE GREEN ENERGY REVOLUTION
  11. 11. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 201312 •reduce annual electricity consumption from 1100TeraWatt h in 2010, by 110TeraWatt h or more in 2030. •in addition, with smart-meters, home energy management systems (HEMS), business energy management systems (BEMS), demand/response and via other methods strongly reduce peak electricity (kWatt) demand •reduce energy consumption from 390 kiloLiter Oil in 2010 by 72 million kiloLiter Oil in 2030. these cases assume 1.1% economic growth during 2010-2020, and 0.8% growth in 2020-2030. in the case of stronger growth (1.8% during 2010-2020, and 1.2% growth during 2020-2030, the reduction of electricity consumption will be smaller (10TeraWatt h), and the energy consumption reduction will be 46 million kiloLiter Oil in 2030. 2.1. REDUCE ELECTRICITY/ENERGY CONSUMPTION
  12. 12. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 201317 1.Sophisticated use of fossil power generation •LNG for electricity generation •Coal for electricity generation •Suitable electricity source structure •Environmental impact 2.Sophisticated use of cogeneration and other heat 3.Next generation energy technology •R&D to develop next generation energy technologies, including Methan-Hydrate, Hydrogen networks, CCS 4.Assure and supply fossil fuel at stable prices •Based on the “Raw material provision strategy”, develop and strengthen bilateral agreements, stabilize markets, strengthen negotiation power to ensure price stability and supply stability •Invest in national pipelines and other infrastructure for the developing shift to natural gas •Strengthen the supply chain, and disaster resistance for oil and LP gas. 3. GUARANTEEING A STABLE ENERGY SUPPLY
  13. 13. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 PRIMARY ENERGY SUPPLY AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY 23
  14. 14. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 PRIMARY ENERGY SELF-SUFFICIENCY RATIOS 24 Japan has one of the lowest primary energy self-sufficiency ratios globally: •Japan has to import about 82% of primary energy, if nuclear energy is included. •however, at present with two exceptions, all nuclear power stations out of service, so that 96% of Japan’s primary energy needs to be imported. Countries with self-sufficiency ratios larger than 100% export primary energy including electricity, while countries with self-sufficiency ratios lower than 100% need to import primary energy and electricity Italy Japan S Korea Germany France US India UK China Canada Russia 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200Energyselfsufficiencyratio Energy self sufficiency ratio IEA, OECD, 2006 2007 15 15 18 4 19 2 41 30 51 8 71 62 76 75 83 76 92 91 153 144 183 incl. nuclear 177 excl. nuclear c2012EurotechnologyJapanKK www.eurotechnology.com
  15. 15. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 ELECTRICITY GENERATION - INSTALLED CAPACITY 27
  16. 16. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 ELECTRICITY GENERATION - GENERATED ELECTRICAL POWER 34
  17. 17. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 JAPAN’S PRESENT ELECTRICAL ARCHITECTURE 51
  18. 18. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 STRUCTURE OF JAPAN’S ELECTRICITY LANDSCAPE 52 The Figure on the following page shows the structure of Japan’s electricity markets, which has been liberalized to a very small degree, compared to the far more advanced liberalization in the US and most European countries. Japan’s electricity markets are dominated by 10 regional electricity operating monopoly companies, which operate: •generation, •transmission/grid and •distribution/retail. There is no unbundling. In addition there are different types of independent electricity producers, which are practically of two types: •internal electricity production, e.g. in large office buildings, or in factories, for immediate local use.As an example the famous Mori-Roppongi-HillsTower has its own electricity plant in the basement of the building. •independent commercial production of electricity. Such independent electricity producers have essentially no other choice than to sell to the single local and extremely powerful monopoly operator. Electricity sales can be direct under contract to the local monopoly operator, or via the JEPX exchange. However, the JEPX exchange only handles about 0.5% of all electrical power.
  19. 19. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 STRUCTURE OF JAPAN’S ELECTRICITY LANDSCAPE 53 Structure of Japan’s electricity landscape. 10 regional monopoly operators, each combine generation, transmission and grid, and distribution in their local monopoly region and dominate Japan’s electricity industry. Currently only about 0.5% of Japan’s electricity is traded via the JEPX electricity exchange. 10 regional monopoly electricity operators generation distribution/retail transmission/grid households SMEs regional monopoly large size customers factories JEPX (0.5% of electricity volume) specified power producers (1.7%) PPS (1.8%) in-house generation (10.6%) renewable energy producers FITFIT
  20. 20. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 THE 10 REGIONAL ELECTRICITY COMPANIES 54
  21. 21. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 THE 10 REGIONAL ELECTRICAL POWER COMPANIES 55 Initially 9 regional electrical power companies were created on May 1, 1951, as a consequence of US GHQ ordering the dissolution of the previous Nihon Hassouden monopoly company (in addition there is a 10th regional electricity operator in Okinawa). The ten regional electrical monopoly company have enormous power - some say that they have more power than Japan’s Government! Why? Because they have stronger power to collect their income than Japan’s Government: they have much stronger power to collect the electricity bills than the Government has to collect tax income.The electricity companies switch off the electricity supply, when bills are overdue for a few weeks, while Japan’s tax authorities have weaker tools to collect outstanding taxes. The regional electrical companies also call the shots in their regions: as an example, it is often said that the dominating decision makers in the Nagoya (Chubu) regions are the “influential companies”: •the railway company Meitetsu •the department store company Matsuzakaya •the Chubu Electric Power Company Chuden •the gas companyToho Gas •andToyota Motors. With the clean-up costs of the Fukushima nuclear power accident estimated at US$ 235 Billion (not counting reimbursements for evacuees, other damage costs, increased fuel costs etc), Japan’s largest electrical power companyTokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) was for all practical purposes insolvent. However, there was a political decision not to letTEPCO go through bankruptcy proceedings, butTEPCO was forced to accept Government finance on a large scale, and with this decision came completely under Government control. As a consequence, all other Japanese electrical power companies also lost influence substantially, but are still remaining powerful through their social influence in the Japan. Until recently Japan’s electricity monopolies kept renewable energies below 1% as a matter of principle. However with the Fukushima nuclear power accident, their resistance to accept renewable energies could not be maintained.
  22. 22. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 J-POWER (ELECTRIC POWER DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION EDPC) 58
  23. 23. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 THE GRID 63
  24. 24. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 REGIONAL ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND GRID CONNECTIONS BETWEEN OPERATORS 64 Japan’s electricity infrastructure consists of ten regional monopolies (installed electricity generation capacity is shown as the area of circles, and written in GigaWatt (GW)). The width of link lines between the power monopolies show the capacity of lines connecting the regional monopolies. Japan has no true national grid, but two essentially disconnected regional grids, and relatively weak links between local power monopolies. Several proposals for national grids are under discussion, potentially competing with each other. (note that the generation capacities shown above are those of the regional electrical monopolies.Actual regional generation capacities are actually about 30%-40% higher, because of in- house production of electricity of manufacturing companies and building companies, and because of independent electricity producers). Hokkaido generating capacity= 7 GigaWatt Tohoku 17 GW Hokuriku 8 GW Chugoku 12 GW Shikoku 7 GW Kyushu 20 GW Okinawa 2 GigaWatt Tokyo 65 GW Kansai 35 GW Chubu 33 GW Japan’s total electricy generation capacity = approx. 250 GW 600MW DC line 6310MW AC line 5570MW 5570MW 5570MW AC line 2400 MW 16600MW 1000MW DC line 1400MW 300MW (c) 2012 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com
  25. 25. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 GRID LIMITS RENEWABLE ENERGY 65 Japan’s electricity grids have been designed by the regional monopoly companies to transport electricity from large central power plants, nuclear power stations to the networks supplying end customers. Renewable energy plants, such as mega solar plants, wind farms, geothermal plants, and water power stations, and biomass based generators, tend to be smaller and distributed over larger areas, for which the current grid has not been designed. It will be necessary to invest and expand Japan’s electricity grid to accommodate new decentralized renewable and smaller energy plants.
  26. 26. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 THE 50HZ/60HZ ISSUE 66
  27. 27. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 THE 50HZ/60HZ ISSUE 67 Electrification of Japan started on March 25, 1878 at the Institute ofTechnology inTokyo/Toranomon, and in 1886 theTokyo Electric Light Company was founded. Electrification started independently inTokyo and in Osaka: •Tokyo Electric Light Company imported equipment from German AEG with the German 50Hz frequency standard, •Osaka Electric Lamp Company imported equipment from General Electric (USA) with the 60Hz frequency standard. Until today Western Japan uses 60Hz, while Eastern Japan used 50Hz. Only three frequency converter facilities (FCF) connect the western 60Hz area with the easter 50Hz area: •Shin-Shinano FCF (600MWatt) •Sakuma Dam FCF (300MWatt) •Higashi Shimizu FCF (135MWatt, from Autumn 2014: 300MWatt) It is not practically possible to change one of the areas’ frequency standard, so this 50Hz/60Hz split of Japan’s electricity system is likely to continue forever. However, in the future true national grids are likely to be built.At the moment there is no true national grid in Japan, only relatively weak connections between the regional monopoly operators, and other local links.
  28. 28. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 THE 50HZ/60HZ ISSUE 68 Only three frequency converter facilities (FCF) connect the western 60Hz area with the easter 50Hz area: •Shin-Shinano FCF (600MWatt) •Sakuma Dam FCF (300MWatt) •Higashi Shimizu FCF (135MWatt, from Autumn 2014: 300MWatt) 50Hz (historically German AEG supplied Tokyo Electric Light Co) 60Hz (historically US General Electric supplied Osaka Electric Lamp Co.) Shin-Shinano FCF 600MW Sakuma Dam FCF 300MW Higashi-Shimizu FCF (=Frequency Converter Facility) 135MW (from Autumn 2014: 300MW) (c) 2012 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com
  29. 29. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 JEPX JAPAN ELECTRIC POWER EXCHANGETOKYO 69
  30. 30. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 IMPACT OFTHE FUKUSHIMA DISASTER 72
  31. 31. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 IMPACT OFTHE FUKUSHIMA DISASTER (1) 73 All 50 Nuclear nuclear power stations have been switched off according to their 13 months maintenance cycle, and only a two nuclear power stations in Oi (Kansai Electrical Power) has been restarted after maintenance, and intensive discussions about safety by Government, local agencies, and the public.There is much resistance to restart further nuclear power stations. Since one nuclear power reactor corresponds to an installed power of about 1 GigaWatt, about 50 GigaWatt have been removed from Japan’s electricity generation capacity, ie about 25%. The sudden unplanned removal of about 25% of Japan’s electricity generation capacity has been compensated as follows: •planned, forced and voluntary electricity savings: large scale users have been forced by Government regulation to reduce electricity consumption, and smaller scale users are reducing consumption voluntarily. This summer the following targets have been announced: •all customers (households and businesses) in the regions of 6 monopoly utilities in Western Japan are asked to cut electricity usage voluntarily by 5-15% during summer 2012 compared to summer 2010, and 7% in Hokkaido •restart of retired thermal power plants using natural gas, coal and oil, resulting in very large added imported primary energy costs •planned black-outs: electricity was switched off for certain periods (e.g. 4 hours / day) in selected areas outside the center ofTokyo. Similar black-outs could also happen this summer 2012. Black-outs cause great disruption and financial damage to the economy, and in some cases deadly accidents. Some planned black-outs have not been implemented however, due to unexpectedly high voluntary electricity savings.
  32. 32. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 THE ROLE OF JAPAN’S TRADING COMPANIES INTHE ENERGY DOMAIN 78
  33. 33. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 THE ROLE OF JAPAN’STRADING COMPANIES INTHE ENERGY SECTOR 79 This section will be included and updated in future versions of this report. Subscribe to this report, and we will regularly send you the latest versions. subscription, monthly payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU50334810626 subscription, annual payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU20789254886
  34. 34. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY 80
  35. 35. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 FEED INTARIFFS (FIT) FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY 81
  36. 36. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 LEGAL BASIS FOR JAPAN’S FEED-INTARIFFS 82 Feed-inTariffs (FIT) were introduced to Japan first for private residential customers who can sell surplus renewable energy back to electricity operators. On July 1, 2012 a law with a second set of regulations came into force which establishes feed-in tariffs (FITs) for renewable energy from large scale, non-residential plants: •“Special Measures Concerning Renewable Energy Electric Procurement by Operators of Electric Utilities Law”
  37. 37. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 APPROVAL BY METI IS NECESSARY 85 It is a condition that the operator of the power plant needs to obtain approval of the installation from METI. Requirements include: •the power plant must generate electricity stably and reliably during the fixed period, and the operator needs to ensure sufficient maintenance •electricity supplied can be measured reliably •the specifications of the plant are described in detail (e.g. manufacturer data, manufacturer’s model number etc) •Approved plants will remain under supervision by METI officials, and can be inspected. Electricity operators must purchase electricity, but under certain conditions: •The Act requires electricity operators to allow renewable energy operators to connect their equipment to the Operator’s grid, and requires the Operators to purchase the electricity at the FIT prices, however, the electricity operators are allowed to refuse purchasing under certain conditions, for example if the grid is overloaded with electricity.
  38. 38. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 FEED-INTARIFFS 86 The FIT purchase prices are determined by METI while considering the advice of a “Procurement Price Calculation Committee “ (the “PPC Committee”). The FIT purchase prices take into consideration: •price needed by the renewable electricity producers to produce electricity •the expected quantity produced •the overall situation of renewable energy development in Japan •the profitability of renewable energy producers •particular importance is placed on profitability during the first three years (2012-2015), so that first- movers are encouraged to invest in renewable energy plants.
  39. 39. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 FEED-INTARIFFS ARE PASSED ONTO CONSUMERSVIATHE ELECTRICITY BILLS 89 The increased costs paid by utilities for purchasing renewable energy under the FIT tariff scheme are passed on to electricity consumers, and will be collected by the utilities from electricity customers via the normal electricity bills. The estimated bill increases are approx. 87 yen for a household with a typical 7000 yen bill, ie an increase of about 1%. There are exceptions to these surcharges for victims of theTohoku and Fukushima disasters, and also for certain types of industrial users.
  40. 40. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 JAPAN’S RENEWABLE ENERGY MIX 98 Before Feed-in-Tariffs: Japan’s renewable energy mix up until 2012 has been predominantly large scale (> 1 MegaWatt) water power stations Out[1195]= Japan's Renewable energy mix before 2012 res. solar 9.5 non residential solar 84.3 wind 4.8 water 1MW 0.2 water 1M .004 Biomass 1.1 Geo .03 c 2013 Eurotechnology.com Out[1184]= Renewable energy projects approved up to February 28, 2013 res. solar 9.5 non residential solar 84.3 wind 4.8 water 1MW 0.2 water 1M .004 Biomass 1.1 Geo .03 c 2013 Eurotechnology.com Approved under Feed-in-Tariffs up until February 2013: applications approved under the feed-in-tariff program have been 93.8% for solar power plants, of which 84.3% were non- residential/industrial solar plants.
  41. 41. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 WATER POWER 99
  42. 42. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 WATER POWER IN JAPAN 100 Approx. 1900 hydropower station represent about 20% of Japan’s installed electric power generation capacity, and deliver about 10% of Japan’s electrical power. In addition to pure generation hydropower plants, pump-storage plants operate as gigantic batteries, where off-peak-electricity pumps water up into elevated reservoirs, and electricity is generated at peak times. Sites suitable for electric power generation have been surveyed on several occasions during the 20th century, and most large sites have been developed. Currently about 1900 hydropower stations are in operation, and 2700 sites remain undeveloped. Estimated total capacity is approximately 47 GigaWatt, of which approx. 38 GigaWatt (80%) have been developed and are in operation.
  43. 43. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 PUMP STORAGE POWER STATIONS 112
  44. 44. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013113 The first pump storage water power plant was built in Japan in 1934. Pump storage water power plants work as giant batteries using off-peak base electricity generated by nuclear power stations or thermal power plants to pump water up-hill to reservoirs, and by generating electricity by operating the system in the reverse direction at peak times. Japan’s pump storage water power stations were planned in combination with nuclear power, to store off-peak nuclear electricity, and generate electricity at peak times.With nuclear power stations currently almost all or all switched off, this system has lost its meaning, and pump power stations might be less effective for Japan’s electricity supply. JAPAN’S PUMP STORAGE WATER POWER
  45. 45. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 PUMP STORAGE POWER STATIONS 114 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 generationcapacityMegaWatt Construction of pump storage power stations MegaWatt first construction 1934 c2013EurotechnologyJapanKK www.eurotechnology.com
  46. 46. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 PUMP-STORAGE GENERATION CAPACITY 115 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 generationcapacityMegaWatt installed pump storage generation capacity MegaWatt first construction 1934 c2013EurotechnologyJapanKK www.eurotechnology.com Note that METI publishes in the water power report, that in 2010, pump-storage power capacity is 27,200 MegaWatt, while the data above show 35,000 MegaWatt.We are researching this discrepancy at the moment.
  47. 47. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 WORLD’S FIRST SEA WATER PUMP STORAGE POWER STATIONS 116
  48. 48. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 GEO-THERMAL 118
  49. 49. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 GEO-THERMAL POWER FIT APPROVALS 125 Left hand side: total installed geo-thermal power generation capacity: both capacity installed prior to July 2012 is shown as well as FIT approved capacity after July 2012. FIT approved capacity is approx. 0.7% of total capacity, and therefore barely visible in this figure Right hand side: FIT approved geo-thermal electric power capacity. Shown is accumulated total approved capacity (approved, and including already operating, as well as capacity still in preparation). New capacity under the FIT program is about 0.7% of total water generation capacity. FIT applications are possible in the categories below 15,000 kW and above 15,000 kW. Sofar all applications have been for geo-thermal power stations less then 15,000 kW. Apr 2012 Jul 2012 Aug 2012 Sep 2012 Oct 2012 Nov 2012 Dec 2012 Jan 2013 Feb 2013 Mar 2013 Apr 2013 May 2013 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 geothermalenergy generationcapacityMegaWatt Japan's geo thermal installed renewable electric generation capacity MegaWatt Geothermal pre July 2012 Geothermal FIT approvals c2013EurotechnologyJapanKK www.eurotechnology.com Apr 2012 Jul 2012 Aug 2012 Sep 2012 Oct 2012 Nov 2012 Dec 2012 Jan 2013 Feb 2013 Mar 2013 Apr 2013 May 2013 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 FITapprovedcapacityMegaWatt FIT approvals for geo thermal generation MegaWatt Geo Thermal 15,000 kW c2013EurotechnologyJapanKK www.eurotechnology.com
  50. 50. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 SOLAR ENERGY 126
  51. 51. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 SOLAR ENERGY 127 Until the introduction on July 1, 2012 of feed-in tariffs (FIT) and compulsory renewable electricity purchases by the regional monopoly operators, Japan’s solar industry was almost exclusively focused on the residential market, where the purchasing of excess electricity by operators was introduced earlier. Industrial scale,“mega solar plants” only started to develop with the announcement of feed-in tariffs in 2011, and the introduction of FIT on July 1, 2012. Therefore the solar industry development in Japan changed dramatically from July 1, 2012 Currently, total installed generation capacity is on the order of 10 GigaWatt. During 2012, solar power contributed up to 0.01% of total electricity generation.
  52. 52. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 SOLAR IRRADIATION IN JAPAN 128
  53. 53. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 SOLAR IRRADIATION IN JAPAN 129 Japan’s solar radiation is similar to most areas in the USA Location Average solar irradiation kWh/(m2 day) Average solar irradiation MegaJoule/(m2 day) Sapporo Tokyo Osaka Fukuoka Okinawa 3.33 12.0 3.30 11.9 3.51 12.6 3.66 13.2 3.89 14.0
  54. 54. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 SOLAR IRRADIATION IN JAPAN 130 •Japan’s solar irradiation is in the range 11...14.5 MegaJoule/(square meter day), and of course varies with weather conditions. •Of course solar irradiation is zero during the night •Japan’s solar irradiation is similar to most areas in the USA 13....14.5 MegaJoule/(m day) 2 11....13 MegaJoule/(m day) 2 Okinawa
  55. 55. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 SOLAR ENERGY 131
  56. 56. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 SOLAR PANEL SHIPMENTS 141
  57. 57. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 MEGA-SOLAR ENERGY COMPANIES 143
  58. 58. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 PANASONIC (FORMERLY SANYO) SOLAR ARC 152 •Panasonic (formerly Sanyo) Solar Ark has 5046 single crystal solar cell battery panels, achieves up to 630kW of solar power output and delivers about 530 MegaWh of electricity per year.The Solar Ark is about 315m long and weighs 3000 tons. •Corresponds to a CO2 reduction of 95 tons-CO2/year •You can see Panasonic (formerly Sanyo) Solar Ark from theTokaido-Shinkansen line, if you are seated on the right hand side of the train between Kyoto and Nagoya station, when taking the Tokaido Shinkansen fromTokyo to Osaka (or left hand side seat when traveling from Osaka toTokyo).
  59. 59. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 WIND POWER 153
  60. 60. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 EURUS ENERGY HOLDINGS CORPORATION 166
  61. 61. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 JAPAN WIND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION 170
  62. 62. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 BIO-MASS POWER 173
  63. 63. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 MARINE RENEWABLE POWER RESOURCES 176
  64. 64. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 OSMOTIC POWER (SALINITY GRADIENT POWER) 179
  65. 65. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 OSMOTIC POWER 185 This section will be expanded and updated in future versions of this report. Subscribe to this report, and we will regularly send you the latest versions. subscription, monthly payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU50334810626 subscription, annual payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU20789254886
  66. 66. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 WAVE POWER 186
  67. 67. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 WAVE POWER 187 This section will be included and updated in future versions of this report. Subscribe to this report, and we will regularly send you the latest versions. subscription, monthly payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU50334810626 subscription, annual payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU20789254886
  68. 68. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY INVESTMENT FUNDS 188
  69. 69. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY INVESTMENT FUNDS 189 Japans infrastructure ministry, the Financial Services Agency, the Forestry Agency, and theTokyo Stock Exchange have announced that they are cooperating to create the regulatory framework for investment funds for renewable energy investments, analogous to real estate investment trusts (REITs). Income from renewable energy funds is expected to be stable, as a consequence of the guaranteed feed-in tariffs (FIT), and could be more stable than REITs, since energy demand will be less dependent on market conditions than office rents for example.
  70. 70. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 GLOSSARY 191
  71. 71. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 GLOSSARY 192 Mega-solar 1 Joule 1 Watt 1 GW = 1 Giga-Watt Solar plants larger than 1 MegaWatt capacity, corresponding to the electricity needs of about 300 family homes SI-Unit for Energy. 3,600,000 Joule = 1 kilo Watt hour (= 1 kWh) 1 Joule = 2.778 x 10-7 kWh SI-Unit for Power. Measures energy transfer or energy conversion. 1 Watt = 1 Joule / second 1 GW = 1 Billion Watt = 109 Watt The power generation capacity of a nuclear power station is typically on the order of 1 GW
  72. 72. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 SUMMARY 193
  73. 73. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 SUMMARY: RENEWABLE ENERGY IN JAPAN 194 The March 11, 2011 disaster created the need to review Japan’s energy architecture.We believe that it will take about 10 years for Japan to fully decide on a new energy and electricity architecture, and it will take about 3 years to reach decisions on the future of Japan’s nuclear power generation. Japan has taken a careful approach towards the development of renewable power, and renewable power - except for hydropower - is substantially lower than in most other advanced countries. Japan’s potential for renewable energy is very high, especially wind and geo-thermal power, and will required substantial changes in laws and regulations, and a decentralized and democratic approach to grid management. Necessary liberalization of Japan’s electricity markets is in preparation, and we will see a rapid development of renewable energy. This report reviews the current situation and the future potential of renewable electrical power in Japan.
  74. 74. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 EUROTECHNOLOGY JAPAN KK 195
  75. 75. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 EUROTECHNOLOGY JAPAN KK FOUNDED: FEBRUARY 1997 INTOKYO 196 Services and products - focus areas are high-technology, telecommunications, software, middle-ware, environmental technology and medical equipment: - Market entry to Japan for European and US high-tech companies, turn-round, reshaping, planning and building of distribution networks - European business development and strategy for Japanese companies - M&A (European and US companies acquiring Japanese companies, Japanese companies acquiring or investing in Europe) - Turn-round preparations and management of foreign business in Japan - Market research and strategy - Due diligence of high-tech companies, environmental due-diligence - Advisory services for investment fund managers and investors in technology fields - we publish a series of market reports for about 10 years, which are purchased world-wide, distributed direct and via distribution partners: http://www.eurotechnology.com/store/
  76. 76. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 EUROTECHNOLOGY JAPAN KK 197 - Leading high-technology business development boutique inTokyo, working globally - Founded in 1996/1997 - 14 years experience, relationships, cooperations and success record. - CEO works with Japan’s high-tech / telecom sector since 1984 - 27 years experience, resources, cooperations. - Wide network of cooperations in Governments, Embassies, trading companies, distributors, finance,VCs, traditional corporations, venture start-ups, industry associations - Experience: market-entry, restructuring, M&A, acquisitions, due-diligence Customers include: - More than 100 investment fund managers - Industrial customers: - NTT-Communications, SIEMENS, DeutscheTelekom, Cubic, Unaxis (now: Oerlikon), CITI Group, CLSA Asian Markets, Genscape, Google, IKEA, Isabellenhuette, Landis+Gyr, National Instruments, Swisscom,TechnoCom, - Government - NewYork Police Department, European Union,TEKES (Technology Research funding organization of the Government of Finland) Deep Japanese technology market knowledge - we publish a series of market reports for about 10 years, which are purchased world-wide.You can purchase our reports on Bloomberg: https:// www.bmart.com/search?&nuts%5B%5D=WIRE%3AEUT, and via eSellerate: http://store.eSellerate.net/ s.aspx?s=STR0576176470 and from http://www.eurotechnology.com/store/
  77. 77. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 GERHARD FASOL PROFILE: HTTP://WWW.FASOL.COM/PROFILE/ 198 - Worked successfully with Japan’s high-tech sector since 1984 - 27 years. Came first to Japan in 1984 to help build NTT’s first international R&D cooperation on semiconductor lasers - Entrepreneur inTokyo since 1996, Eurotechnology Japan KK worked with many large corporate groups (e.g. SIEMENS, NTT, DeutscheTelekom,Asahi Glass...), more than 100 investment fund managers - Assoc. Professor of Electrical Engineering atTokyo University. Record of Fasol-Laboratory atTokyo University: http://www.fasol.com/tokyo_university/ - Elite “Sakigake” (Pioneer) R&D project on Spin-Electronics of Japanese Government Science and Technology Agency.This work was evaluated by US National Science Foundation and US Department ofTrade: http://www.wtec.org/loyola/erato/ch7_5.htm - Co-initiator of spin-electronics device research in Japan, one of the first to start work on spin- electronics in Japan in 1991 - Tenured Faculty member at Cavendish Laboratory/University of Cambridge. - Assoc. Professor of Electrical Engineering atTokyo University - PhD in Solid-State Physics (Cambridge University,Trinity College, UK) - Diplom-Physiker, Ruhr-University Bochum (Diplom-Thesis on Superconductivity) - Publication list (Books, patents and publications, several publications are specifially concerning electron-spin and spin-electronics): http://www.fasol.com/profile/publications.shtml - Languages: English, German (native), French, Japanese, and some Swedish
  78. 78. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 GERHARD FASOL WITHTETSUZO MATSUMOTO, EXECVP OF SOFTBANK MOBILE CORPORATION 199
  79. 79. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 “POST GALAPAGOS STUDY GROUP” 25 JAPANESE LEADERS + 1 FOREIGNER (GERHARD FASOL) WORKING FOR ONEYEAR ON CONCEPTSTO OVERCOME JAPAN’S “GALAPAGOS EFFECT” 200 see: http://accjjournal.com/the-galapagos-effect/
  80. 80. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 “POST GALAPAGOS STUDY GROUP” 25 JAPANESE LEADERS + 1 FOREIGNER (GERHARD FASOL) WORKING FOR ONEYEAR ON CONCEPTSTO OVERCOME JAPAN’S “GALAPAGOS EFFECT” 201 see: http://accjjournal.com/the-galapagos-effect/
  81. 81. (c) 2013 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (6th edition) August 27, 2013 CONTACT AND MORE INFORMATION 202 Contact •Gerhard Fasol PhD •Eurotechnology Japan KK,Tokyo, Japan •http://www.eurotechnology.com/ •Mobile +81-90-8594-6291 •fasol@eurotechnology.com •gfasol@gmail.com More information: •reports:http://www.eurotechnology.com/store/ •twitter: http://twitter.com/gfasol/ •website: http://www.eurotechnology.com/ •personal site: http://fasol.com

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