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MariaDB Galera Cluster presentation
 

MariaDB Galera Cluster presentation

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MariaDB Galera Cluster in a master-Master Sync Replication configuration.

MariaDB Galera Cluster in a master-Master Sync Replication configuration.

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    MariaDB Galera Cluster presentation MariaDB Galera Cluster presentation Presentation Transcript

    • HA&Solu4ons&for&MySQL& Joffrey&Michaie& Consultant& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • Agenda& • Introduc4on& • MySQL&Replica4on& • SemiHSynchronous&Replica4on& • MySQL&5.6& • MariaDB&10.0& • MHA& • Galera& • Shared&Disk& • DRBD& • MySQL&Cluster& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • Introduc4on&to&HA& “High&availability&is&a&system&design&protocol&and& associated&implementa6on&that&ensures&a&certain& degree&of&opera6onal&con6nuity&during&a&given& measurement&period”& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • Up4me,&Down4me,&9s& Availability&=&up4me&/&(up4me&+&down4me)& & &90%& & & & & &1&nine&& & & &36.5&days&/&year && & &99%& & & & & &2&nines& & & &3.65&days&/&year& & &99.9%&& & & & &3&nines& & & &8.76&hours&/&year& & &99.99%& & & & &4&nines& & & &52&minutes&/&year& & &99.999%& & & & &5&nines& & & &5&minutes&/&year& & &99.9999%&& & & &6&nines& & & &31&seconds&/&year& Availability&=&MTBF&/&(MTBF&+&MTTR)& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • Terminology& • Synchronous&vs.&Asynchronous& • SharedHDisk&vs.&SharedHNothing&vs.&SharedHMemory& • Single&Point&Of&Failure&H&SPOF& • Failover&vs.&Switchover& • Split&Brain& • Node&Fencing,&STONITH,&Quorum& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • Designing&for&HA& • Which&level&of&availability&do&I&need?& • How&many&nines?& • Do&I&require&no&loss&of&data?& • Could&I&loose&some&transac4ons?& • Will&my&users&no4ce&or&care?& • Do&I&need&automa4c&failover&or&is&manual&switchover&ok?& • How&do&I&test&this?& • Can&I&provide&a&reasonable&service&when&X&is&down?& • Replace&X&with&each&component&of&the&service& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • Before&we&talk&about&solu4ons& • A&high&availability&setup&does&not& replace&backups& • Check&parameters& • flush_at_trx_commit& • sync_binlog& • expire_logs_day& • binlog_format& • sync_master_info&(on&slaves)& • ...& • Requirements&for&parameters&may& change&if&using&baieryHbacked&disk& cache& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • MySQL&Replica4on&H&Asynchronous& • Asynchronous:&3&Phases& 1.  Commit&and&write&to&binlog&on&Master& 2.  Ship&changes&to&relay&log&on&slave& 3.  Apply&changes&on&slave&& • Master&H>&slave&rela4onship& • MonoHthreaded&on&slaves&un4l&MySQL&5.5& • MySQL&5.6&allows&mul4Hthreaded& • No&conflict&resolu4on& • MasterHmaster&replica4on&or&circular& replica4on&need&applica4on&logic& & SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al& Slave(s)& Master&
    • MySQL&Replica4on&–&SemiHSynchronous& • Added&as&a&plugin&in&MySQL®&5.5& • Ensures&that&changes&have&been&shipped&to& at&least&one&slave&(or&4meouts)&& • A&COMMIT&on&the&master&waits&for&ONE& Slave&to&acknowledge&the&transac4on& • Important:&The&Master&does&not&wait&for&the& Slave&to&execute&the&transac4on,&only&to&write& it&to&the&relay&log& • So&the&Slave&SQL&Thread&may&s4ll&lag&behind& the&Master&and&queries&to&the&Slave&may&s4ll& return&old&data& • Poten4ally&adds&latency&to&queries& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al& Slave(s)& Master&
    • MySQL&Replica4on&for&HA& • Master&<H>&standby&master&H&manual&failover& • Minimal&down4me&for&changes&and&upgrades& • SemiHsynchronous&should&be&used& • Used&in&combina4on&with&other&HA&solu4ons& for&geographical&replica4on& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • MySQL®&5.6&–&New&Replica4on&Features& • Global&Transac4on&ID&(GTID)& • Makes&it&easy&to&automate&failover&and&slave&promo4on& • Replica4on&failover&and&admin&u4li4es& • Mul4Hthreaded&slaves& • Replica4on&event&checksums& • TimeHdelayed&replica4on& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • MariaDB&10.0&–&New&Replica4on&Features& • Mul4Hsource&replica4on& • Global&Transac4on&ID&(GTID)& • Different&implementa4on&from&MySQL&5.6& • GTID&per&domain&instead&of&server& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • MHA& Master&High&Availability&Manager& • Automates&master&failover&and&slave& promo4on& • Monitors&the&master&or&can&integrate&with& Pacemaker/Heartbeat& • Failover&is&an&online&opera4on& • Also&allows&manual&switchover& • Short&down4me:&open&a&few&seconds& • MySQLHReplica4on&consistency& • No&performance&penalty& • Drop&in&solu4on&on&exis4ng&deployment& & SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • MHA& Failover&Process& 1.  Aiempt&to&contact&MySQL&master&server& by&SSH& 2.  If&master&server&is&alive&access&the&binary& log&and&recover&events& 3.  Find&the&slave&with&the&most&advanced& relay&log& 4.  Sync&all&slaves&to&the&latest&available& binlog&event& 5.  STONITH&master&if&necessary& 6.  Promote&slave&to&master& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • Galera&/&MariaDB&Galera&Cluster& • Provides&“virtually”&synchronous& Clients replica4on& • Works&with&InnoDB& • No&slave&lag& • Transac4ons&are&validated&by&slaves& upon&commit& • Cer4fica4on&and&quorum& • Transac4ons&may&be&rolled&back& at&this&stage& • Mul4Hmaster&or&masterHslave&possible& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al& MySQL MySQL MySQL wsrep wsrep wsrep Galera Replication
    • Galera&/&MariaDB&Galera&Cluster& • Provides&“virtually”&synchronous& Clients replica4on& • Works&with&InnoDB& • No&slave&lag& • Transac4ons&are&validated&by&slaves& upon&commit& • Cer4fica4on&and&quorum& • Transac4ons&may&be&rolled&back& at&this&stage& • Mul4Hmaster&or&masterHslave&possible& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al& MySQL MySQL MySQL wsrep wsrep wsrep Galera Replication
    • Galera&–&Transac4on&Process& • Transac4on&is&processed& locally&up&to&commit&4me& Client trx MySQL MySQL MySQL wsrep wsrep wsrep Galera Replication SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • Galera&–&Transac4on&Process& • Transac4on&is&processed& locally&up&to&commit&4me& Client • Transac4on&is&replicated& to&whole&cluster& trx MySQL MySQL MySQL wsrep wsrep wsrep ws Galera Replication SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al& ws
    • Galera&–&Transac4on&Process& • Transac4on&is&processed& locally&up&to&commit&4me& Client • Transac4on&is&replicated& to&whole&cluster& • Client&gets&OK&status& trx MySQL MySQL MySQL wsrep wsrep wsrep Galera Replication SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • Galera&–&Transac4on&Process& • Transac4on&is&processed& locally&up&to&commit&4me& Client • Transac4on&is&replicated& to&whole&cluster& • Client&gets&OK&status& • Transac4on&is&applied&in& slaves& MySQL MySQL trx wsrep wsrep Galera Replication SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al& MySQL trx wsrep
    • SharedHdisk&Solu4on& • Ac4ve&–&Passive&replica4on& • Failover&requires&MySQL&crash&recovery&(and& open&file&system&crash&recovery)& • Combined&with&Pacemaker/Heartbeat&for& automa4c&failover& • Virtual&IP&most&open&used&to&fail&over& • In&theory&the&SAN&is&a&SPOF& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • DRBD®&& • Synchronous&replica4on&(three&modes)& • Ac4ve&–&Passive&replica4on& • Failover&requires&MySQL&crash&recovery&(and& open&file&system&crash&recovery)& • Combined&with&Pacemaker/Heartbeat&for& automa4c&failover& • Virtual&IP&most&open&used&to&fail&over& • STONITH&or&other&fencing&mechanism& needed&to&avoid&splitHbrain&scenarios& • Available&on&Linux& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • DRBD®&H&Architecture& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • MySQL&Cluster&H&Features& • Synchronous&replica4on&between& nodes& • Through&TwoHPhase&Commit&Protocol& • ACID&transac4ons& • Row&level&locking& • Shared&nothing&architecture& • No&single&point&of&failure& • Automa4c&failover& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al& • InHmemory&storage& • Some&data&can&be&stored&on&disk& • Checkpoin4ng&to&disk&for&durability& • Two&types&of&indexes& • Ordered&THtrees& • Unique&hash&indexes& • Online&opera4ons& • Add&node&groups& • Sopware&upgrade& • Some&table&altera4ons&
    • MySQL&Cluster&H&Architecture& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • MySQL&Cluster&H&Par44oning& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • MySQL&Cluster& Network&par44oning&protocol& Designed&to&avoid&splitHbrain& 1.  Is&at&least&one&node&from&each&node&group&present?&& • If&not&then&the&cluster&cannot&con4nue&H&shutdown& 2.  Are&all&nodes&present&from&any&node&group?& • If&so&then&this&is&the&only&viable&cluster&H&con4nue& 3.  Ask&the&arbitrator& • The&arbitrator&decides&which&”cluster”&con4nues& • If&the&arbitrator&is&not&available&the&cluster&will&shutdown& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • Where&does&MySQL&Cluster&fit?& • High&demands&on&availability&(5&nines)& • You&need&write&scalability& • You&have&3&or&more&”machines”&available& • Where&the&queries&and&data&model&are&simple& • When&the&data&fits&in&memory& • When&you&have&skilled&people& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • Geographical&Replica4on& • For&geographical&(mul4Hsite)&redundacy& synchronous&solu4ons&are&open&not& desirable& • Standard&Replica4on&can&be&combined& with&any&synchronous&solu4on&locally& • MySQL&Cluster& • DRBD&/&shared&disk& • Galera& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • Geographical&Replica4on& MySQL&Cluster& • MySQL&Cluster&has&addi4onal&features& related&to&Geographical&replica4on& • Conflict&detec4on&and&automa4c& resolu4on& • Several&possible&resolu4on&methods&exist& • Mul4ple&replica4on&channels&possible& • Mul4Hsource&replica4on&possible& • Binlog&injec4on&ensures&the&consitency& of&binlogs& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • Quick&Comparison&Chart& * SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • Quick&Comparison&Chart& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • Ques4ons?& SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&
    • Thank&you!& Joffrey&Michaie& Joffrey.michaie@skysql.com& SkySQL&Ab& www.skysql.com& www.facebook.com/skysql& www.linkedin.com/company/skysql& MySQL is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates. MariaDB is a registered trademark of Monty Program Ab. SkySQL and the SkySQL logo are trademarks of SkySQL Inc. or SkySQL Ab. SkySQL is not affiliated with MySQL. All other company and product names may be trademarks or service marks of their respective owners. SkySQL&AB&©&2013&Confiden4al&