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  1. 1. Ayesha, Farwa, Iram, Samreen1ClausesDefinition of Sentence:iSentence is made up ofdifferent words combinedinto a pattern that expresses acomplete thought”. When written, itbegins with a capital letter and endswith a period, a question mark, or anexclamation mark. In its simplestform this complete statement is alsocalled an independent clause or asimple sentence. All the aboveexamples are of sentences.Sentence Fragment:A group of words which does conveysome meaning but does not express acomplete thought is called a sentencefragment. Fragments are incompletesentences. Usually, they are pieces ofsentences that have becomedisconnected from the main clause.Examples:i. in the morningii. over the windowiii. my younger brotheriv. the rosev. wet by rainvi. is a soldiervii. works day in and day outASentenceThe Sentence ___ a complete thoughtBack
  2. 2. Ayesha, Farwa, Iram, Samreen2ClausesThere are five kinds of sentences: declarative, interrogative, imperative,exclamatory, and Optative.1. iiA declarative sentence makes a statement. It tells something. A full stop isused after this kind of sentence.i. My brother is a soldier.ii. Hassan has not come today.2. An interrogative sentence asks a question. A question mark is used afterthis kind of sentence.i. Do you know how to wash a carpet?ii. What are you doing nowadays?3. An imperative sentence makes a command or requests someone to dosomething. This kind of sentence usually ends with a period.1 A sentence has five kinds. (Declarative)2 Do you know these kinds? (Interrogative)3 Study them carefully. (Imperative)4 How easy these kinds are! (Exclamatory)5 May you live long! (Optative)Types ofSentences
  3. 3. Ayesha, Farwa, Iram, Samreen3Clausesi. Give me that bookii. Please help yourself to find a dish.4. An exclamatory sentence expresses strong feelings. An exclamation markis used at the end of this kind of sentence.i. The mangoes tasted great!ii. What a beautiful sight it is!5. Optative sentence expresses wishes:i. May you live long and happy life together!ii. Peace be upon him!Note: Following are some exercises related to clauses and sentencesBack
  4. 4. Ayesha, Farwa, Iram, Samreen4ClausesClauses and Phrases WorksheetI. Put (parentheses) around the phrase or phrases in each sentence:*** phrases often start with prepositions and have an object*** phrases can show you what a plane does to a cloud*** phrases can go wherever a rabbit (or a squirrel) can go*** phrases DO NOT have a subject or a verb!1. The old man ran across the long, high bridge away from the monsters.2. For many years he has been the football coach in our town.3. Without a partner, the boy in the cool shirt could not enter the dance competition.4. From the north came a freezing rain after the snowstorm.5. We paddled our canoe slowly against the fast-moving current in the river.6. Jazz, rock, and dance bands specialize in different musical forms.7. Centuries ago musicians entertained in castles and great houses.8. Some nobles maintained their own bands of musicians.9. In the 1500’s, towns formed their own bands.10. These bands remained popular in Europe and the Americas.11. Radios and recorded music have put town bands out of business.12. In Mexico town bands still entertain the citizens.13. They play marimbas, instruments like xylophones.14. In the West Indies, steel-drum bands are popular.15. Their instruments are made from steel oil drums or barrels.
  5. 5. Ayesha, Farwa, Iram, Samreen5Clauses
  6. 6. Ayesha, Farwa, Iram, Samreen6Clauses16. Bagpipe bands are especially popular in Scotland.17. Marching bands dress in fancy uniforms.18. The drum major, with a tall hat and a baton, leads the band.19. These bands often march in complex formations.20. People of all ages usually enjoy band music21.22.iA sentence represents an eventuality….iiDeclarative sentence is also called statement or assertive sentence….