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Circulatory system Nov 2010

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This presentation has been created by Dr Faisal Qadir with help of various presentations downloaded from net for better understanding of students and teachers

This presentation has been created by Dr Faisal Qadir with help of various presentations downloaded from net for better understanding of students and teachers

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  • 2.
    • Introduction
    • Division of Circulatory Sys
      • Cardiovascular Sys
        • Components
        • Functions
        • Types of Circulation
        • Anastomosis
        • Applied Anatomy
    Seq Cont….
  • 3.
      • Lymphatic System
        • Definitions
        • Components
        • Function
        • Circulation of Lymph
    • Applied Anatomy
    • Other Circulations
  • 5.
      • Write intro here
    Introduction Cont….
  • 7.
    • The circulatory system carries blood and dissolved
    • substances to and from different parts in the body.
    • The Heart has the job of pumping these things around
    • the body.
    • The Heart pumps blood and substances around the
    • body in tubes called blood vessels.
    • The Heart and blood vessels together make up the
    • Circulatory System .
    What is the cardiovascular system? Cardiovascular System
  • 8. lungs head & arms liver digestive system kidneys legs pulmonary artery aorta pulmonary vein main vein Left Right How does this system work?
  • 9. Cardiovascular System
    • Components
    • Heart
    • Blood
    • Vessels
      • Arteries
      • Veins
      • Capillaries
  • 10. Heart
    • A muscular pump
    • Moves blood through the body
    • Is suspended in the pericardial sac
    • Composed of four chambers
    • Divided into right and left halves
    • Made up of cardiac muscle cells
    Aorta Left pulmonary artery Left atrium Left pulmonary veins Left ventricle Superior vena cava Right pulmonary veins Right atrium Right ventricle Inferior vena cava
  • 11. Pericardium
    • Protective sac connective tissue
    Surrounds heart Filled with fluid
  • 12. Myocardium
    • The muscle of the heart
    • Strong and thick
    • Composed of spontaneously contracting cardiac muscle fibers
    • Can conduct electricity like nerves
    • It’s blood supply comes from the coronary arteries
    Myocardium (heart muscle) shown in red Epicardium (Outer surface of myocardium) Endocardium (Inner surface of myocardium)
  • 13. Structures of the Heart
    • Chambers
      • Atria - (2) upper chambers
        • Thin walled
        • Receive blood from veins
        • Send blood to ventricles
      • Ventricles - (2) lower chambers
        • Thick walled
        • Receive blood from atria
        • Pump blood out through arteries
    • Septum
      • Wall that divides heart into right and left halves
    Septum Pulmonary valve Right atrium Tricuspid valve Right ventricle Left atrium Aortic valve Mitral valve Left ventricle
  • 14. Structures of the Heart
    • Valves
      • Prevent backflow of blood
      • Keep blood moving in one direction
      • Between the chambers
      • At junctions of artery and chamber
    Tricuspid valve Pulmonary veins Mitral valve Left atrium Pulmonary valve Aortic valve Right atrium Valves seen from above Chordea tendinea Pulmonary valve
  • 15. Structures of the Heart
    • Chordae tendinease
      • “ Heart strings”
      • Cord-like tendons
      • Connect papillary muscles to tricuspid and mitral valves
      • Prevent inversion of valve
    • Papillary muscles
      • Small muscles that anchor the cords
    Papillary muscle
  • 16. Structures of the Heart aortic valve left common carotid artery left subclavian artery brachiocephalic artery right pulmonary artery septum left pulmonary artery aorta pulmonary trunk left pulmonary veins left atrium (auricle) mitral valve pulmonary valve papillary muscle left ventricle right pulmonary veins superior vena cava right atrium tricuspid valve right ventricle inferior vena cava © 2006 Merriam-Webster, Inc.
  • 17. Structures of the Heart
  • 18. Blood Vessels
    • Form a closed circuit of tubes that carry blood throughout the body
    • Laid end to end, the blood vessels in an average human body will stretch approximately 62,000 miles ……2.5 times around the earth
  • 19. Blood Vessels
    • Have characteristic features
    • Are distinguished by size, tissue layers and direction of blood flow
  • 20. There are 3 types of blood vessels a. Artery b . Vein c. Capillary Blood Vessels
  • 21. Classes of blood vessels
    • Arteries and arterioles carry blood away from the heart.
      • Veins and venules carry blood to the heart.
      • Capillaries allow exchange of nutrients, wastes and gases.
  • 22. Blood Vessels
    • Arteries
      • Receive blood from ventricles
      • Take blood away from the heart
      • Usually carry oxygenated blood
      • Thickest vessel walls
      • Withstand greater blood pressure
      • Are very elastic
      • Connect to capillaries
      • Aorta is the largest artery
  • 23. Arterioles
    • Arterioles branch off of arteries.
    • Arterioles can constrict to direct and control blood flow. They may, for example, increase or decrease blood supply to the skin.
  • 24. Blood Vessels
    • Capillaries
      • Smallest of blood vessels
      • Only one cell thick (epithelial cell)
      • Connect arteries to veins
      • Bring oxygen and nutrients to cells
      • Removes CO 2 , urea, and other wastes from cells
      • Where blood is under low pressure and moving slowly
  • 25. artery vein capillaries body cell Capillary A collection of capillaries is known as a capillary bed .
  • 26. Blood Vessels
    • Veins
      • Transport blood away from capillaries
      • Carry blood toward heart
      • Take blood to atria
      • Have valves
      • Thinner vessel walls with less smooth muscles
      • than arteries
      • Can stretch a great deal
      • Have larger diameters
      • Usually carry de-oxygenated blood
      • Vena cava is the largest vein
  • 27. Veins
    • Veins have thinner walls than arteries.
    • Veins have fewer smooth muscle cells, but do have valves. How do valves and the skeletal muscles help veins function?
  • 28. Blood Vessels
    • The contraction of muscles compressing veins helps push blood up through the leg veins back to the heart. The valves allow the blood to flow towards the heart only.
    Calf muscle relaxed Calf muscle contracts Muscle squeezes veins Veins constrict; blood moves; valves open Veins dialated; blood still; valves closed Valves OPEN Valves CLOSED
  • 29. Blood Vessels
    • A network of capillaries runs close to the cells in every part of the body. The capillaries have very thin walls which allows nutrients to diffuse through into the tissues and waste products to filter back into the capillaries.
    Arteriole Venule Tissue cells Vein Artery capillaries Capillaries
  • 30. w3.uokhsc.edu
  • 31.  
  • 32. Blood
    • A circulating connective tissue consisting of several types of cells suspended in a fluid medium known as plasma.
  • 33. Blood
    • What percent of your body is blood?
    • How much blood do we contain?
      • On average 4-6 liters
      • We contain about a pint of blood for every 15 pounds of body weight
    • Composition of Blood:
      • What percent of your blood is cellular?
      • What percent of your blood is plasma?
    8% 45% 55%
  • 34. what’s in red blood cells white blood cells platelets plasma carbon dioxide digested food waste (urea) hormones oxygen BLOOD
  • 35. Blood
    • Functions of blood:
      • Supply oxygen to tissues
      • Supply nutrients such as glucose, amino acids and fatty acids to tissues
      • Removal of wastes such as CO 2 , urea and lactic acid from tissues
      • Immunological functions, including circulation of white cells, and detection of foreign material by antibodies
  • 36. Blood
    • What is plasma?
      • A clear, straw colored fluid
      • What percent of plasma is water?
      • What’s in plasma?
        • Dissolved gasses
        • Vitamins
        • Minerals
        • Salts
        • Nutrients
        • Enzymes
        • Hormones
        • Waste products
        • Plasma proteins
    90% Buffy coat leukocytes and platelets (<1% of whole blood) Erythrocytes (45% of whole blood) Plasma (55% of whole blood) Formed elements
  • 37. Plasma A straw-coloured liquid that carries the cells and the platelets which help blood clot.
    • carbon dioxide
    • glucose
    • amino acids
    • proteins
    • minerals
    • vitamins
    • hormones
    • waste materials
    • like urea .
    It also contains useful things like;
  • 38. Blood
    • The cellular components are:
      • red blood cells (erythrocytes)
      • white blood cells (leukocytes)
      • platelets (thrombocytes)
    • Blood cells are formed in bone marrow
  • 39. Blood
    • Red Blood Cell Characteristics
      • (RBC)- Erythrocyte
      • Biconcave disks
      • No nucleus
      • Contain the iron based pigment hemoglobin which binds with oxygen to transport it
      • Life span about 120 days
      • 5 billion/1mL of blood = most numerous
      • Are very small
  • 40. Blood
    • How RBC’s transport oxygen....Hemoglobin .…the iron containing pigment
    Hemoglobin makes red blood cells red
  • 41. Blood
    • White Blood Cell Characteristics
      • (WBC)- Leukocyte
      • No definite shape
      • Have nucleus
      • Protect body against infection
      • Life span varies (3 days-a few months)
      • 7,000/1mL of blood
      • Numbers increase if infection is present
      • Larger than RBC’s
  • 42. Blood
    • Types of white blood cells:
      • Monocytes are the largest
      • Neutrophils are the most numerous
      • Lymphocytes are produced by the lymph tissue
      • Basophils release histamines
  • 43. Blood
    • Types of white blood cells:
    When a cell undergoes apoptosis, programmed cell death, white blood cells called macrophages consume cell debris. The role of a macrophage is to phagocytize (engulf and then digest) cellular debris and pathogens.
  • 44. Blood
    • Platelet Characteristics:
      • Thrombocyte
      • RBC fragments
      • Irregularly shaped
      • No nucleus
      • 150,000-400,000/1mL
      • Life span about 7-11 days
      • Have a sticky surface
      • Responsible for blood clotting (injury healing)
  • 45. Platelets Platelets are bits of cell broken off larger cells. Platelets produce tiny fibrinogen fibres to form a net. This net traps other blood cells to form a blood clot.
  • 46. Blood
    • This is an actual picture of White Blood Cells, in with some red blood cells. The platelets are stained purple, a T-Lymphocyte white cell is stained green, and a Monocyte white cell is stained gold as seen through a scanning electron microscope.
  • 47. Blood
    • Red blood cells and platelets are the most numerous.
    • Of the leukocytes, neutrophils are the most numerous
    • Lymphocytes are the predominant cell type responsible for immune responses.
  • 48. Blood
    • B
    • L
    • O
    • O
    • D
    • C
    • E
    • L
    • L
    F O R M A T I O N
  • 50. Functions : Circulatory System
    • Brings blood containing oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells
    • Transports CO 2 and other wastes away from cells
  • 51. Functions : Circulatory System
    • Fights infections
    • Regulates body temperature
    • Helps stabilize pH and ionic concentration of body fluids.
  • 52. Types of Circulation
  • 53. Cardiovascular Circuits Pulmonary Circuit Systemic Circuit Lung Pulmonary vein Aorta Left atrium Left ventricle Pulmonary artery Right atrium Right ventricle Vena cava oxygen-poor blood oxygen-rich blood
  • 54. Pulmonary Circulation Takes place on the right side of the heart. Pumps blood low in oxygen to the lungs to pick up oxygen and return to heart
  • 55. Systemic Circulation
    • Takes place on left side of heart
    • Oxygenated blood is pumped to the body cells thru the aorta and other arteries
    • Blood low in oxygen returns to the heart
  • 56. Coronary Circulation
    • Although blood fills the chambers of the heart, the muscle tissue of the heart is so thick that it requires coronary blood vessels to deliver blood deep into the myocardium.
    • The coronary circulation consists of the blood vessels that supply blood to, and remove blood from the heart muscle itself.
  • 57. Coronary Circulation
    • The vessels that supply blood high in oxygen to the myocardium are known as coronary arteries.
  • 58. Hepatic Portal System
  • 59. Hepatic Portal System
    • The liver is the only digestive organ drained by the inferior vena cava
    • - blood leaving the capillary beds supplied by the celiac and superior and inferior mesenteric arteries flows into the veins of the hepatic portal system
    • - a blood vessel connecting 2 capillary beds is a portal vessel and the network is a portal system
    • Venous blood that absorbs nutrients from the small intestine, parts of the large intestine, stomach, and pancreas flows directly to the liver
    • - regulates levels of nutrients and amino acids in the circulating blood
  • 60. Hypophyseal Portal System
  • 61. Hypophyseal Portal System
    • The hypophyseal portal system (or hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system) is the system of blood vessels that link the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary in the brain .
  • 62. Hypophyseal Portal System
    • It allows endocrine communication between the two structures. It is part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The anterior pituitary receives releasing and inhibitory hormones in the blood. Using these, the anterior pituitary is able to fulfill its function of regulating the other endocrine glands .
  • 63. Hypophyseal Portal System
    • It is one of three portal systems of circulation in the human body; that is, it involves two capillary beds connected in series by venules. The others are the hepatic portal system and that in the kidneys.[1 ]
  • 64. Renal Portal system
    • The system of veins in fish and amphibians taking blood from the region of the tail or hind limbs directly to the kidneys .
    • replication
    • the production of exact copies of complex molecules during the growth of living organisms ...
  • 65. Fetal Circulation
  • 66. Fetal Circulation
  • 68. Circulatory System Disorders
    • Risk factors
      • Older age
      • Male gender
      • Cigarette smoking
      • High cholesterol
      • Diabetes
      • Stress
      • Obesity
      • Heredity
      • Physical inactivity  
      • High blood pressure  
    Heart Disease Quitting smoking, a healthy diet and exercise may reduce your risk of heart disease Plaque in coronary artery
  • 69.
    • Starts with damage or injury to the inner layer of an artery
    • Fatty deposits called plaque build up in the arteries
    • This causes:
      • Blockage in artery
      • Less flexible vessels
      • High Blood Pressure
    Atherosclerosis Circulatory System Disorders
  • 70.
    • High Blood Pressure
    Circulatory System Disorders Hypertension Makes the heart and blood vessels work harder Increases the chance of heart disease, heart attack or stroke
  • 71.
    • acute myocardial infarction
    • Interruption of oxygen supply to the heart
    • Causes death of the heart muscle
    • Leading cause of death in both men and women
    Circulatory System Disorders Heart Attack Coronary Blockage
  • 72.
    • Symptoms
      • Chest pain
      • Squeezing or heavy pressure on chest
      • Pain that radiates down left shoulder and arm
      • Shortness of breath
      • Nausea or vomiting
      • Anxiety or Fainting
      • Lightheadedness - dizziness
      • Palpitations (feeling like your heart is beating too fast)
      • Sweating, which may be extreme
    Circulatory System Disorders Heart Attack
  • 73.
    • Interruption of oxygen supply to the brain
    • Caused by:
      • A clot in an artery in the brain
      • Breakage of an artery in the brain
    • Causes brain cells to be deprived of oxygen and die
    Circulatory System Disorders Stroke
  • 74. Thrombotic stroke blood clot in cerebral artery Hemorrhagic stroke blood vessel ruptures
  • 75. Circulatory System Disorders
    • Embolism occurs when an object (usually a blood clot) migrates from one part of the body (through circulation) and causes a blockage (occlusion) of a blood vessel in another part of the body
    • Thrombosis is the formation of a clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood
  • 76. Circulatory System Disorders
    • Hemorrhage is the medical term for bleeding - the loss of blood from the body
    • Hemorrhage generally becomes dangerous, or even fatal, when it causes hypovolemia (low blood volume) or hypotension (low blood pressure).
    • Hematoma- a collection of blood due to internal bleeding (burse)
    Hemorrhage Gingival Hemorrhage
  • 77. Circulatory System Disorders
    • A rare inherited bleeding disorder in which the blood does not clot normally
    • The person is missing or has low levels of certain proteins in the blood called clotting factors
    • Usually occurs only in males
    • They suffer prolonged bleeding even with minor injuries
    • Bleeding can occur internally, in joints and muscles, which causes swelling and pain
    Hem philia Swelling in left knee joint due to spontaneous bleeding
  • 78. Circulatory System Disorders
    • A condition where there is an abnormally low number of red blood cells circulating in the body or when the blood does not have enough hemoglobin
    • The body's tissues are being starved of oxygen
    • Most common disorder of the red blood cells, affecting (~) 3.5 million Americans
    • There are different kinds of anemia
      • Iron Deficiency
      • Vitamin Deficiency
      • Hemolytic Anemias
      • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • 79. Circulatory System Disorders
    • A person with anemia will feel tired, weak, breathless, and dizzy
    • They may have a pale complexion, increased heart rate, low blood pressure, and difficulty concentrating
    • The severity of the symptoms is related to the severity of anemia
    Anemia Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • 80. Circulatory System Disorders
    • Sickle cell trait- The person is carrying the defective gene, but also has some normal hemoglobin
    • Sickle cell anemia- The person has most or all of the normal hemoglobin replaced with the sickle hemoglobin
    Sickle Cell Disease
  • 81. Circulatory System Disorders
    • Valvular stenosis A condition in which there is a narrowing, stiffening, thickening,fusion or blockage of one or more valves of the heart
    Valve Disorders
  • 82. Circulatory System Disorders
    • Localized, blood-filled dilation (bulge) of a blood vessel caused by disease or weakening of the vessel wall
    • Most commonly occur in arteries at the base of the brain and in the aorta
    • Can burst and lead to death at any time
  • 84.
      • Lymphatic System
        • Introduction
        • Components
        • Circulation of Lymph
        • Functions
    • Applied Anatomy
  • 85. Introduction
    • The lymphatic system is closely associated with
    • the cardiovascular system and is comprised of a
    • network of vessels that circulate body fluids
    • Lymphatic vessels transport excess fluid away
    • from interstitial spaces between cells in most
    • tissues & return it to the bloodstream
    • Lymphatic vessels called lacteals (located in the
    • in the lining of the small intestine) absorb fats
    • resulting from digestion, & then transport fats to
    • the circulatory system
    • The organs of the lymphatic system help defend
    • against disease
  • 86. Components
    • Lymph
    • Lymph Vessels
    • Lymphoid Tissue
  • 87. Lymph
      • Materials returned to the blood
        • Water
        • Blood cells
        • Proteins
      • Harmful materials that enter lymph vessels
        • Bacteria
        • Viruses
        • Cancer cells
        • Cell debris
  • 88.
    • Tissue and fluid becomes lymph once it has entered a lymphatic capillary; lymph formation depends on tissue fluid formation.
    • Tissue Fluid Formation
    • Tissue fluid originates from blood plasma; it is composed of H2O & dissolved substances that leave the blood capillaries by filtration & diffusion; it generally lacks proteins-can have some small proteins; as the protein concentration of tissue fluid rises,the osmotic pressure of the fluid rises
    • Lymph Formation
    • Rising osmotic pressure in tissue fluid interferes with return ofwater to the blood capillaries increasing pressure within interstitial spaces forces some tissue fluid into lymphatic
  • 89. Lymph
  • 90.
    • Lymph Function
    • Lymph returns proteins that leak out of blood capillaries to the bloodstream; it also transports foreign particles, such as bacteria or viruses, to lymph nodes
  • 91. Lymphatic Vessels
  • 92. Lymphatic Vessels
  • 93. Lymphatic Vessels
  • 94. Lymphatic Vessels
      • Lymphatic collecting vessels
        • Collects lymph from lymph capillaries
        • Carries lymph to and away from lymph nodes
  • 95. Lymphatic Vessels
        • Returns fluid to circulatory veins near the heart Right lymphatic duct
          • Thoracic duct
  • 96. Lymphatic Pathways
    • Lymphatic pathways start as lymphatic capillaries that merge to form larger vessels that empty into the circulatory system.
    • Lymphatic Capillaries are microscopic, close-ended tubes that extend into interstitial spaces forming networks that parallel the networks of the blood capillaries
    • walls consist of single layer squamous epithelial cells which enables interstitial fluid to enter the lymphatic capillaries
    • lymph – the fluid inside a lymph capillary
  • 97. Lymphatic Pathways
  • 98. Lymphatic Pathway:
    • ->lymphatic capillary->lymphatic vessel->lymph node->lymphatic
  • 99. Lymphatic Pathways
    • Lymphatic Vessels . walls of lymphatic vessels are thinner than walls of veins have semilunar valves to prevent backflow of Lymph
    • lymph nodes – specialized lymph organs that are composed of a mass of lymphoid tissue located along the course of a lymphatic vessel
  • 100. Lymphatic Pathways
    • Lymphatic Trunks and Collecting Ducts. A fter leaving lymph nodes the vessels merge to form large lymphatic trunks which drain lymph & are named for the region of the body they serve:
    • lumbar, intestinal, intercostal, bronchomediastinal, & subclavian trunks
    • lymphatic trunks join (are drained by) collecting ducts
    • The thoracic duct & the right lymphatic duct; these ducts join the subclavian veins
  • 101. Lymphatic Pathways
  • 102. Lymphatic circulation Pulmonary circulation Systemic circulation Arteries Veins Blood capillaries Lymphatic capillaries Lymph node Lymphatic vessel
  • 103. Lymphatic Pathways
  • 104. Lymph Tissue
      • 3 types
        • Lymphatic nodules
          • No capsule present
          • Oval-shaped masses
          • Found singly or in clusters
        • Lymphatic organs
          • Capsule present
          • Lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland
          • Diffuse lymphatic tissue
          • No capsule present
          • Found in connective tissue of almost all organs
  • 105. Lymphatic Node
      • Filter lymph before it is returned to the blood
      • Defense cells within lymph nodes
        • Macrophages – engulf and destroy foreign substances
        • Lymphocytes – provide immune response to antigens
  • 106.
    • Lymph nodes, which contain lymphocytes & macrophages, are located along lymphatic pathways. They fight invading microorganisms.
    • Structure of a Lymph Node (gland)
    • vary in size & shape (bean-shaped)
    • hilum – indented region of bean- shaped node, blood vessels & nerves connect at the hilum of the lymph node
    • afferent vessels enter at various points on the convex surface of the node & this is how lymph enters the node
    • efferent vessels (lymphatic vessels) exit at the hilum of the node & lymph leaves the node through these vessels
    Lymphatic Node
  • 107.
    • Lymph nodules – structural units of the lymph node & are compartments of the node that contain dense masses of actively dividing lymphocytes & macrophages; nodules are associated with the mucous membranes of the respiratory & digestive tracts & found in tonsils, Peyer’s patches of ileum of the small intestine
    • lymph sinuses are spaces within the node
    Lymphatic Node Structure
  • 108. Lymph Node
  • 109.
    • Lymph nodes aggregate in groups or chains along the paths of larger lymphatic vessels; are absent in the central nervous system
    • Major locations are:
    • Cervical
    • Axillary
    • Inguinal
    • Sub trochlear regions Pelvic, abdominal &
    • thoracic cavities
    Location : Lymphatic Node
  • 110.
    • 2 primary functions:
    • Filtering potentially harmful particles from lymph
    • before returning it to the bloodstream & immune
    • surveillance provided by lymphocytes &
    • Macrophages
    • Lymph nodes are the centers for production oflymphocytes that act against foreign particles.
    • lymph nodes contain macrophages that remove foreign particles from lymph
    Functions : Lymphatic Node
  • 111. Other Lymphoid Organs
      • Several other organs contribute to lymphatic function
        • Spleen
        • Thymus
        • MALT
        • Peyer’s patches
        • Tonsils
        • Others
  • 112. Spleen
      • Located on the left side of the abdomen
      • Filters blood
      • Destroys worn out blood cells
      • Forms blood cells in the fetus
      • Acts as a blood reservoir
  • 113. Spleen
      • Largest lymphatic organ
      • Located between the stomach & diaphragm
      • Structure is similar to a node
        • Capsule present
        • But no afferent vessels or sinuses
      • Histology
        • Red pulp contains all the components of circulating blood
        • White pulp is similar to lymphatic nodules
      • Functions
        • Filters blood
        • Stores blood
  • 114. Spleen
  • 115. Thymus
      • Located low in the throat, overlying the heart
      • Functions at peak levels only during childhood
      • Produces hormones (like thymosin) to program lymphocytes
  • 116. Thymus
      • Location – behind the sternum in the mediastinum
      • The capsule divides it into 2 lobes
      • Development
        • Infant – conspicuous
        • Puberty – maximum size
        • Maturity – decreases in size
      • Function
        • Differentiation and maturation of T cells
  • 117. Thymus
  • 118. Mucosa-Associated Lymphatic Tissue
      • Includes:
        • Peyer’s patches
        • Tonsils
        • Other small accumulations of lymphoid tissue
      • Acts as a guard to protect respiratory and digestive tracts
  • 119. Lymph Nodules
  • 120. Peyer’s Patches
      • Found in the wall of the small intestine
      • Resemble tonsils in structure
      • Capture and destroy bacteria in the intestine
  • 121. Tonsils
      • Multiple groups of large lymphatic nodules
      • Location – mucous membrane of the oral and pharyngeal cavities
  • 122. Tonsils
      • Palatine tonsils
        • Posterior-lateral walls of the oropharynx
      • Pharyngeal tonsil
        • Posterior wall of nasopharynx
      • Lingual tonsils
        • Base of tongue
  • 123. Tonsils
  • 124.
    • The hydrostatic pressure of tissue fluid drives the entry of lymph into lymphatic capillaries.
    • Lymph Flow
    • lymph needs help to flow through the lymph vessels
    • forces that help the flow are – contraction of the skeletal muscles, pressure changes due to the action of breathing muscles & contraction of smooth muscles in the walls of the larger lymphatic trunks. The flow of lymph peaks during physical exercise.
    • Obstruction of Lymph Flow
    • Conditions that interfere with lymph movement cause tissue fluids to accumulate in the interstitial spaces, producing edema. Edema can occur as a result of lymphatic tissue being removed
    Lymph Movement
  • 125. Functions of Lymphatic Sys
    • Drain fluid from around cells
    • Absorb fat from intestines
    • Circulate lymph
    • Filter lymph
    • Immunity
  • 126. Function of the Lymphatic System
      • Defense against harmful organisms and chemicals
      • 2 types of defense
        • Nonspecific
        • Specific
      • Specific defense = immunity
        • Humoral immunity involves B cells that become plasma cells which produce antibodies that bind with specific antigens.
        • Cell-mediated immunity involves T cells that directly destroy foreign cells
  • 127. Derivation and Distribution of Lymphocytes
  • 128.  
  • 129.  
  • 130.  
  • 131.  
  • 132.