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  1. 1. Pre Processor Hypertext By:- Farzad FWadia
  2. 2. Agenda Core PHP · Software Engineering · Web Programming · Introduction to PHP · HTML and CSS · PHP as a Scripting Language · Variables and Expressions in PHP · PHP Operators · Conditional Test, Events and Flows in PHP · Functions and Arrays using PHP · PHP Syntax and Variables · String functions · DBMS&RDBS · MYSQL database and queries · Sessions and Cookies in PHP · Files and Directory Access · Handling e-mail · Use of JavaScript, AJAX and XML
  3. 3. Program..  Sequence of instructions written for specific purpose  Like program to find out factorial of number  Can be written in higher level programming languages that human can understand  Those programs are translated to computer understandable languages  Task will be done by special tool called compiler
  4. 4.  Compiler will convert higher level language code to lower language code like binary code  Most prior programming language was ‘C’  Rules & format that should be followed while writing program are called syntax  Consider program to print “Hello!” on screen
  5. 5. void main() { printf(“Hello!”); }  Void main(), function and entry point of compilation  Part within two curly brackets, is body of function  Printf(), function to print sequence of characters on screen
  6. 6.  Any programming language having three part Data types 2. Keywords 3. Operators  Data types are like int, float, double  Keyword are like printf, main, if, else  The words that are pre-defined for compiler are keyword  Keywords can not be used to define variable 1.
  7. 7.  We can define variable of data type  Like int a; then ‘a’ will hold value of type int and is called variable  Programs can have different type of statements like conditional statements and looping statements  Conditional statements are for checking some condition
  8. 8. Conditional Statements…  Conditional statements controls the sequence of statements, depending on the condition  Relational operators allow comparing two values. 1. == is equal to 2. != not equal to 3. < less than 4. > greater than 5. <= less than or equal to 6. >= greater than or equal to
  9. 9. SIMPLE IF STATEMENT  It execute if condition is TRUE  Syntax: if(condition) { Statement1; ..... Statement n; }
  10. 10. main() { int a,b; printf(“Enter a,b values:”); scanf(“%d %d”,&a,&b); if(a>b) { printf(“n a is greater than b”); } }  OUTPUT: Enter a,b values:20 10 a is greater than b
  11. 11. IF-ELSE STATEMENT  It execute IF condition is TRUE.IF condition is FLASE it execute ELSE part  Syntax: if(condition) { Statement1; ..... Statement n; } else { Statement1; ..... Statement n; }
  12. 12. main() { int a,b; printf(“Enter a,b values:”); scanf(“%d %d”,&a,&b); if(a>b) { printf(“n a is greater than b”); } else { printf(“nb is greater than b”); } }  OUTPUT: Enter a,b values:10 20 b is greater than a
  13. 13. IF-ELSE IF STATEMENT:  It execute IF condition is TRUE.IF condition is FLASE it checks ELSE IF part .ELSE IF is true then execute ELSE IF PART. This is also false it goes to ELSE part.  Syntax: if(condition) { Statementn; } else if { Statementn; } else { Statement n; }
  14. 14. main() { int a,b; printf(“Enter a,b values:”); scanf(“%d %d”,&a,&b); if(a>b) { printf(“n a is greater than b”); } else if(b>a) { printf(“nb is greater than b”); } else { printf(“n a is equal to b”); } }  OUTPUT: Enter a,b values:10 10 a is equal to b
  15. 15. NESTED IF STATEMENT  To check one conditoin within another.  Take care of brace brackets within the conditions.  Synatax: if(condition) { if(condition) { Statement n; } } else { Statement n; }
  16. 16. main() { } int a,b; printf(“n Enter a and b values:”); scanf(“%d %d ”,&a,&b); if(a>b) { if((a!=0) && (b!=0)) { printf(“na and b both are +ve and a >b); else { printf(“n a is greater than b only”) ; } } else { printf(“ na is less than b”); } }  Output: Enter a and b values:30 20 a and b both are +ve and a > b
  17. 17.  The switch statement is much like a nested if .. else statement.  switch statement can be slightly more efficient and easier to read.  Syntax : switch( expression ) { case constant-expression1: statements1; case constant-expression2: statements2; default : statements4; }
  18. 18. main() { char Grade = ‘B’; switch( Grade ) { case 'A' : printf( "Excellentn" ); break; case 'B' : printf( "Goodn" ); break; case 'C' : printf( "OKn" ); break; case 'D' : printf( "Mmmmm....n" ); break; default : printf( "What is your grade anyway?" ); break; } }
  19. 19. Looping…  Loops provide a way to repeat commands and control how        many times they are repeated. C provides a number of looping way. while loop A while statement is like a repeating if statement. Like an If statement, if the test condition is true: the statements get executed. The difference is that after the statements have been executed, the test condition is checked again. If it is still true the statements get executed again. This cycle repeats until the test condition evaluates to false.
  20. 20.  Basic syntax of while loop is as follows: while ( expression ) { Single statement or Block of statements; }  Will check for expression, until its true when it gets false execution will be stop
  21. 21. main() { int i = 5; while ( i > 0 ) { printf("Hello %dn", i ); i = i -1; } }  Output Hello 5 Hello 4 Hello 3 Hello 2 Hello 1
  22. 22. Do..While  do ... while is just like a while loop except that the test condition is checked at the end of the loop rather than the start.  This has the effect that the content of the loop are always executed at least once.  Basic syntax of do...while loop is as follows: do { Single statement or Block of statements; } while(expression); Version 1.4
  23. 23. main() { int i = 5; do{ printf("Hello %dn", i ); i = i -1; } while ( i > 0 ); }  Output Hello 5 Hello 4 Hello 3 Hello 2 Hello 1
  24. 24. For Loop…  for loop is similar to while, it's just written differently. for statements are often used to proccess lists such a range of numbers:  Basic syntax of for loop is as follows: for( initialization; condition; increment) { Single statement or Block of statements; }
  25. 25. main() { int i; int j = 5; for( i = 0; i <= j; i ++ ) { printf("Hello %dn", i ); } }  Output Hello 0 Hello 1 Hello 2 Hello 3 Hello 4 Hello 5
  26. 26. Break & Continue…  C provides two commands to control how we loop:  break -- exit form loop or switch.  continue -- skip 1 iteration of loop.  Break is used with switch case
  27. 27. main() { int i; int j = 5; for( i = 0; i <= j; i ++ ) { if( i == 3 ) { break; } printf("Hello %dn", i ); } }  Output Hello 0 Hello 1 Hello 2 Version 1.4
  28. 28. Continue Example.. main() { int i; int j = 5; for( i = 0; i <= j; i ++ ) { if( i == 3 ) { continue; } printf("Hello %dn", i ); } }  Output Hello 0 Hello 1 Hello 2 Hello 4 Hello 5 Version 1.4
  29. 29. Functions…  A function is a module or block of program code which deals with a particular task.  Making functions is a way of isolating one block of code from other independent blocks of code.  Functions serve two purposes. 1. 2. They allow a programmer to say: `this piece of code does a specific job which stands by itself and should not be mixed up with anything else', Second they make a block of code reusable since a function can be reused in many different contexts without repeating parts of the program text. Version 1.4
  30. 30. int add( int p1, int p2 ); //function declaration void main() { int a = 10; int b = 20, c; c = add(a,b); //call to function printf(“Addition is : %d”, c); } int add( int p1, int p2 ) //function definition { return (p1+p2); } Version 1.4
  31. 31. Exercise… 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Find out factorial of given number Check whether given number is prime number or not Check whether given number is Armstrong number or not Calculate some of first 100 even numbers Prepare calculator using switch Version 1.4
  32. 32. OOPS Fundamentals…  Class – group of data members & member functions  Like person can be class having data members height and weight and member functions as get_details() and put_details() to manipulate on details  Class is nothing until you create it’s object  Object – instantiates class allocates memory Version 1.4
  33. 33. OOPS Fundamentals…  Access to data members & member functions can be done using object only (if they are not static!)  OOPS features are 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Encapsulation Data hiding Data reusability Overloading (polymorphism) Overriding Version 1.4
  34. 34. OOPS Features…  Encapsulation – making one group of data members & member functions  Can be done through class  Then group of data members & Member functions will be available just by creating object. Version 1.4
  35. 35. OOPS Features…  Data Hiding – can be done through access modifiers  Access modifiers are private, public, protected and internal  Private members or member function won’t be available outside class  Public – available all over in program outside class also Version 1.4
  36. 36. OOPS Features…  Protected – members that are available in class as well as in it’s child class  Private for another class  Protected access modifier comes only when inheritance is in picture  Internal is used with assembly creation Version 1.4
  37. 37. class employee //Class Declaration { private: char empname[50]; int empno; public: void getvalue() { cout<<"INPUT Employee Name:"; cin>>empname; cout<<"INPUT Employee Number:"; cin>>empno; } void displayvalue() { cout<<"Employee Name:"<<empname<<endl; cout<<"Employee Number:"<<empno<<endl; }; main() { employee e1; e1.getvalue(); e1.displayvalue(); //Creation of Object } Version 1.4 }
  38. 38. OOPS Features…  Overloading – taking different output of one method or operator based on parameters and return types  Like add() method performs addition and add(int a,int b) performs addition of ‘a’ and ‘b’ passed when calling  Also, + operator performs addition of two numbers as well as concatenation of strings Version 1.4
  39. 39. class arith { public: void calc(int num1) { cout<<"Square of a given number: " <<num1*num1 <<endl; } }; void calc(int num1, int num2 ) { cout<<"Product of two whole numbers: " <<num1*num2 <<endl; } int main() //begin of main function { arith a; a.calc(5); a.calc(6,7); }  This is example of method overloading, output will be Square of given number : 25 Product of two whole numbers : 42 Version 1.4
  40. 40. OOPS Features…  Data Reusability – helps in saving developers time  You can use already created class to crate new one  Called inheritance  Already existing class is base class and new created is derived class  Base class members can be available in derived class and to access them create object of derived class  Like from parent to child Version 1.4
  41. 41. class CPolygon { protected: int width, height; public: void set_values (int a, int b) { width=a; height=b;} }; class CRectangle: public CPolygon { public: int area () { return (width * height); } }; class CTriangle: public CPolygon { public: int area () { return (width * height / 2); } }; int main () { CRectangle rect; CTriangle trgl; rect.set_values (4,5); trgl.set_values (4,5); cout << rect.area() << endl; cout << trgl.area() << endl; return 0; } Version 1.4
  42. 42. OOPS Features…  In C++, overriding is a concept used in inheritance which involves a base class implementation of a method.  Then in a subclass, you would make another implementation of the method. This is overriding. Here is a simple example. class Base { public: virtual void DoSomething() {x = x + 5;} private: int x; }; class Derived : public Base { public: virtual void DoSomething() { y = y + 5; Base::DoSomething(); } private: int y; }; Version 1.4
  43. 43. What is Website?  Website – Everyday you visit on internet  Follows some rules & regulations i.e. client-server architecture standard  Websites – providing information from anywhere in world Version 1.4
  44. 44. Client-Server… Version 1.4
  45. 45. Client-Server…  Client – end user’s computer that runs software or website  Server – area in host or remote computer to which client communicates  Network – means of communication  Can be HTTP(for www), FTP(machine to machine transfer),SMTP(mail transfer) Version 1.4
  46. 46. Website – basic parts  Websites are consist of three parts  GUI – web pages that you visit  Coding – logic that provides functionality or makes website dynamic  Database – manages data provided by end user  For GUI building HTML is used from long time Version 1.4
  47. 47. HTML…  HTML is the "mother tongue" of your browser.  HTML – Hypertext Markup Language  HTML is a language, which makes it possible to present information on the Internet.  What you see when you view a page on the Internet is your browser's interpretation of HTML.  To see the HTML code of a page on the Internet, simply click "View" in the top menu of your browser and choose "Source". Version 1.4
  48. 48. HTML…  HTML documents are defined by HTML elements.  An HTML element starts with a start tag / opening tag  An HTML element ends with an end tag / closing tag  The element content is everything between the start and the end tag  Some HTML elements have empty content  Empty elements are closed in the start tag  Most HTML elements can have attributes  Ex : <p>This is paragraph</p> Version 1.4
  49. 49. HTML…  Attributes provide additional information about HTML elements.  Attributes provide additional information about an element  Attributes are always specified in the start tag  Attributes come in name/value pairs like: name="value“  For ex: <p id=“p1”>This is paragraph</p> Version 1.4
  50. 50. <html> <head> <title>First Application</title> </head> <body> <p>This is paragraph</p> </body> </html> Version 1.4
  51. 51. Explanation…  Content between <html> and </html> is considered as html content  Content between <head> and </head> will be considered as head part  <title> and </title> is title of page that will be shown in browser  <body> and </body> is part of page that will be filled with controls Version 1.4
  52. 52. Database…  Back end part of website  Used to maintain information provided by users  Built up with list of tables, tables having rows and columns  Data in cells are records  When tables are connected in database system it is RDBMS. Version 1.4
  53. 53. Database…  A DBMS that follows rules of Dr.E.F.Codd is RDBMS  RDBMS stores data in form of tables and relation ship between those tables in form of tables  Ideally there is no DBMS exist that follows all rules of E.F.Codd! Version 1.4
  54. 54. Example… Version 1.4
  55. 55. Database…  Queries – sentences executed on database for data manipulation  Will be handled by database engines and will perform action on data that are stored on database server  Ex are create, alter, insert, update, delete etc  SQL – structured query language is used for this Version 1.4
  56. 56. SQL  DDL – data definition Language  Commands are : create, alter, truncate, drop  Syntax : create table table_name(col_name datatype(size)…);  Example : Create table Person_Master(name nvarchar(50)); Version 1.4
  57. 57. SQL  DML – data manipulation language  Like insert, update, delete  Syntax: insert into table_name(col1,col2,..coln) values(val1,val2,..valn);  Example: insert into Person_Master(name) values(‘name1’); Version 1.4
  58. 58. SQL  Update Syntax: update table_name set col1=val1, col2=val2 where col = val;  Ex : update Person_Master set name = ‘name1’ where ID=1;  It will set name to ‘name1’ for which ID is 1 Version 1.4
  59. 59. SQL  Delete syntax : delete from table_name where condition;  Example : delete from Person_Master where ID=1;  It will delete whole row for which ID is 1  It is conditional delete operation  To delete all rows simply omit the condition Version 1.4
  60. 60. SQL  Select syntax : select * from table_name;  It will select all rows from specified table  To select particular row select * from table_name where condition;  To select particular column select col1,col2 from table_name; Version 1.4
  61. 61. Database…  Constrains – terms that needs to be satisfied on data  For ex all students must have unique roll number  Can be defined as primary key, foreign key, unique key etc.  Primary key – column of table whose value can be used to uniquely identify records Version 1.4
  62. 62. Database…  Foreign key – column inside table that is primary key of another table  Unique key – like primary key can be used to uniquely identify a record  Difference between primary key and unique key is primary key will never allow null where as unique key will allow it for once Version 1.4
  63. 63. Normalization…  The process of structuring data to minimize duplication and inconsistencies.  The process usually involves breaking down the single table into two or more tables and defining relationships between those tables.  Normalization is usually done in stages.  Most people in creating database, never need to go to beyond the third level of normalization. Version 1.4
  64. 64. 1NF  Eliminate duplicative columns from the same table.  Create separate tables for each group related data and identify each row with a unique columns.  In this, one table will be divided in two tables with relevant contents Version 1.4
  65. 65. 2NF  Once 1NF has been done then and only then 2NF can be done  In this, provide key constrains to the columns of tables based on uniqueness  Like assign primary key to one table column and refer this as foreign key in another table Version 1.4
  66. 66. 3NF  Only after 2NF, third normalization can be done  In this, further more analyze tables and divide them for data uniqueness Version 1.4
  67. 67. SDLC…  For project development rules & regulation need to be followed for best quality output at defined time limit  Rules are Software Development Life Cycle – SDLC  It’s part of software engineering  Six rules to be followed… Version 1.4
  68. 68. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Requirement Gathering Analysis & SRS Designing Implementation (Coding) Testing Maintenance
  69. 69. SDLC… 1. Requirement collection    Phase of collecting requirements from client Will be done by business analyst of company He will create questioner, in which put answers from client 2. Analysis & SRS (Software Requirement Specification)    Collected requirements will be analyzed for time limit, budget and market trade Will be filtered and SRS will be created as result Will be discussed with client Version 1.4
  70. 70. SDLC…     1.   Based on requirements users, their activities and flow of data, modules will be defined Will be done by system analyst Based on diagrams all will be done Main diagrams are use-case, DFD and flow charts USE-CASE Have to define users and their tasks Like website is college management system Version 1.4
  71. 71. SDLC…  User is student having activities registration, login, view & download assignments, view fees details, view time table etc.  Can be shown in use-case as given below Version 1.4
  72. 72. Registration Login View & Download Assignment View Result Student View Timetable Version 1.4
  73. 73. SDLC…  Once actions are defined, need to divide project in modules  DFD is used for this  DFD – Data Flow Diagrams  Graphical representation of flow of data inside application can also be used for visualization and data processing Version 1.4
  74. 74. SDLC…  DFD elements are.. External Entity 2. Process 3. Data Flow 4. Data Store 1. Version 1.4
  75. 75. SDLC… 1.    External entity Can be user or external system that performs some process or activity in project Symbolized with rectangle Like, we have entity ‘admin’ then symbol will be Admin Version 1.4
  76. 76. SDLC… 2. Process  Work or action taken on incoming data to produce output  Each process must have input and output  Symbolized as 1. Login output input Version 1.4
  77. 77. SDLC… 3. Data Flow  Can be used to show input and output of data  Should be named uniquely and don’t include word ‘data’  Names can be ‘payment’, ‘order’, ’complaint’ etc  Symbolized as Payment Version 1.4
  78. 78. SDLC…. 4. Data Store  Can be used to show database tables  Only process may connect data stores  There can be two or more process sharing same data store  Symbolized as Registration_Master Version 1.4
  79. 79. DFD Rules…  6 rules to follow  Consider data flow diagram as given below Version 1.4
  80. 80. Version 1.4
  81. 81. Rule 1  Each process must have data flowing into it and coming out from it Version 1.4
  82. 82. Rule 2  Each data store must have data going inside and data coming outside Version 1.4
  83. 83. Rule 3  A data flow out of a process should have some relevance to one or more of the data flows into a process Version 1.4
  84. 84. Rule 3  In process 3 all data flows are connected to process claim.  The claim decision can not be made until the claim form has been submitted and the assessor makes a recommendation Version 1.4
  85. 85. Rule 4  Data stored in system must go through a process Version 1.4
  86. 86. Rule 5  Two data stores can’t communicate with each other unless process is involved in between Version 1.4
  87. 87. Rule 6  The Process in DFD must be linked to either another process or a data store  A process can’t be exist by itself, unconnected to rest of the system Version 1.4
  88. 88. Version 1.4
  89. 89. Types of DFD…  Physical DFD  An implementation-dependent view of the current system, showing what tasks are carried out and how they are performed. Physical characteristics can include:      Names of people Form and document names or numbers Equipment and devices used Locations Names of procedures Version 1.4
  90. 90. Types Of DFD…  Logical Data Flow Diagrams  An implementation-independent view of the a system, focusing on the flow of data between processes without regard for the specific devices, storage locations or people in the system. The physical characteristics listed above for physical data flow diagrams will not be specified. Version 1.4
  91. 91. DFD Levels…  DFD level-0  It’s also context level DFD  Context level diagrams show all external entities.  They do not show any data stores.  The context diagram always has only one process labeled 0. Version 1.4
  92. 92. DFD Level-1(or 2)  include all entities and data stores that are directly connected by data flow to the one process you are breaking down  show all other data stores that are shared by the processes in this breakdown  Like login process will linked to users & database in further leveling Version 1.4
  93. 93. Example (Physical-0) Version 1.4
  94. 94. Example (logical – 0)… Version 1.4
  95. 95. Example.. (Physical -1) Version 1.4
  96. 96. Example (logical -1) Version 1.4
  97. 97. Flow Charts…  Used to show algorithm or process  Can give step by step solution to the problem  The first flow chart was made by John Von Newman in 1945  Pictorial view of process  Helpful for beginner and programmers Version 1.4
  98. 98. Flow Chart…  Flowcharts are generally drawn in the early stages of formulating computer solutions.  Flowcharts facilitate communication between programmers and business people.  These flowcharts play a vital role in the programming of a problem and are quite helpful in understanding the logic of complicated and lengthy problems. Version 1.4
  99. 99. Flow Chart…  Once the flowchart is drawn, it becomes easy to write the program in any high level language.  Often we see how flowcharts are helpful in explaining the program to others.  Hence, it is correct to say that a flowchart is a must for the better documentation of a complex program. Version 1.4
  100. 100. Flow Chart…  Symbols are.. 1.   Start Or End Show starting or ending of any flow chart Symbolized as OR Start End Version 1.4
  101. 101. Flow Charts… 2. Process  Defines a process like defining variables or initializing variable or performing any computation  Symbolized as res = num1 + num2 Version 1.4
  102. 102. Flow Charts… 3. Input or Output  Used when user have to get or initialize any variable  Like get num1 and num2 from user  Symbolized as Int num1,num2 Version 1.4
  103. 103. Flow Charts… 4. Decision Making  For checking condition this symbols can be used  Like if num1 is greater than num2  Can be symbolized as If num1>num2 Version 1.4
  104. 104. Flow Charts… 5. Flow lines  Lines showing flow of data and process  Showing flow of instructions also  Can be symbolized as Version 1.4
  105. 105. Flow chart  Any program can be in three format Linear or sequence 2. Branching 3. Looping  Following are notations can be used to show this format 1. Version 1.4
  106. 106. Linear Program Structure… Start Process-1 Process-2 End Version 1.4
  107. 107. Branching Program Structure.. Start Process-1 Process-2 Process-3 End Version 1.4 Process-4
  108. 108. Looping Program Structure…. Start Process-1 Process-2 Yes No Process-3 End Version 1.4
  109. 109. Sum of 1-50 numbers.. Version 1.4
  110. 110. Max among three numbers… Version 1.4
  111. 111. Factorial of number… Version 1.4
  112. 112. SDLC… 3. Designing    The Design document should reference what you are going to build to meet the requirements, and not how it can include pseudo code but shouldn’t contain actual code functionality. Design elements describe the desired software features in detail, and generally include functional hierarchy diagrams, screen layout diagrams, tables of business rules, business process diagrams, pseudo code, and a complete entityrelationship diagram with a full data dictionary. These design elements are intended to describe the software in sufficient detail that skilled programmers may develop the software with minimal additional input. At this phase the test plans are developed.
  113. 113. SDLC… 4. Implementation (Coding)   To launch the coding phase, develop a shell program that is then put under some form of version control. This phase includes the set up of a development environment, and use of an enhanced editor for syntax checking.
  114. 114. SDLC… 5. Testing    Each developer insures that their code runs without warnings or errors and produces the expected results. The code is tested at various levels in software testing. Unit, system and user acceptance tasting’s are often performed. This is a grey area as many different opinions exist as to what the stages of testing are and how much if any iteration occurs. Types of testing: Defect testing, Path testing, Data set testing, Unit testing, System testing, Integration testing, Black box testing, White box testing, Regression testing, Automation testing, User acceptance testing, Performance testing, etc.
  115. 115. SDLC… 6. Maintenance     User’s guides and training are developed to reflect any new functionality and changes which need to be identified to the production staff. Any changes needed to operations and/or maintenance need to be addressed. Every run in production needs to be verified. Any problems with production need to be addressed immediately. A Change Request system may be set up to allow for feedback for enhancements.
  116. 116. Create Exercise
  117. 117. Overview of Software Engineering
  118. 118. What is Software Engineering? The term software engineering first appeared in the 1968 NATO Software Engineering Conference and was meant to provoke thought regarding the current "software crisis" at the time. Definition:“state of the art of developing quality software on time and within budget” •Trade-off between perfection and physical constraints •SE has to deal with real-world issues •State of the art! •Community decides on “best practice”+ life-long education
  119. 119. Software development activities
  120. 120. Requirements Collection Establish Customer Needs Analysis Model And Specify the requirements-“What” Design Model And Specify a Solution –“Why” Implementation Construct a Solution In Software Testing Validate the solution against the requirements Maintenance Repair defects and adapt the solution to the new requirements
  121. 121. Web Programming  WWW (World Wide Web)    Web addresses are URL (uniform resource locator) A server address and a path to a particular file URLs are often redirected to other places http://students.       protocol= http:// web server= students domain= . path= /classes/PHP&MYSQL/ (dirs(folders)) file= index.html file extension= .html(hypertext markup language)
  122. 122. CLIENTS AND SERVERS  Web programming languages are usually classified as server-side or client-side. Some languages, such as JavaScript, can be used as both client-side and server-side languages, but most Web programming languages are server-side languages.  The client is the Web browser, so client-side scripting uses a Web browser to run scripts. The same script may produce different effects when different browsers run it.  A Web server is a combination of software and hardware that outputs Web pages after receiving a request from a client. Server-side scripting takes place on the server. If you look at the source of a page created from a server-side script, you'll see only the HTML code the script has generated. The source code for the script is on the server and doesn't need to be downloaded with the page that's sent back to the client.      Web Programming Languages PHP ASP Perl JAVA
  123. 123. Client/Server Interaction For Web pages, the client requests a page the server returns it: there’s no permanent connection, just a short conversation •Details of the conversation are specified by HTTP
  124. 124. Server-Side  PHP is a Server-side language  Even though it is embedded in HTML files much like the client-side JavaScript language, PHP is server-side and all PHP tags will be replaced by the server before anything is sent to the web browser. •So if the HTML file contains: <html> <?php echo "Hello World"?> </html> •What the end user would see with a "view source" in the browser would be: <html> Hello World </html>
  125. 125. PHP Introduction  PHP can be installed on any web server: Apache, IIS, Netscape, etc…  PHP can be installed on any OS: Unix, Linux, Windows, MacOS, etc…  XAMPP is a free and open source cross-platform web server package, consisting mainly of the Apache HTTP Server, MySQL database, and interpreters for scripts written in the PHP and Perl programming languages.  It is used as a development tool, to allow website designers and programmers to test their work on their own computers without any access to the Internet. .  XAMPP's name is an acronym for:      X (meaning cross-platform) Apache HTTP Server MySQL PHP Perl  LAMP package is used for Linux OS  WAMP package is used for Windows OS
  126. 126.  PHP is a powerful server-side scripting language for creating dynamic and interactive websites.  PHP is the widely-used, free, and efficient alternative to competitors such as Microsoft's ASP. PHP is perfectly suited for Web development and can be embedded directly into the HTML code.  The PHP syntax is very similar to Perl and C. PHP is often used together with Apache (web server) on various operating systems. It also supports ISAPI and can be used with Microsoft's IIS on Windows.  A PHP file may contain text, HTML tags and scripts. Scripts in a PHP file are executed on the server.  What is a PHP File?  •PHP files may contain text, HTML tags and scripts  •PHP files are returned to the browser as plain HTML  •PHP files have a file extension of ".php", ".php3", or ".phtml"
  127. 127. What is PHP?          PHP stands for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor PHP is a server-side scripting language, like ASP PHP scripts are executed on the server PHP supports many databases (MySQL, Informix, Oracle, Sybase, Solid, Postgre SQL, Generic ODBC, etc.) PHP is an open source software (OSS) PHP is free to download and use Created in 1994 Syntax inherited from C, Java and Perl Powerful, yet easy to learn Why PHP?     PHP runs on different platforms (Windows, Linux, Unix, etc.) PHP is compatible with almost all servers used today (Apache, IIS, etc.) PHP is FREE to download from the official PHP resource: PHP is easy to learn and runs efficiently on the server side
  128. 128. Diff Between php4 andphp5 There are several differences between PHP4 and PHP5          1.Unified constructor and Destructor 2.Exception has been introduced 3.New error level named E_STRICT has been introduced 4.Now we can define full method definitions for a abstract class 5.Within a class we can define class constants 6.we can use the final keyword to indicate that a method cannot be overridden by a child 7.public, private and protected method introduced 8.Magic methods has been included 9.we can pass value by reference
  129. 129. How is PHP Used?  How is PHP used?  Content Management  Forums  Blogging  Wiki  CRM
  130. 130. Who Uses PHP?
  131. 131. HTML and CSS  HTML, which stands for Hyper Text Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. It provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists etc as well as for links, quotes, and other items. It allows images and objects to be embedded and can be used to create interactive forms. It is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of "tags" surrounded by angle brackets within the web page content. It can include or can load scripts in languages such as JavaScript which affect the behavior of HTML processors like Web browsers; and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to define the appearance and layout of text and other material. The W3C, maintainer of both HTML and CSS standards, encourages the use of CSS over explicit presentational markup  Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) is the encoding scheme used to create and format a web document. A user need not be an expert programmer to make use of HTML for creating hypertext documents that can be put on the internet. Example:<html> <body> <h1>My First Heading</h1> <p>My first paragraph.</p> </body> </html>
  132. 132.  a language for describing the content and presentation of a        web page content: The meaning and structure of the web page •presentation: How the page is to be presented HTML pages have a basic hierarchical structure defined by the tags <html>, <head>, <body>, and so on Basic HTML describes a static page once parsed and rendered, the page doesn’t change hyper linking was the big step forward in basic HTML
  133. 133. Intro to HTML Forms  Types of input we can collect via forms:  Text via text boxes and text areas  Selections via radio buttons, check boxes, pull down menus, and select boxes  Form actions do all of the work  Usually through button clicks
  134. 134. Basic HTML Form <form name="input" action="form_action.php" method="get"> <label for="user">Username</label> <input type="text" name="user" id="user"> <br/><input type="submit" value="Submit"> </form>
  135. 135. Text Input Types Text boxes  <input type="text" size="45" name="fName“/> Password boxes  <input type="password" name="pass" id="pass" /> Textareas - <textarea rows="3" cols="4"></textarea>
  136. 136. Selection Input Types  Single Selection  Radio buttons <input type="radio" name="sex" value="male" /> Male <br/> <input type="radio" name="sex" value="female" /> Female  Pull Down List <select name="pulldown"> <option value="1">pulldownitem 1</option> <option value="2">pulldownitem 2</option> </select>
  137. 137. Selection Input Types  Multi-Selection Check boxes <input type="checkbox" name="bike" />bike owner <br/> <input type="checkbox" name="car" />car owner Selection lists (Menus) <select name="menu" size="3" multiple="multiple"> <option value="1">menu item 1</option> <option value="2">menu item 2</option> <option value="3">menu item 3</option> <option value="4">menu item 4</option> </select>
  138. 138. Buttons  Built-in buttons - <input type="submit" /> - <input type="reset" /> - <input type="file" />  Custom buttons - <button type="button" value="Click Me" onclick="run_javascript()">
  139. 139. Form Actions <form name="input" action="html_form_action.php“ method="get">  Action specifies what file the form data will be sent to (on the server)  Method specifies by which HTTP protocol  get  post  Method is important on the receiving end
  140. 140. PHP Forms And User Input  The PHP $_GET and $_POST variables are used to retrieve information from forms, like user input. PHP Form Handling  The most important thing to notice when dealing with HTML forms and PHP is that any form element in an HTML page will automatically be available to your PHP scripts.  Form example: <html>     <body><form action="welcome.php" method="post"> Name: <input type="text" name="name" /> Age: <input type="text" name="age" /> <input type="submit" /> </form></body> </html>
  141. 141.  The example HTML page above contains two input fields and a submit button. When the user fills in this form and click on the submit button, the form data is sent to the "welcome.php" file.  •The "welcome.php" file looks like this:  <html>   <body>Welcome <?php echo $_POST["name"]; ?>.<br/> You are <?php echo $_POST["age"]; ?> years old.</body>  </html>  A sample output of the above script may be:  Welcome John.  You are 28 years old. Form Validation  User input should be validated whenever possible. Client side validation is faster, and will reduce server load.  However, any site that gets enough traffic to worry about server resources, may also need to worry about site security. You should always use server side validation if the form accesses a database.  A good way to validate a form on the server is to post the form to itself, instead of jumping to a different page. The user will then get the error messages on the same page as the form. This makes it easier to discover the error.
  142. 142. PHP $_Get The $_GET variable is used to collect values from a form with method="get". The $_GET Variable • The $_GET variable is an array of variable names and values sent by the HTTP GET method. • The $_GET variable is used to collect values from a form with method="get". Information sent from a form with the GET method is visible to everyone (it will be displayed in the browser's address bar) and it has limits on the amount of information to send (max. 100 characters). Example <form action="welcome.php" method="get"> Name: <input type="text" name="name" /> Age: <input type="text" name="age" /> <input type="submit" />  </form> When the user clicks the "Submit" button, the URL sent could look something like this:  The "welcome.php" file can now use the $_GET variable to catch the form data (notice that the names of the form fields will automatically be the ID keys in the $_GET array):
  143. 143. PHP $_Get Welcome <?php echo $_GET["name"]; ?>.<br/> You are <?php echo $_GET["age"]; ?> years old!  Why use $_GET? Note: When using the $_GET variable all variable names and values are displayed in the URL. So this method should not be used when sending passwords or other sensitive information! However, because the variables are displayed in the URL, it is possible to bookmark the page. This can be useful in some cases.  Note: The HTTP GET method is not suitable on large variable values; the value cannot exceed 100 characters.
  144. 144. PHP $_Post  The $_POST variable is used to collect values from a form with method="post". The $_POST Variable  The $_POST variable is an array of variable names and values sent by the HTTP POST method.  The $_POST variable is used to collect values from a form with method="post". Information sent from a form with the POST method is invisible to others and has no limits on the amount of information to send.  Example    <form action="welcome.php" method="post"> Enter your name: <input type="text" name="name" /> Enter your age: <input type="text" name="age" />  <input type="submit" />  </form> When the user clicks the "Submit" button, the URL will not contain any form data, and will look something like this:  The "welcome.php" file can now use the $_POST variable to catch the form data (notice that the names of the form fields will automatically be the ID keys in the $_POST array):  Welcome <?php echo $_POST["name"]; ?>.<br/>   You are <?php echo $_POST["age"]; ?> years old!
  145. 145. PHP $_Post  Why use $_POST?  Variables sent with HTTP POST are not shown in the URL  Variables have no length limit  However, because the variables are not displayed in the URL, it is not possible to bookmark the page. The $_REQUEST Variable  The PHP $_REQUEST variable contains the contents of both $_GET, $_POST, and $_COOKIE.  The PHP $_REQUEST variable can be used to get the result from form data sent with both the GET and POST methods.  Example Welcome <?php echo $_REQUEST["name"]; ?>.<br/> You are <?php echo $_REQUEST["age"]; ?> years old!
  146. 146. CSS Cascading Style Sheet
  147. 147. Introduction Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).  With CSS you will be able to:  Add new looks to your old HTML  Completely restyle a web site with only a few changes to your CSS code  Use the "style" you create on any web page you wish!
  148. 148. CSS Selector  SELECTOR { PROPERTY: VALUE }  HTML tag"{ "CSS Property": "Value" ; }  The selector name creates a direct relationship with the HTML tag you want to edit. If you wanted to change the way a paragraph tag behaved, the CSS code would look like:  p { PROPERTY: VALUE }  The above example is a template that you can use whenever you are manipulating the paragraph HTML element
  149. 149. Applying CSS Three methods 1.Internal 2.External 3.Inline
  150. 150. Creating Internal CSS Code <head> <style type="text/css"> p {color: white; } body {background-color: black; } </style> </head> <body> <p>White text on a black background!</p> </body>       We chose the HTML element we wanted to manipulate. -p{ : ; } Then we chose the CSS attribute color. -p { color:; } Next we choose the font color to be white. -p { color:white; } Now all text within a paragraph tag will show up as white! Now an explanation of the CSS code that altered the <body>'s background: We choose the HTML element Body -body { : ; } Then we chose the CSS attribute. -body { background-color:; } •Next we chose the background color to be black. -body { backgroundcolor:black; }
  151. 151. External CSS  When using CSS it is preferable to keep the CSS separate from your HTML. Placing CSS in a separate file allows the web designer to completely differentiate between content (HTML) and design (CSS). External CSS is a file that contains only CSS code and is saved with a ".css" file extension. This CSS file is then referenced in your HTML using the <link> instead of <style>. body{ background-color: gray } p { color: blue; } h3{ color: white; } Save it as .css
  152. 152. HTML <html> <head> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css“ href="test.css" /> </head> <body> <h3> A White Header </h3> <p> This paragraph has a blue font. The background color of this page is gray because we changed it with CSS! </p> </body> </html>
  153. 153. Inline css  It is possible to place CSS right in the thick of your HTML code, and this method of CSS usage is referred to as inline css.  Inline CSS has the highest priority out of external, internal, and inline CSS. This means that you can override styles that are defined in external or internal by using inline CSS <p style="background: blue; color: white;"> A new background and font color with inline CSS </p>
  154. 154. Property value of css  A value is given to the property following a colon (NOT an 'equals' sign)        and semi-colons separate the properties. body {font-size: 0.8em;color: navy;} This will apply the given values to the font-size and color properties to the body selector. So basically, when this is applied to an HTML document, text between the body tags (which is the content of the whole window) will be 0.8emsin size and navy in colour. em (such as font-size: 2em) is the unit for the calculated size of a font. So "2em", for example, is two times the current font size. px(such as font-size: 12px) is the unit for pixels. pt (such as font-size: 12pt) is the unit for points. % (such as font-size: 80%) is the unit for... wait for it... percentages.
  155. 155. Text property  font-family  This is the font itself, such as Times New Roman, Arial, or Verdana.  font-family: "Times New Roman".  font-size  font-weight  This states whether the text is bold or not.  font-style  This states whether the text is italic or not. It can be font-style: italic or font-style: normal.  text-decoration This states whether the text is underlined or not. This can be: text-decoration: overline, which places a line above the text. text-decoration: line-through, strike-through, which puts a line through the text. text-decoration: underline should only be used for links because users generally expect underlined text to be links.  This property is usually used to decorate links, such as specifying no underline with text-decoration: none.      Letter Spacing:3px
  156. 156. text-transform  This will change the case of the text.  text-transform: capitalize turns the first letter of every word into uppercase.  text-transform: uppercase turns everything into uppercase.  text-transform: lowercase turns everything into lowercase. text-transform: none I'll leave for you to work out.
  157. 157. Margins and Padding  Margin and padding are the two most commonly used properties for spacing-out elements. A margin is the space outside of the element, whereas padding is the space inside the element  The four sides of an element can also be set individually. margin-top, margin-right, margin-bottom, margin-left, padding-top, padding-right, padding-bottom and padding-left are the selfexplanatory properties you can use.
  158. 158. CSS Classes  It is possible to give an HTML element multiple looks with CSS.  The Format of Classes  Using classes is simple. You just need to add an extension to the typical CSS code and make sure you specify this extension in your HTML. Let's try this with an example of making two paragraphs that behave differently. First, we begin with the CSS code, note the red text.  CSS Code: p. first{ color: blue; } p.second{ color: red; } HTML Code: <html> <body> <p>This is a normal paragraph.</p> <p class="first">This is a paragraph that uses the p. first CSS code!</p> <p class="second">This is a paragraph that uses the p. second CSS code!</p> ...
  159. 159. CSS Background  The background of website is very important  With CSS, you are able to set the background color or image of any CSS element. In addition, you have control over how the background image is displayed. You may choose to have it repeat horizontally, vertically, or in neither direction. You may also choose to have the background remain in a fixed position, or have it scroll as it does normally.  CSS Background Color Varying backgrounds were obtained without using tables! Below are a couple examples of CSS backgrounds.  CSS Code: h4 { background-color: white; } p { background-color: #1078E1; } ul { background-color:rgb( 149, 206, 145); }
  160. 160. CSS Background Image  Need an image to repeat left-to-right, like the gradient      background you would like to have an image that remains fixed when the user scrolls down your page. This can be done quite easily with CSS and more, including: choosing if a background will repeat and which directions to repeat in. precision positioning scrolling/static images CSS Code: p { background-image:url(smallPic.jpg); } h4{ backgroundimage:url(; }
  161. 161.  CSS Background Background Image Repeat  p { background-image:url(smallPic.jpg); backgroundrepeat: repeat; }  h4 { background-image:url(smallPic.jpg);  background-repeat: repeat-y;}  ol{ background-image:url(smallPic.jpg);  ul{ background-image:url(smallPic.jpg);  background-repeat: no-repeat;}
  162. 162. CSS Background  CSS Background Image Positioning  p { background-image:url(smallPic.jpg);  background-position: 20px 10px; }  h4 { background-image:url(smallPic.jpg);  background-position: 30% 30%; }  ol{ background-image:url(smallPic.jpg);  background-position: top center; }
  163. 163. CSS Background  CSS Gradient Background  If you would like to create a gradient background like the one that appears at the top of, you must first create an image inside a painting program (Photoshop, Draw, etc) like the one you see below.  p { background-image:url(http://www./gradient.gif);  background-repeat: repeat-x; }
  164. 164. CSS Links ( Pseudo-classes ) Anchor/Link States  link-this is a link that has not been used, nor is a mouse pointer hovering over it  visited-this is a link that has been used before, but has no mouse on it  hover-this is a link currently has a mouse pointer hovering over it/on it  active-this is a link that is in the process of being clicked
  165. 165. Applying CSS to HTML page Background Color
  166. 166. Font color
  167. 167. Text Decoration
  168. 168. Font Type
  169. 169. Border
  170. 170. With cascading style sheets, there are a number of ways you can apply styles to text. 1)One way is to use inline style definitions. These allow you to specify styles in the style attribute of any HTML tag. 2)Second way is to use a style sheet specified in the header of your document. You can then refer to and reuse these styles throughout your document. A document style sheet is specified between opening and closing style tags in the header of your document: <head> <style type=”text/css”> </style> </head>  To build your style sheet, just define the styles in the style block. You can define  three types of style definitions:  HTML element definitions, which specify a default style for different HTML elements (in other words, for different HTML tags)  Class definitions, which can be applied to any HTML tag by using the class attribute common to all tags  Identity definitions, which apply to any page elements that have a matching ID
  171. 171. The following steps show you how to create a style sheet in a document and then use the styles: 1. In the header of a new document, create a style block: <style type=”text/css”> </style> 2. In the style block, create a style definition for the p tag: P{ font-family: Arial, Helvetica, SANS-SERIF; color: #ff0000; } 3. Next, create a style definition for the my Class class: .myClass{ font-size: 24pt; font-style: italic; } 4. Finally, create a style definition for elements with the my IDID: #myID{ background-color: #cccccc; } 5. In the body of your document, create a level 1 heading and apply the My Class class to it: <h1 class=”myClass”> This is a headline </h1>
  172. 172. CSS Pseudo-classes css anchor/link states  You may not know it, but a link has four different states that it can be in. CSS allows you to customize each state. Please refer to the following keywords that each correspond to one specific state:     link - this is a link that has not been used, nor is a mouse pointer hovering over it visited - this is a link that has been used before, but has no mouse on it hover - this is a link currently has a mouse pointer hovering over it/on it active - this is a link that is in the process of being clicked  Using CSS you can make a different look for each one of these states, but at the end of this lesson we will suggest a good practice for CSS Links.
  173. 173.   CSS Code: a:link { color: white; background-color: black; text-decoration: none; border: 2px solid white; }  a:visited { color: white; background-color: black; text-decoration: none; border: 2px solid white; }  a:hover { color: black; background-color: white; text-decoration: none; border: 2px solid black; }  Example:- <html> <head> <style> a:link{ text-decoration: none; color: gray; } a:visited{ text-decoration: none; color: gray; } a:hover{ text-decoration: none; color: green; font-weight: bolder; letter-spacing: 2px; } </style> </head> <body> <h2>CSS Pseudo Classes or Links</h2> <p>This is a <a href="">link with Pseudo Classes</a> !</p> </body> </html>
  174. 174. CSS pseudo –class  Syntax The syntax of pseudo-classes:  selector:pseudo-class {property:value} CSS classes can also be used with pseudo-classes:  selector.class:pseudo-class {property:value}  Example  Specify the color of links:  a:link {color:#FF0000} /* unvisited link */ a:visited {color:#00FF00} /* visited link */ a:hover {color:#FF00FF} /* mouse over link */ a:active {color:#0000FF} /* selected link */
  175. 175. CSS - The :first-child Pseudo-class     Match the first <p> element In the following example, the selector matches any <p> element that is the first child of any element: Example <html> <head> <style type="text/css"> p:first-child { color:blue } </style> </head> <body> <p>I am a strong man.</p> <p>I am a strong man.</p> </body> </html>
  176. 176. Match the first <i> element in all <p> elements  Example  <html> <head> <style type="text/css"> p > i:first-child { font-weight:bold } </style> </head> <body> <p>I am a <i>strong</i> man. I am a <i>strong</i> man.</p> <p>I am a <i>strong</i> man. I am a <i>strong</i> man.</p> </body> </html>
  177. 177. Match all <i> elements in all first child <p> elements  <html> <head> <style type="text/css"> p:first-child i { color:blue } </style> </head> <body> <p>I am a <i>strong</i> man. I am a <i>strong</i> man.</p> <p>I am a <i>strong</i> man. I am a <i>strong</i> man.</p> </body> </html>
  178. 178. CSS - The :lang Pseudo-class  <html> <head> <style type="text/css"> q:lang(no) {quotes: "~" "~"} </style> </head> <body> <p>Some text <q lang="no">A quote in a paragraph</q> Some text.</p> </body> </html>
  179. 179. The :first-line/letter Pseudo-element  Pseudo-elements can be combined with CSS classes: Example:p.article:first-letter {color:#ff0000 } <p class="article">A paragraph in an article</p> p:first-letter { color:#ff0000; font-size:xx-large; } p:first-line { color:#0000ff; font-variant:small-caps; }
  180. 180. CSS - The :before/After Pseudo-element  Example:- h1:before { content:url(smiley.gif); } h1:after { content:url(smiley.gif); }
  181. 181.  <html> <head> <style type="text/css"> div.img { margin:2px; border:1px solid #0000ff; height:auto; width:auto; float:left; text-align:center; } div.img img { display:inline; margin:3px; border:1px solid #ffffff; } div.img a:hover img { border:1px solid #0000ff; } div.desc { text-align:center; font-weight:normal; width:120px; margin:2px; } </style> </head> <body> <div class="img"> <a target="_blank" href="klematis_big.htm"> <img src="klematis_small.jpg" alt="Klematis" width="110" height="90" /> </a> <div class="desc">Add a description of the image here</div> </div> <div class="img"> <a target="_blank" href="klematis2_big.htm"> <img src="klematis2_small.jpg" alt="Klematis" width="110" height="90" /> </a> <div class="desc">Add a description of the image here</div> </div> <div class="img"> <a target="_blank" href="klematis3_big.htm"> <img src="klematis3_small.jpg" alt="Klematis" width="110" height="90" /> </a> <div class="desc">Add a description of the image here</div> </div> <div class="img"> <a target="_blank" href="klematis4_big.htm"> <img src="klematis4_small.jpg" alt="Klematis" width="110" height="90" /> </a> <div class="desc">Add a description of the image here</div> </div> </body> </html>
  182. 182. PHP Syntax and Variables
  183. 183. PHP as a Scripting Language  PHP, or PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor, is a widely used, general- purpose scripting language that was originally designed for web development, to produce dynamic web pages. It can be embedded into HTML and generally runs on a web server, which needs to be configured to process PHP code and create web page content from it. It can be deployed on most web servers and on almost every operating system and platform free of charge. PHP is installed on over 20 million websites and 1 million web servers  PHP was originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1995 and has been in continuous development ever since. The main implementation of PHP is now produced by The PHP Group and serves as the de facto standard for PHP as there is no formal specification. PHP is free software released under the PHP License, which is incompatible with the GNU General Public License (GPL) because of restrictions on the use of the term PHP.
  184. 184. PHP Syntax  Below, we have an example of a simple PHP script which sends the text        "Hello World" to the browser: <html> <body><?php echo "Hello World"; ?></body> </html> Each code line in PHP must end with a semicolon. The semicolon is a separator and is used to distinguish one set of instructions from another. There are two basic statements to output text with PHP: echo and print. In the example above we have used the echo statement to output the text "Hello World".
  185. 185. PHP Syntax Comments in PHP •In PHP, we use // to make a single-line comment or /* and */ to make a large comment block. <html> <body> <?php //This is a comment /* This is a comment block */ ?> </body> </html>
  186. 186. PHP Variables  Variables are used for storing values, such as numbers, strings or function results, so that they can be used many times in a script. Variables in PHP  Variables are used for storing a values, like text strings, numbers or arrays.  When a variable is set it can be used over and over again in your script  All variables in PHP start with a $ sign symbol.  The correct way of setting a variable in PHP:  $var_name = value; New PHP programmers often forget the $ sign at the beginning of the variable. In that case it will not work.  Let's try creating a variable with a string, and a variable with a number: <?php $txt = "Hello World!"; $number = 16; ?>
  187. 187.  Names (also called identifiers)  Must always begin with a dollar-sign ($)  generally start with a letter and can contain letters, numbers, and underscore characters “_”  Names are case sensitive  Values can be numbers, strings, boolean, etc  change as the program executes
  188. 188. PHP is a Loosely Typed Language  In PHP a variable does not need to be declared before     being set. In the example above, you see that you do not have to tell PHP which data type the variable is. PHP automatically converts the variable to the correct data type, depending on how they are set. In a strongly typed programming language, you have to declare (define) the type and name of the variable before using it. In PHP the variable is declared automatically when you use it.
  189. 189. PHP supports eight primitive types :  Four scalar types:  boolean  integer Float (floating-point number, aka'double')  string •Two compound types:  array  object •And finally two special types:  resource  NULL
  190. 190. Variables and Expressions in PHP  Names (also called identifiers)  Must always begin with a dollar-sign ($)  generally start with a letter and can contain letters, numbers, and underscore characters “_”  Names are case sensitive  Values can be numbers, strings, boolean, etc  change as the program executes  Expressions are the most important building stones of PHP. In PHP, almost anything you write is an expression. The simplest yet most accurate way to define an expression is "anything that has a value".
  191. 191.      There is one more expression that may seem odd if you haven't seen it in other languages, the ternary conditional operator: <?php $first ? $second : $third ?> If the value of the first subexpression is TRUE (non-zero), then the second subexpression is evaluated, and that is the result of the conditional expression. Otherwise, the third subexpression is evaluated, and that is the value. The following example should help you understand pre- and post-increment and expressions in general a bit better: <?php function double($i) { return $i*2; } $b = $a = 5; /* assign the value five into the variable $a and $b */ $c = $a++; /* post-increment, assign original value of $a (5) to $c */ $e = $d = ++$b; /* pre-increment, assign the incremented value of $b (6) to $d and $e */ /* at this point, both $d and $e are equal to 6 */ $f = double($d++); /* assign twice the value of $d before the increment, 2*6 = 12 to $f */ $g = double(++$e); /* assign twice the value of $e after the increment, 2*7 = 14 to $g */ $h = $g += 10; /* first, $g is incremented by 10 and ends with the value of 24. the value of the assignment (24) is then assigned into $h, and $h ends with the value of 24 as well. */ ?>
  192. 192. PHP Operators  c=a+b  Assuming a and b are numbers (remember data types? -- the result would be different if they were strings -- more about that later) this expression would add a and b and put the sum into c (remember again, that the equals sign here makes this an assignment instruction.) In the expression a + b the plus sign is an arithmetic operator. Here are some more operators:  Arithmetic Operators:  Comparison Operators:  Logical Operators:  Increment and Decrement Operators:  The Concatenate Operator  Combined Operators:
  193. 193. PHP Operators  Operators are used to operate on values.  PHP Operators  This section lists the different operators used in PHP.  Arithmetic Operators
  195. 195. PHP Operator
  196. 196. Conditional Test, Events and Flows in PHP  PHP If & Else Statements  The if, elseif and else statements in PHP are used to perform different actions based on different conditions. Conditional Statements  Very often when you write code, you want to perform different actions for different decisions.  You can use conditional statements in your code to do this.  if...else statement -use this statement if you want to execute a set of code when a condition is true and another if the condition is not true  elseif statement -is used with the if...else statement to execute a set of code if one of several condition are true
  197. 197. PHP If & Else Statements The If...Else Statement  If you want to execute some code if a condition is true and another code if a condition is false, use the if....else statement.  Example      The following example will output "Have a nice weekend!" if the current day is Friday, otherwise it will output "Have a nice day!": <html> <body><?php $d=date("D"); if ($d=="Fri")  echo "Have a nice weekend!";  echo "Have a nice day!";  else  ?></body>  </html>
  198. 198. PHP If & Else Statements  If more than one line should be executed if a condition is true/false, the lines should be enclosed within curly braces:  <html>  <body><?php  $d=date("D");  if ($d=="Fri") {    echo "Hello!<br/>"; echo "Have a nice weekend!"; echo "See you on Monday!"; }  ?></body>  </html>
  199. 199. PHP If & Else Statements  The ElseIf Statement  If you want to execute some code if one of several conditions are true use the elseif statement Syntax if (condition) code to be executed if condition is true; elseif(condition) code to be executed if condition is true; else code to be executed if condition is false;
  200. 200. PHP If & Else Statements Example The following example will output "Have a nice weekend!" if the current day is Friday, and "Have a nice Sunday!" if the current day is Sunday. Otherwise it will output "Have a nice day!": <html> <body><?php $d=date("D"); if ($d=="Fri") echo "Have a nice weekend!"; elseif($d=="Sun") echo "Have a nice Sunday!"; Else echo "Have a nice day!"; ?></body> </html>
  201. 201.  PHP Switch Statement  •The Switch statement in PHP is used to perform one of several different actions based on one of several different conditions.  The Switch Statement  •If you want to select one of many blocks of code to be executed, use the Switch statement.  •The switch statement is used to avoid long blocks of if..elseif..else code.     Syntax switch (expression) { case label1:  code to be executed if expression = label1;  break;  case label2:  code to be executed if expression = label2;  break;  default:  code to be executed  if expression is different  from both label1 and label2;  }
  202. 202. PHP Switch Statement Example  This is how it works:  A single expression (most often a variable) is evaluated once  The value of the expression is compared with the values for each case in the structure  If there is a match, the code associated with that case is executed  After a code is executed, break is used to stop the code from running into the next case  The default statement is used if none of the cases are true <html> <body><?php switch ($x) { case 1: echo "Number 1"; break; case 2: echo "Number 2"; break; case 3: echo "Number 3"; break; default: echo "No number between 1 and 3"; } ?></body> </html>
  203. 203. Iteration  Iteration or looping is a way to execute a block of program     statements more than once we will use the for statement to create loops The for loop is generally controlled by counting There is an index variable that you increment or decrement each time through the loop When the index reaches some limit condition, then the looping is done and we continue on in the code
  204. 204. Why do we want loops in our code? • Do something for a given number of times or for every object in a collection of objects  for every radio button in a form, see if it is checked  for every month of the year, charge $100 against the balance  calculate the sum of all the numbers in a list  Many loops are counting loops  they do something a certain number of times
  205. 205. PHP Looping Looping statements in PHP are used to execute the same block of code a specified number of times. Looping  Very often when you write code, you want the same block of code to run a number of times. You can use looping statements in your code to perform this. In PHP we have the following looping statements:  while -loops through a block of code if and as long as a specified condition is true  do...while -loops through a block of code once, and then repeats the loop as long as a special condition is true  for -loops through a block of code a specified number of times  foreach-loops through a block of code for each element in an array
  206. 206. PHP Looping The while Statement The while statement will execute a block of code if and as long as a condition is true. Syntax  while (condition)  code to be executed;  Example  The following example demonstrates a loop that will continue to run as long as the variable i is less than, or equal to 5. i will increase by 1 each time the loop runs: <html> <body><?php $i=1; while($i<=5) { echo "The number is " . $i . "<br/>"; $i++; } ?></body> </html>
  207. 207. PHP Looping The do...while Statement   •The do...while statement will execute a block of code at least once-it then will repeat the loop as long as a condition is true. Syntax do { code to be executed; } while (condition); Example  The following example will increment the value of i at least once, and it will continue incrementing the variable i as long as it has a value of less than 5: <html> <body><?php $i=0; do { $i++; echo "The number is " . $i . "<br/>"; } while ($i<5); ?></body> </html>
  208. 208. PHP Looping The for Statement •The for statement is used when you know how many times you want to execute a statement or a list of statements.  Syntax  for (initialization; condition; increment) { code to be executed; } Note: The for statement has three parameters. The first parameter initializes variables, the second parameter holds the condition, and the third parameter contains the increments required to implement the loop. If more than one variable is included in the initialization or the increment parameter, they should be separated by commas. The condition must evaluate to true or false.  Example  The following example prints the text "Hello World!" five times: <html> <body><?php for ($i=1; $i<=5; $i++) { echo "Hello World!<br/>"; } ?></body> </html>
  209. 209. PHP Looping The foreach Statement  The for each statement is used to loop through arrays.  For every loop, the value of the current array element is assigned to $value (and the array pointer is moved by one) -so on the next loop, you'll be looking at the next element.  Syntax foreach(array as value) { code to be executed; }  Example  The following example demonstrates a loop that will print the values of the given array: <html> <body><?php $arr=array("one", "two", "three"); foreach($arras $value) { echo "Value: " . $value . "<br/>"; } ?></body> </html>
  210. 210. Project Based Lab  Prepare a flowchart and DFD of the project whichever is assign to you ..  Flowchart indicate the workflow of the system.  A data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the "flow" of data through an information system. It differs from the flowchart as it shows the data flow instead of the control flow of the program.
  211. 211. Difference between echo and print 1. Speed. There is a difference between the two, but speed-wise it should be irrelevant which one you use. echo is marginally faster 2. Expression. print() behaves like a function in that you can do: $ret = print "Hello World"; And $ret will be 1. That means that print can be used as part of a more complex expression where echo cannot. An example from the PHP Manual: $b ? print "true" : print "false";
  212. 212. 3. Parameter(s). The grammar is: echo expression [, expression[,expression] ... ] But echo ( expression, expression ) is not valid. This would be valid: echo ("howdy"),("partner"); the same as: echo "howdy","partner"; So, echo without parentheses can take multiple parameters, which get concatenated: echo "and a ", 1, 2, 3; // comma-separated without parentheses echo ("and a 123"); // just one parameter with parentheses print() can only take one parameter: print ("and a 123"); print "and a 123";
  213. 213. Functions and Arrays using PHP
  214. 214. PHP Functions The real power of PHP comes from its functions.  In PHP -there are more than 700 built-in functions available.  Create a PHP Function  A function is a block of code that can be executed whenever we need it. Creating PHP functions:  All functions start with the word "function()"  Name the function -It should be possible to understand what the function does by its name. The name can start with a letter or underscore (not a number)  Add a "{"-The function code starts after the opening curly brace  Insert the function code  Add a "}"-The function is finished by a closing curly brace
  215. 215. PHP Functions Example •A simple function that writes my name when it is called: <html> <body><?php Function writeMyName() { echo "Kai JimRefsnes"; } writeMyName(); ?></body> </html> Use a PHP Function •Now we will use the function in a PHP script: <html> <body><?php function writeMyName() { echo "Kai JimRefsnes"; } echo "Hello world!<br/>"; echo "My name is "; writeMyName(); echo ".<br/>That's right, "; writeMyName(); echo " is my name."; ?></body> </html>
  216. 216. PHP Functions The output of the code above will be: Hello world! My name is Kai JimRefsnes. That's right, Kai JimRefsnes is my name. PHP Functions -Adding parameters •Our first function (writeMyName()) is a very simple function. It only writes a static string. •To add more functionality to a function, we can add parameters. A parameter is just like a variable. •You may have noticed the parentheses after the function name, like: writeMyName(). The parameters are specified inside the parentheses. Example 1 •The following example will write different first names, but the same last name: <html> <body><?php function writeMyName($fname) { echo $fname. "Refsnes.<br/>"; } echo "My name is "; writeMyName("Kai Jim");echo "My name is "; writeMyName("Hege");echo "My name is "; writeMyName("Stale"); ?></body>
  217. 217. PHP Functions •The output of the code above will be: My name is Kai JimRefsnes. My name is Hege Refsnes. My name is Stale Refsnes. Example 2 •The following function has two parameters: <html> <body><?php function writeMyName($fname,$punctuation) { echo $fname. "Refsnes" . $punctuation . "<br/>"; } echo "My name is "; writeMyName("Kai Jim","."); echo "My name is "; writeMyName("Hege","!"); echo "My name is "; writeMyName("Ståle","..."); ?></body> </html>
  218. 218. PHP Functions •The output of the code above will be: My name is Kai Jim Refsnes. My name is Hege Refsnes! My name is Ståle Refsnes... PHP Functions -Return values •Functions can also be used to return values. Example <html> <body><?php function add($x,$y) { $total = $x + $y; return $total; } echo "1 + 16 = " . add(1,16); ?></body> </html> The output of the code above will be: 1 + 16 = 17
  219. 219. PHP Date()
  220. 220. PHP Date() PHP Date -Format the Date •The first parameter in the date() function specifies how to format the date/time. It uses letters to represent date and time formats. Here are some of the letters that can be used: •d -The day of the month (01-31) •m -The current month, as a number (01-12) •Y -The current year in four digits  Other characters, like"/", ".", or "-" can also be inserted between the letters to add additional formatting: <?php echo date("Y/m/d"); echo "<br/>"; echo date("Y.m.d"); echo "<br/>"; echo date("Y-m-d"); ?> The output of the code above could be something like this: 2009/07/11 2009.07.11 2009-07-11
  221. 221. PHP Date()  PHP Date -Adding a Timestamp •The second parameter in the date() function specifies a timestamp. This parameter is optional. If you do not supply a timestamp, the current time will be used. •In our next example we will use the mktime() function to create a timestamp for tomorrow. •The mktime() function returns the Unix timestamp for a specified date.  Syntax •mktime(hour,minute,second,month,day,year,is_dst) •To go one day in the future we simply add one to the day argument of mktime(): <?php $tomorrow =mktime(0,0,0,date("m"),date("d")+1,date("Y")); echo "Tomorrow is ".date("Y/m/d", $tomorrow); ?>  The output of the code above could be something like this:  Tomorrow is 2006/07/12
  222. 222. PHP Arrays • An array can store one or more values in a single variable name. What is an array? • When working with PHP, sooner or later, you might want to create many similar variables. • Instead of having many similar variables, you can store the data as elements in an array. • Each element in the array has its own ID so that it can be easily accessed. • There are three different kind of arrays: • Numeric array -An array with a numeric ID key • Associative array -An array where each ID key is associated with a value • Multidimensional array -An array containing one or more arrays Numeric Arrays • A numeric array stores each element with a numeric ID key. • There are different ways to create a numeric array. Example 1 • In this example the ID key is automatically assigned: $names = array("Peter","Quagmire","Joe");
  223. 223. PHP Arrays Example 2 • In this example we assign the ID key manually: $names[0] = "Peter"; $names[1] = "Quagmire"; $names[2] = "Joe"; •The ID keys can be used in a script: <?php $names[0] = "Peter"; $names[1] = "Quagmire"; $names[2] = "Joe"; echo $names[1] . " and " . $names[2] . " are ". $names[0] . "'s neighbors"; ?> •The code above will output: Quagmire and Joe are Peter's neighbors
  224. 224. PHP Arrays Associative Arrays •An associative array, each ID key is associated with a value. •When storing data about specific named values, a numerical array is not always the best way to do it. •With associative arrays we can use the values as keys and assign values to them. Example 1 •In this example we use an array to assign ages to the different persons: $ages = array("Peter"=>32, "Quagmire"=>30, "Joe"=>34); Example 2 This example is the same as example 1, but shows a different way of creating the array: $ages['Peter'] = "32"; $ages['Quagmire'] = "30"; $ages['Joe'] = "34"; <?php $ages['Peter'] = "32"; $ages['Quagmire'] = "30"; $ages['Joe'] = "34"; echo "Peter is " . $ages['Peter'] . " years old."; ?> The code above will output: Peter is 32 years old.
  225. 225. PHP Arrays Multidimensional Arrays •In a multidimensional array, each element in the main array can also be an array. And each element in the sub-array can be an array, and so on. Example •In this example we create a multidimensional array, with automatically assigned ID keys: $families = array ( "Griffin"=>array ( "Peter", "Lois", "Megan" ), "Quagmire"=>array ( "Glenn" ), "Brown"=>array ( "Cleveland", "Loretta", "Junior" ) );
  226. 226. PHP Arrays •The array above would look like this if written to the output: Array ( [Griffin] => Array ( [0] => Peter [1] => Lois [2] => Megan ) [Quagmire] => Array ( [0] => Glenn ) [Brown] => Array ( [0] => Cleveland [1] => Loretta [2] => Junior ) )
  227. 227. Commonly used Array Functions  array_combine --Creates an array by using one array for keys and             another for its values array_count_values --Counts all the values of an array Array_diff -Computes the difference of arrays Array_merge -Merge one or more arrays Array_merge_recursive -Merge two or more arrays recursively Array_reverse -Return an array with elements in reverse order Array_search -Searches the array for a given value and returns the corresponding key if successful Array_sum -Calculate the sum of values in an array Arsort-Sort an array in reverse order and maintain index association Asort-Sort an array and maintain index association Krsort-Sort an array by key in reverse order Ksort-Sort an array by key sizeof-
  228. 228. Array Functions Example:<?php $a1=array("a","b","c","d"); $a2=array("Cat","Dog","Horse","Cow"); print_r(array_combine($a1,$a2)); ?> o/p:- Array ( [a] => Cat [b] => Dog [c] => Horse [d] => Cow ) <?php $a=array("Cat","Dog","Cat","Dog"); print_r(array_count_values($a)); ?> o/p:-Array ( [Cat] => 2 [Dog] => 2 ) <?php $a1=array(0=>"Cat",1=>"Dog",2=>"Horse"); $a2=array(3=>"Horse",4=>"Dog",5=>"Fish"); print_r(array_diff($a1,$a2)); ?> <br /> <br /> <?php $a1=array("a"=>"Horse","b"=>"Dog"); $a2=array("c"=>"Cow","b"=>"Cat"); print_r(array_merge($a1,$a2)); ?> o/p:- Array ( [0] => Cat ) Array ( [a] => Horse [b] => Cat [c] => Cow )
  229. 229. <?php $a1=array("a"=>"Horse","b"=>"Dog"); $a2=array("c"=>"Cow","b"=>"Cat"); print_r(array_merge_recursive($a1,$a2)); ?> <br /> <br /> <?php $a=array("a"=>"Dog","b"=>"Cat","c"=>"Horse"); print_r(array_reverse($a)); ?> Output:Array ( [a] => Horse [b] => Array ( [0] => Dog [1] => Cat ) [c] => Cow ) Array ( [c] => Horse [b] => Cat [a] => Dog ) <?php $a=array("a"=>"5","b"=>5,"c"=>"5"); echo array_search(5,$a,true); ?> <br /> <br /> <?php $a=array(0=>"5",1=>"15",2=>"25"); echo array_sum($a); ?> b 45
  230. 230. <?php $people = array("Peter", "Joe", "Glenn", "Cleveland"); $result = sizeof($people); echo $result; ?> Output:- 4
  231. 231. PHP Arrays  Example 2 Lets try displaying a single value from the array above: echo "Is " . $families['Griffin'][2] . " a part of the Griffin family?"; The code above will output:   Is Megan a part of the Griffin family?
  232. 232. PHP Include File • Server Side Includes (SSI) are used to create functions, headers, s, or elements that will be reused on multiple pages. Server Side Includes •You can insert the content of a file into a PHP file before the server executes it, with the include() or require() function. The two functions are identical in every way, except how they handle errors. The include() function generates a warning (but the script will continue execution) while the require() function generates a fatal error (and the script execution will stop after the error). •These two functions are used to create functions, headers, s, or elements that can be reused on multiple pages. •This can save the developer a considerable amount of time. This means that you can create a standard header or menu file that you want all your web pages to include. When the header needs to be updated, you can only update this one include file, or when you add a new page to your site, you can simply change the menu file (instead of updating the links on all web pages).
  233. 233. • Include_once and require_once is also use for include any file into your code. • But the difference between include and include_once is in include if there is any error in include file there is no effect on the code where it is included but in include_once there is effect in the code if there is any error.
  234. 234. PHP Include File The include() Function •The include() function takes all the text in a specified file and copies it into the file that uses the include function. Example 1 •Assume that you have a standard header file, called "header.php". To include the header file in a page, use the include() function, like this: <html> <body> <?phpinclude("header.php"); ?> <h1>Welcome to my home page</h1> <p>Some text</p> </body> </html> Example 2 Now, let's assume we have a standard menu file that should be used on all pages (include files usually have a ".php" extension). Look at the "menu.php" file below: <html> <body> <ahref="">Home</a> | <ahref="http://www.">About Us</a> | <ahref="http://www.">Contact Us</a> The three files, "default.php", "about.php", and "contact.php" should all include the "menu.php" file. Here is the code in "default.php": <?phpinclude("menu.php"); ?> <h1>Welcome to my home page</h1> <p>Some text</p> </body> </html>
  235. 235. PHP Include File If you look at the source code of the "default.php" in a browser, it will look something like this: <html> <body> <ahref="default.php">Home</a> | <ahref="about.php">About Us</a> | <ahref="contact.php">Contact Us</a> <h1>Welcome to my home page</h1> <p>Some text</p> </body> </html> • And, of course, we would have to do the same thing for "about.php" and "contact.php". By using include files, you simply have to update the text in the "menu.php" file if you decide to rename or change the order of the links or add another web page to the site.
  236. 236. PHP Include File The require() Function •The require() function is identical to include(), except that it handles errors differently. •The include() function generates a warning (but the script will continue execution) while the require() function generates a fatal error (and the script execution will stop after the error). •If you include a file with the include() function and an error occurs, you might get an error message like the one below. PHP code: •<html> •<body> •<?php •include("wrongFile.php"); •echo "Hello World!"; •?> •</body> •</html> Error message: Warning:include(wrongFile.php) [function.include]: failed to open stream: No such file or directory in C:homewebsitetest.phpon line 5 Warning:include() [function.include]: Failed opening'wrongFile.php'for inclusion (include_path='.;C:php5pear') in C:homewebsitetest.phpon line 5 Hello World!
  237. 237. PHP Include File • The echo statement was not executed because the script execution stopped after the fatal error. • It is recommended to use the require() function instead of include(), because scripts should not continue executing if files are missing or misnamed.
  238. 238.  HTTP Overview  HTTP is the protocol (the set of 'rules') for transferring data (e.g. HTML in web pages, pictures, files) between web servers and client browsers, and usually takes place on port80. This is where the 'http://' in website URLs comes from.  Headers can be separated into two broad types: Request the headers that your browser sends to the server when you request a file, and Response headers that the server sends to the browser when it serves the file.  PHP header(): The Basics  Using this function, you can make your scripts send headers of your choosing to the browser, and create some very useful and dynamic results. However, the first thing you need to know about the header() function is that you have to use it before PHP has sent any output (and therefore its default headers).
  239. 239.  PHP header(): Some Examples  header('Location:');   While you can sometimes get away with supplying a relative URL for the value, according to the HTTP specification, you should really use an absolute URL. One mistake that is easy to make with the Location header is not calling exit directly afterwards (you may not always want to do this, but usually you do). The reason this is a mistake is that the PHP code of the page continues to execute even though the user has gone to a new location. In the best case, this uses system resources unnecessarily. In the worst case, you may perform tasks that you never meant to.     <?php header('Refresh:10;url='); echo'Youwillberedirectedin10seconds'; ?>  Redirecting with the Refresh header  The Refresh redirects users like the Location header does, but you can add a delay before the user is redirected. For example, the following code would redirect the user to a new page after displaying the current one for 10 seconds
  240. 240. Serving different types of files and generating dynamic content using the Content-Type header  The Content-Type header tells the browser what type of data the server is about to send. Using this header, you can have your PHP scripts output anything from plaintext files to images or zip files. The table below lists frequently-used MIME types: <?php header'Connt-Type:text/plain'); Echo $lain_text_content; ?>  You can do several interesting things with this. For example, perhaps you want to send the user a pre-formatted text file rather than HTML: <?php header('Content-Type:application/octet-stream'); // name of the File Name header('Content-Disposition: attachment; '.'filename="plain_text_file.txt"'); // given name and with MIME type. echo $plain_text_content; ?>  Or perhaps you'd like to prompt the user to download the file, rather than viewing it in the browser. With the help of the ContentDisposition header, it's easy to do, and you can even suggest a file name for the user to use: