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Transcription and translation08 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Transcription and Translation
  • 2. Transcription
    • Definition: RNA is made from 1 gene in DNA
    • The type of RNA made is called mRNA (messenger RNA) because it sends a message from DNA to the cytoplasm
    DNA safe in the nucleus Uses mRNA To send a message to the cytoplasm
  • 3. Transcription
    • For figuring out RNA:
    • A binds U
    • C binds G
      • Unzip one gene in DNA
      • Match up bases to one side of a gene in DNA
      • mRNA detaches from the DNA
      • mRNA moves out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm
    • DNA: GAG AAC TAG TAC
    • RNA: CUC UUG AUC AUG
  • 4. Transcription happens in the nucleus. An RNA copy of a gene is made. Then the mRNA that has been made moves out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm Once in the cytoplasm, the mRNA is used to make a protein Cytoplasm of cell Nucleus DNA mRNA mRNA
  • 5. How does mRNA tell the cell what to do?
    • mRNA is a message that codes for a protein
    • Proteins are made in the cytoplasm and then work to keep the cell alive
    • Translation (protein synthesis): Process of making a protein
    • Proteins are made up of amino acids (small building blocks)
    • There are 20 different types of amino acids
  • 6. Protein Amino Acids
  • 7. Cytoplasm Ribosome
      • 1mRNA moves out of nucleus and into cytoplasm
      • mRNA attaches to a ribosome
      • Transfer RNA (tRNA) decodes the mRNA and brings amino acids to build up the protein
      • Protein (chain of amino acids) detaches from ribosome and goes off to work in the cell
    Anticodon (3 bases on tRNA): Matches up to codons on mRNA Amino acid tRNA
  • 8. The Genetic Code. . . mRNA  Codons  (3 bases) Amino  acids Stop codon – codes for the end of the mRNA (no amino acid added)
    • . . .is a code that matches codons in mRNA to amino acids on tRNAs
  • 9. Steps of Codon “Decoding”
    • 1. Read your mRNA codon  ACU
    • 2. Find 1st base on the left, 2nd base on the top, 3rd base on the right. Find where they all cross in the chart.
    • Different codons code for different amino acids!!!
    • 4. Read your amino acid.  Threonine
  • 10. DNA RNA Protein Transcription Translation Work to keep the cell alive Carries the directions to the cytoplasm Directions to make proteins are safely stored in the nucleus