CARBON STEEL• More corrosiontendency.• Harder than stainlesssteel.• It loses keen edgeslower than stainlesssteel.STAINLESS STEEL• Less corrosiontendency.• Less comparatively.• It loses keen edgequicker during muchuse.
• Most of the instruments are composed ofthe following parts:• Handle• Shank• Blade/Nib
• It is used to hold the instrument.• They are available in various sizes andshapes.• It may be smooth or eight sided and serrated.• On handle of the instrument, the instrumentformula and manufacturer’s name are written.
• It connects the handle with the working pointor nib of the instrument.• It is smooth, round or tapered.• It may be straight or bent for better control ofworking point when the force is applied.• It has one or more angles to avoid twisting ofthe instrument.
• Working part of the instrument.• Connected to the handle byshank.• Each blade has a cutting edgethat is the working end.
• Black classified all instruments according to:• FUNCTION: Excavator.• MANNER OF USE: Hand condenser.• DESIGN OF WORKING END: Hatchet• SHAPE OF THE SHANK: Mono-angle, binangle, contra-angle.• These names were combined to form thecomplete description of the instrument e.g, bin-angle spoon excavator
• Hand cutting instruments have formulasdescribing the dimensions and angles ofworking end. Placed on the handle as three orfour figures.
• For instruments in which the primarycutting edge is at a right angle to thelong axis of the blade.14-10-16• 14: Width of the blade (in tenths ofmm)• 10: Length of the blade (in mm)• 16: Angle (in centigrade) made by longaxis of the blade and the long axis ofthe handle
15-95-10-7• 15: Width of the blade (in tenth of mm)• 95: Primary cutting edge angle(in centigrade)• 10: Length of the blade (in mm)• 7: Angle the blade makes with thelong axis of the handle (incentigrade)
• Most cutting instruments have on the end ofblade a single bevel that forms the primarycutting edge.• Additional two bevel extends from primarycutting edge for the length of the blade.• This allows cutting in three dimensions.
CHISELS:• Used primarily for cutting enamel• Used with push motion.• They are grouped as:Straight, slightly curved or bin-angle Enamel hatchets Gingival margin trimmer
• Used primarily in anterior teeth, forpreparing retentive areas and sharpeninginternal line angles.• To remove unsupported enamel• It comes as right and left types for use onopposite sides of the preparation• Used with push, pull & vertical motion.
• It is used to trim, smooth, and shape the gingivalfloor of a cavity preparation.• It is also used for rounding or beveling of theaxiopulpal line angle.• Used with lateral scraping motion.
• Used to clean and smooth floor and walls in cavitypreparation and forming line angles.• Used with a pulling motion• Cutting edge or blade nearly perpendicular to handle.
• If the angle of the blade is less than 12.5 centigrade, it ismono-angle chisel & if it is more than 12.5 centigrade, itis hoe.
• Primarily used for sharpening internal line angles andcreating retentive features in dentine in preparation forgold restorations.• Used in 3 motions vertical, push and pull.
• Used to remove Soft carious dentine Temporary crowns Temporary cement in temporary restoration Permanent crown during try-in• Discoid: Cutting edges are circular• Cleoid: Cutting edges are claw like
MOUTH MIRROR:• To reflect light in the mouth• To retract lips, cheeks, and tongue• To provide indirect vision
• It is used to examine caries, calculus, furcation.• Variety of sizes and typesOrbanPigtailShepherd’s hook
• To grasp or transfer items and/or material intoand out of the oral cavity.• Plain or serrated tips.• Pointed or rounded tips
DYCAL APPLICATOR• To place calcium hydroxide or glass ionomer incavity preparation.
• It is used for mixing cements and carryingmaterials.
• AMALGAM PLUGGER• To carry and dispense amalgam for cavity preparation• Single or double ended
CONDENSER• Used to pack and condense amalgam into cavitypreparation• Single or double sided• Smooth or serrated ends• Round or flat• Small or large sizes
• Used to smooth amalgam after condensing.• Burnish amalgam.• It is also used to contour matrix band beforeplacement.• It may be single or double ended.
• To carve occlusal anatomy into amalgamrestoration• Single or double ended.
• Modified pen• Inverted pen• Palm and thumb• Modified palm and thumb