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Transport

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  • 1. Biology Slide 1 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 2. 23-5 Transport in Plants Slide 2 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 3. 23-5 Transport in Plants Water PressureWater Pressure Xylem tissue forms a continuous set of tubes that runs from the roots through stems and out into the spongy mesophyll of leaves. Active transport and root pressure cause water to move from soil into plant roots. Capillary action and transpiration also are needed to transport water and minerals. Slide 3 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 4. 23-5 Transport in Plants Water PressureHow is water transported throughout aplant? Slide 4 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 5. 23-5 Transport in Plants Water PressureThe combination of root pressure, capillaryaction, and transpiration provides enoughforce to move water through the xylemtissue of even the tallest plant. Slide 5 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 6. 23-5 Transport in Plants Water PressureCohesion is the attraction of molecules of the samesubstance to each other.Adhesion is the attraction between unlike molecules. Slide 6 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 7. 23-5 Transport in Plants Water PressureThe tendency of water torise in a thin tube is calledcapillary action.Water is attracted to thewalls of the tube, andwater molecules areattracted to one another. Slide 7 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 8. 23-5 Transport in Plants Water PressureCapillary action causeswater to move muchhigher in a narrow tubethan in a wide tube. Slide 8 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 9. 23-5 Transport in Plants Water PressureTracheids and vessel elements form hollowconnected tubes in a plant.Capillary action in these structures causes water torise well above the level of the ground. Slide 9 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 10. 23-5 Transport in Plants Water PressureTranspirationIn tall plants, the major force in water transportcomes from the evaporation of water from leavesduring transpiration. Slide 10 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 11. 23-5 Transport in Plants Water PressureWhen water is lostthroughtranspiration, osmoticpressure moves waterout of the vasculartissue of the leaf. Slide 11 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 12. 23-5 Transport in Plants Water PressureThe movement of waterout of the leaf “pulls”water upward through thevascular system all theway from the roots.This process is known astranspirational pull. Slide 12 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 13. 23-5 Transport in Plants Water PressureControlling Transpiration The water content of the leaf is kept relatively constant. When there is a lot of water, water pressure in the guard cells is increased and the stomata open. Excess water is then lost through the open stomata by transpiration. Slide 13 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 14. 23-5 Transport in Plants Water PressureWhen water is scarce, the opposite occurs.Water pressure in the leaf decreases. The guard cellsrespond by closing the stomata.This reduces further water loss by limitingtranspiration.When too much water is lost, wilting occurs. When aleaf wilts, its stomata close and transpiration slowsdown. This helps a plant conserve water. Slide 14 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 15. 23-5 Transport in Plants Nutrient TransportHow are the products of photosynthesistransported throughout a plant? Slide 15 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 16. 23-5 Transport in Plants Nutrient TransportNutrient Transport Many plants pump sugars into their fruits. In cold climates, plants pump food into their roots for winter storage. This stored food must be moved back into the trunk and branches of the plant before growth begins again in the spring. Slide 16 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 17. 23-5 Transport in Plants Nutrient TransportMovement from Source to SinkA process of phloem transport moves sugarsthrough a plant from a source to a sink.A source is any cell in which sugars are producedby photosynthesis.A sink is any cell where the sugars are used orstored. Slide 17 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 18. 23-5 Transport in Plants Nutrient TransportWhen nutrients are pumped into orremoved from the phloem system, thechange in concentration causes amovement of fluid in that same direction.As a result, phloem is able to movenutrients in either direction to meet thenutritional needs of the plant. Slide 18 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 19. 23-5 Transport in Plants Nutrient TransportOne idea that explains how phloem transport takesplace is called the pressure-flow hypothesis. Slide 19 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 20. 23-5 Transport in Plants Nutrient Transport Phloem Xylem Sugar moleculesSugars produced duringphotosynthesis arepumped into the phloem(source). Source cell Movement of water Movement of sugar Slide 20 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 21. 23-5 Transport in Plants Nutrient Transport Phloem Xylem Sugar moleculesAs sugar concentrationsincrease in the phloem,water from the xylemmoves in by osmosis. Source cell Movement of water Movement of sugar Slide 21 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 22. 23-5 Transport in Plants Nutrient Transport Phloem Xylem Sugar moleculesThis movement causesan increase in pressure atthat point, forcingnutrient-rich fluid to move Source cellthrough the phloem fromnutrient-producingregions …. Movement of water Movement of sugar Slide 22 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 23. 23-5 Transport in Plants Nutrient Transport…. toward a region that Movementuses these nutrients of water Movement(sink). of sugar Sink cell Phloem Xylem Slide 23 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 24. 23-5 Transport in Plants Nutrient TransportIf part of a plant actively Movementabsorbs nutrients from of water Movementthe phloem, osmosis of sugarcauses water to follow.This decreases pressureand causes a movementof fluid in the phloemtoward the sink. Sink cell Phloem Xylem Slide 24 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 25. 23–5 Continue to: Click to Launch: - or - Slide 25 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 26. 23–5 In a plant stem, water moves from a. leaves to roots through xylem. b. roots to leaves through xylem. c. leaves to roots through phloem. d. roots to leaves through phloem. Slide 26 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 27. 23–5 Which of the following is NOT involved in the movement of water in xylem tissue? a. cohesion b. osmosis c. capillary action d. adhesion Slide 27 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 28. 23–5 When nutrients are pumped into the phloem system of a plant, the increased concentration a. causes fluid to move into the system. b. causes fluid to move out of the system. c. has no effect on the movement of fluid. d. causes fluid to move into the xylem vessels. Slide 28 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 29. 23–5 In a plant, sugar is moved from source cells to sink cells by a process of a. phloem transport. b. xylem transport. c. osmosis. d. diffusion. Slide 29 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 30. 23–5 In very tall trees, which of the following is primarily involved in moving water to the top of the tree? a. transpirational pull b. capillary action c. root pressure d. osmosis Slide 30 of 30 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 31. END OF SECTION