Resource Pack 2009.
Tutors: Chris Rowell.
Contents Page No.
Session 1 – Introduction, Professionalism 3
Session 2 – Code of Professional Practice 11
Session 3 – Quality Assurance 21
Session 4 – CPD Plan 27
Session 5 – Assignment workshop
End of Course!!!!!!!
Michael Eraut ‘Developing Professional Knowledge Within a Client Centred
In ‘Professional Development in Education’ Guskey, Thomas and Huberman, Michael
Eraut focuses on what professionalism is and what constitutes it. He argues that the
ideology of professionalism holds three main features:
• A knowledge base
Teaching is ‘unique’ in that it looks at subject knowledge as well as pedagogy, teaching or
practical knowledge. Unlike some, teaching also represents a number of different clients.
He points out that the measurement of quality is a difficult one as what constitutes good
teaching is often subjective and also ongoing in terms of training and development.
Success is based on results however, within the teaching ‘profession’, and this has affected
confidence due to many unattainable ideals. It is suggested that teachers prefer to be
considered as ‘responsible’ rather than ‘accountable’ due to the implications, even though
they consider themselves to be accountable to students, colleagues and quality of work.
Eraut identifies a model for the benefit of public and teachers alike and has three concepts.
• A professional practitioner
• A professional ‘school’
• A framework for determining client needs
Relating to the first concept he believes teachers possessing four types of knowledge;
acquiring information (students), skilled behaviour, planning (subject), and ‘meta processes’
such as assessment and evaluation.
He points out that only through experience can we utilise and interpret theory and that many
today consider the teacher more of a ‘reflective practitioner’. Largely this is based on areas of
experience, planning, peer observations, repertoire, knowledge gathering and so on.
He suggests that this evolves and should do and is in some ways ‘dialectic’ as it looks at
developing ideas and strategies.
What makes the reflective practitioner a professional practitioner implies moral commitment,
professional obligation to review practice and to develop ones own practice.
The ‘school’ serves clients interests and should value quality, including nourishing its staff,
with a quality of information. All staff, moreover, should be involved and need to participate
on processes and to be allowed to develop – so staff should be allowed and encouraged to
contribute to the body as a whole.
Teachers knowledge is both at once practical and theoretical and also includes areas of
management and development abilities. He believes that ‘societal knowledge’ is also
important and sometimes lacking. This is essential if we are to understand the motives of our
Updating knowledge has always been seen as important but not the only requirement for
good teaching. Think of the example of a new teacher with excellent knowledge who
possesses a Phd. They may have excellent subject knowledge but this doesn’t mean that
they present the information appropriately! Thus subject skills are ‘job related’ rather than ‘job
embedded’ until the other skills are learned.
He also states that in acquiring information we have to interpret ‘after the event’ and based
on our own encounters or experiences rather than other teachers perspectives. Problems
arise however as Nisbett and Ross illustrate that when we recall information we tend to be
selective with the salient points…this is apparent as teachers are constantly on the move so
cannot or do not make notes of situations as they happen.
In other words we need regular information gathering about progress and well being.
Our ‘skilled behaviour’ is brought about by experience and becomes ‘routinised’ in time. This
often results in a ‘diminution’ of self consciousness in order to get the job done or to get
through the day. Knowledge becomes tacit and therefore our ‘skills’ become difficult to
explain. Pearson notes that the difference of ‘habitual skills knowledge’ such as tying ones
shoelaces, is different from ‘intelligent skills knowledge’ such as teaching, though Eraut finds
this explanation too simplistic.
He points out that over time routines can become short cuts and even dysfunctional and they
can become mere coping mechanisms, unfortunately at the expense of our clients.
Processing decisions and evaluations depend on knowledge of the systems, protocols and
processes themselves as well as the perception and interpretation. We are sometimes
timebound or asked to evaluate or implement new ideas with little time or information. These
processes may also seem irrelevant or simply outdated.
When learning from experience we should give time to reflect on our actions. We need time
to review or to get feedback. We need to monitor our practice, observe others, and expand
our repertoire all in an environment that allows us to be empowered.
As far as new teachers are concerned he believes that theories of teaching should be
developed after certification, after they have time to reflect and reinterpret, to be developed
through meaningful CPD.
All of these things are ‘school’ responsibilities. There should be time and ‘stimuli’ allowed for
improvement if necessary and CPD shouldn’t be ‘post hoc’. It should involve recognising
individual needs, with agreement and planning for evaluation.
He suggests that targets in the way of reports would give an air of professionalism and good
for confidence and that all post probationary staff should be involved in support roles. Schools
should also share their expertise.
However, Griffin (1987) noted that, mandated changes rarely provides adequate resources –
resources have to be redirected. So there are limits.
Support should come from the school itself and research suggests that INSET should be
relevant for the school and the local area itself. Schools also need to know the bigger picture of
INSET for strategy purposes rather than providing ‘one off’ training days.
He makes the point towards the end of the chapter that every 5 or 6 years there should be a
special focus on the teacher/manager with a view for time to be released for further study or
support which would improve efficacy and professionalism.
Christine Butterworth ‘Reflective Practice’ from Hall, l and Marsh, Ken
‘Professionalism, Policies and Values’, (2000) Greenwich, University of Greenwich
Butterworth notes that there has been a rapid change in knowledge and ‘theories’ of
learning since the 1980’s since the first use of the tem’ reflective practice’ by Donald Schon
to ideas of different meanings of reflection.
In hi 1982 paper Schon began by explaining that the public had lost the confidence of
‘professionals’ due to the crises in society in general and professionals were no longer
considered the ‘experts’.
He notes that ‘experts’ could no longer find straight answers and a ‘panacea’ for the ills of
society. He calls this ‘discredited’ model of professional knowledge as a ‘technical rational
model’ – similar to a scientific answer, rather like a doctor.
‘…practitioners function as researchers…real world problems do not come well formed…’
He invented the phrase ‘reflection in action’ and applies it to his new model of professional
knowledge. He points out that ‘our knowing is in our action…the workaday life of the
professional practitioner reveals…a pattern of tacit knowledge in action…’.
In other words we react on the spot according to experience. He offers 6 moments or stages
of reflection resulting in us not necessarily reacting intuitively but by rethinking it through,
maybe through all 6 stages.
This is what he calls ‘reflection in action’, that is, how we think whilst we do things. We also
need to look back…to reflect…he calls this ‘reflection on action’. Schon sees that in time,
with experience, our practice becomes intuitive ‘…rich, efficient, tacit and automatic…’.
This is where the danger is however, as we can become repetitive and conservative, even
cutting corners and becoming ‘unreflective’.
There are temptations to follow unreflective practice, it is safe, it saves time and so on.
From Schon’s work, learning theorists set about establishing models on how we learn
through experience. Kolb’s learning cycle is a significant example and illustrates how we
move through concrete, reflective, abstract and action phases.
Gibbs contributes an appreciation of Kolb in a practical sense, supporting experiential
learning through reflection. Gibbs suggests we should not simply accept experience but
reflect upon it critically, this is when we can learn and create new processes.
Reflective writing especially for the new teacher, can address development issues and can
help at any level. A portfolio or diary becomes part of an essential toolkit in becoming a more
critical and accomplished practitioner.
Usher looks at what is termed as ‘informal theory’, or experience and tacit knowledge about
a certain context and, ‘formal theory’ which is more formal knowledge taught. The former is
learned through experience and more implicit.
Jarvis (1994) makes the point that this reflection may be inflexible unless it is challenged
(maybe we can see this in context of inspections?).
By producing portfolios and reflective writing students in this setting can make ‘informal
theory’ more explicit and therefore relate it to more ‘formal theory’. Agyris and Schon
suggest that students’ need to reflect on their practice to generate their ‘espoused theory’.
Whereas learning theorists and psychologists see ‘reflection’ as central to development,
sociologists and critical theorists tend to see reflection as a measure for personal
‘assessment’. In other words as a measurement of expectation under increased college
What is certain is that it is an increasingly used phenomena and considered as a ‘good thing’
by educationalists and college authorities alike, though what it actually is and what it can
actually achieve is unclear. After all even with critical reflection can we act upon our results?
What is also certain is that it has coincided with the increased use of internal CPD as a way
of ‘updating professionalism’.
There are problems. Schon has been criticised for his work for not being empirically sound
and for not having, according to Eraut, not one ‘single coherent view’ of reflection.
Lynda Hall ‘Learning From Experience’ from Hall, l and Marsh, Ken ‘Professionalism,
Policies and Values’, (2000) Greenwich, University of Greenwich Press
Hall suggests that the process of professional development is described as; ‘a continuous
cycle of reflection on experience’.
On a daily basis we need to look at Lesson Plans, consider evaluation, self assessment,
feedback and observations.
Though many teachers, especially the experienced staff members, complain that autonomy
has gone, in fact it still largely exists especially within the classroom. This fact, should make
us more responsible for our practice. She suggests that we do this reflection regularly and
systematically…don’t wait and don’t just do it when something goes well or wrong!
There are ‘five’ main areas of benefit that she suggests will help us.
• Self satisfaction
• a greater knowledge of teaching and learning
• Target areas for development
Hall also suggests that we remain as pragmatic as possible and we should focus on one
area at a time. For example, focus on management areas or techniques of question and
A useful tool to help is a SWOT or SWAIN analysis…strengths, weaknesses, aspirations,
interests and needs.
In the main, thoughts, views and feelings are what are important to your teaching
experiences and we should all write these down as soon as possible after the event…we can
often be selective or forget about our experiences. She suggests that we do the following.
• Identify one area for improvement
• Plan how to improve
• Carry out the plan
• Observe or record the effects
• Reflect and decide on future action
This is rather like a ‘dialectical’ approach.
Techniques that may help are numerous and shouldn’t be viewed as threatening…easier
said than done!
Use checklists like questionnaires such as quick closed questionnaires. Useful but don’t offer
solutions. We can also use ‘self evaluations’ that are more ‘open ended’ for this. Also get
used to the idea of observations. Peer observations are excellent for confidence,
opportunities to share practice and to talk with colleagues and of course to prepare for
Feedback must be given as soon as possible and must be confidential. Ask for recipients
feedback first and give good points. Be specific and give examples as it is easier to
remember and to prepare for next time. If you are the observee then try not to be defensive
and listen first to the observers view!
Characteristics of a profession
The list of characteristics that follows is extensive, but does not claim to include every
characteristic that has ever been attributed to professions, nor do all of these features apply
to every profession:
1. Skill based on theoretical knowledge: Professionals are assumed to have extensive
theoretical knowledge (e.g. medicine, law, scripture or engineering) and to possess
skills based on that knowledge that they are able to apply in practice.
2. Professional association: Professions usually have professional bodies organized
by their members, which are intended to enhance the status of their members and
have carefully controlled entrance requirements.
3. Extensive period of education: The most prestigious professions usually require at
least three years at university. Undertaking doctoral research can add a further 4-5
years to this period of education.
4. Testing of competence: Before being admitted to membership of a professional
body, there is a requirement to pass prescribed examinations that are based on
mainly theoretical knowledge.
5. Institutional training: In addition to examinations, there is usually a requirement for a
long period of institutionalized training where aspiring professionals acquire specified
practical experience in some sort of trainee role before being recognized as a full
member of a professional body. Continuous upgrading of skills through professional
development is also mandatory these days.
6. Licensed practitioners: Professions seek to establish a register or membership so
that only those individuals so licensed are recognized as bona fide.
7. Work autonomy: Professionals tend to retain control over their work, even when they
are employed outside the profession in commercial or public organizations. They have
also gained control over their own theoretical knowledge.
8. Code of professional conduct or ethics: Professional bodies usually have codes of
conduct or ethics for their members and disciplinary procedures for those who infringe
9. Self-regulation: Professional bodies tend to insist that they should be self-regulating
and independent from government. Professions tend to be policed and regulated by
senior, respected practitioners and the most highly qualified members of the
10. Public service and altruism: The earning of fees for services rendered can be
defended because they are provided in the public interest, e.g. the work of doctors
contributes to public health.
11. Exclusion, monopoly and legal recognition: Professions tend to exclude those who
have not met their requirements and joined the appropriate professional body. This is
often termed professional closure, and seeks to bar entry for the unqualified and to
sanction or expel incompetent members.
12. Control of remuneration and advertising: Where levels of remuneration are
determined by government, professional bodies are active in negotiating (usually
advantageous) remuneration packages for their members. Some professions set
standard scale fees, but government advocacy of competition means that these are
no longer generally enforced.
13. High status and rewards: The most successful professions achieve high status,
public prestige and rewards for their members. Some of the factors included in this list
contribute to such success.
14. Individual clients: Many professions have individual fee-paying clients. For example,
in accountancy, "the profession" usually refers to accountants who have individual and
corporate clients, rather than accountants who are employees of organizations.
15. Middle-class occupations: Traditionally, many professions have been viewed as
'respectable' occupations for middle and upper classes
16. Male-dominated: The highest status professions have tended to be male dominated
although females are closing this gender gap. Women are now being admitted to the
priesthood while its status has declined relative to other professions. Similar
arguments apply to race and class: ethnic groups and working-class people are no
less disadvantaged in most professions than they are in society generally.
17. Offer reassurance: Professionals are able to offer reassurance to their clients that
although there appear to be problems, everything is normal or being dealt with
properly, and this reassurance may be offered rather than solutions to particular
problems. For example, sick people may be reassured that they will probably get
better in a few days.
18. Ritual: Church ritual and the Court procedure are obviously ritualistic.
19. Legitimacy: Professions have clear legal authority over some activities (e.g. certifying
the insane) but are also seen as adding legitimacy to a wide range of related activities.
20. Inaccessible body of knowledge: In some professions, the body of knowledge is
relatively inaccessible to the uninitiated. Medicine and law are typically not school
subjects and have separate faculties and even separate libraries at universities.
21. Indeterminacy of knowledge: Professional knowledge contains elements that
escape being mastered and communicated in the form of rules and can only be
acquired through experience.
22. Mobility: The skill knowledge and authority of professionals belongs to the
professionals as individuals, not the organizations for which they work. Professionals
are therefore relatively mobile in employment opportunities as they can move to other
employers and take their talents with them. Standardization of professional training
and procedures enhances this mobility.
Reflective Log – 1
1. What is a professional?
2. Do you consider yourself to be a professional? Explain your answer.
3. What tensions exist between your professional expectations and the expectations of your
institution where you work?
Leaning outcome 1: Discuss the concept of professionalism and core professional values for
teachers in the lifelong learning sector.
Complete Signature………………………………… Date…………………………..
Professional Conduct and accountability
The Code of Professional Practice
Behaviour 1: PROFESSIONAL INTEGRITY
The members shall:
1. meet their professional responsibilities consistent with the Institute’s
2. use reasonable professional judgement when discharging differing
responsibilities and obligations to learners, colleagues, institution and the wider
3. uphold the reputation of the profession by never unjustly or knowingly
damaging the professional reputation of another or furthering their own position
unfairly at the expense of another;
4. comply with all reasonable assessment and quality procedures and
5. uphold the standing and reputation of the Institute and not knowingly
undermine or misrepresent its views nor their Institute membership, any
qualification or professional status.
Behaviour 2: RESPECT
The members shall at all times:
1. respect the rights of learners and colleagues in accordance with relevant
legislation and organisation requirements;
2. act in a manner which recognises diversity as an asset and does not
discriminate in respect of race, gender, disability and/or learning difficulty, age,
sexual orientation or religion and belief.
Behaviour 3: REASONABLE CARE
The members shall take reasonable care to ensure the safety and welfare of
learners and comply with relevant statutory provisions to support their well-
being and development.
Behaviour 4: PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE
The members shall provide evidence to the Institute that they have complied
with the current Institute CPD policy and guidelines.
Behaviour 5: CRIMINAL OFFENCE DISCLOSURE
Any member shall notify the Institute as soon as practicable after cautioning or
conviction for a criminal offence. The Institute reserves the right to act on such
information through its disciplinary process.
Behaviour 6: RESPONSIBILITY DURING INSTITUTE INVESTIGATIONS
A member shall use their best endeavours to assist in any investigation and
shall not seek to dissuade, penalise or discourage a person from bringing a
complaint against any member, interfere with or otherwise compromise due
Behaviour 7: RESPONSIBILITY TO THE INSTITUTE
The members shall at all times act in accordance with the Institute’s conditions
of membership which will be subject to change from time to time.
Reflective Log – 2
1. Briefly explain what the Life Long Learning Sector is and who is included/excluded from it.
2. What do you consider to be the key points of the IFL code of conduct?
3. What are the limitations of the IFL code of conduct?
4. What changes would you make to it?
Leaning outcome 2: Analyse key issues in relation to professional conduct and accountability
in the Life Long Learning sector
Complete Signature………………………………… Date…………………………..
“The new Ofsted – the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills –
came into being on 1 April 2007. It brings together the wide experience of four formerly
separate inspectorates. It will inspect and regulate care for children and young people, and
inspect education and training for learners of all ages.
We want to raise aspirations and contribute to the long term achievement of ambitious
standards and better life chances for service users. Their educational, economic and social
well-being will in turn promote England's national success
To achieve this we will report fairly and truthfully; we will listen to service users and providers;
and we will communicate our findings with all who share our vision, from service providers to
policy-makers. We do not report to government ministers but directly to Parliament (and to
the Lord Chancellor about children and family courts administration). This independence
means you can rely on us for impartial information.
The Education and Inspections Act, which established the new Ofsted, specifically requires
that in everything we do we should:
• promote service improvement
• ensure services focus on the interests of their users
• see that services are efficient, effective and promote value for money.
We carry out hundreds of inspections and regulatory visits each week, publishing our findings
within the Inspection reports area of this website. Our themed and subject specific findings
and recommendations on wider issues within the care, learning, and skills agenda, as well as
statistical information, can be found in the Publications and research area.
And you can find more detailed explanations of which services we inspect and regulate, and
how, and the latest guidance documents in the Forms and guidance area.”
Reflective Log – 3
1. What are the different agencies involved in the quality assurance process in your institution?
2. Identify and explain their purpose
3. Do you consider CPD and Quality Issues to be more concerned with accountability or
Leaning outcome 3: Apply principles of evaluation, quality assurance and quality
Complete Signature………………………………… Date…………………………..
As a member of the Institute for Learning (IfL), you commit to recording your continuing
professional development (CPD). This demonstrates that you are improving relevant
knowledge and skills in your subject area and teaching or training. A wide range of formal and
informal activities could count as meaningful professional development. You just need to be
able to answer yes to these questions:
• Have you undertaken professional development activities this year?
• Have you reflected on the learning you have gained from these activities?
• Have the activities and the reflection made a difference to how you teach or train?
• Can you show evidence of this difference and the impact it has made to learners,
colleagues or the organisation in which you work?
Recording your CPD
Your record will need to show that you have spent at least 30 hours each year (or pro-rata if
you are a part-time teacher or trainer with a minimum of 6 hours per year) on professional
development. This needs to be declared to the IfL by the 31st August every year.
You can record your CPD in any form that suits you and your circumstances although we
strongly recommend that you use REfLECT, an on-line personalised learning space that is one
of your member benefits. REfLECT is a personal and secure space, designed specifically for
the IfL to support you in keeping a log of your CPD activities and reflections.
What counts as CPD?
• Reading relevant journal articles or reviewing books
• Training courses or formal development or study
• Peer review, mentoring or shadowing
• Online learning including engagement in discussion forums and blogs
• Viewing and reviewing television programmes, documentaries and the internet
• And much more!
When do I declare my CPD
You will be able to declare your CPD from 1st June, when a self-declaration form will be made
available on our website and in REfLECT. From the beginning of September the IfL will begin a
monitoring process which might result in your record being chosen as part of a sample for
auditing. If your record is chosen, we will contact you and ask you to send us the evidence of
the hours you have declared. We will then review your record and give you feedback.
A report on the CPD monitoring process will be published in the autumn and we will illustrate
this with examples of effective professional development across the sector.
Identify at three to six areas of your own professional development you would like to develop.
Areas to develop How will you develop this issue? Resources Date
Leaning outcome 4: Demonstrate how to contribute to QA and QI systems and procedures in
partnership with others in evaluating and improving own wider professional practice
Complete Signature………………………………… Date…………………………..