Proteins and nucleic acids notes


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Proteins and nucleic acids notes

  1. 1. Two MORE Organic Biomolecules: Proteins and Nucleic Acids Honors Biology Notes
  2. 2. Warm Ups/Objectives <ul><li>SWBAT: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the building blocks and functions of proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the building blocks and functions of nucleic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Warm-Up: </li></ul><ul><li>List for water, carbohydrates, and lipids: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements in each biomolecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building blocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic or Inorganic? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polar or Non-polar? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What are Proteins? <ul><li>Proteins are biomolecules composed of C, H, O, and N (Nitrogen) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building blocks = Amino Acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function as raw materials for building new body parts like skin, hair, and nails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different proteins are made using different sequences of amino acids. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Building Blocks of Proteins <ul><li>Amino acids are the building blocks of all proteins (the alphabet of the protein language) </li></ul><ul><li>20 amino acids exist, and can be combined in different ways to create all the proteins needed for life </li></ul>
  5. 5. Examples of Proteins In the Human Body <ul><li>Contractile Proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle fibers that allow for movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surface proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification markers on cell surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signal Proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved with hormone production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ENZYMES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- We will talk about enzymes in-depth next week </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Proteins Checkpoint <ul><li>Name the building blocks of proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>What four elements are present in all proteins? </li></ul><ul><li>Name three body parts composed of proteins. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Structure of Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Nucleic Acids are organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acids are found in ALL cells. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids <ul><li>The building blocks of nucleic acids are nucleotides . A nucleotide is a monomer; therefore making nucleic acids polymers of nucleotides joined by covalent bonds. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Each nucleotide is composed of three parts: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Sugar </li></ul><ul><li>2. Phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>3. Nitrogen Base </li></ul>
  10. 10. Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Sugar and phosphate are the same in every nucleotide, but the nitrogen bases may vary. There are five types of nitrogen bases: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Adenine </li></ul><ul><li>2. Thymine </li></ul><ul><li>3. Uracil </li></ul><ul><li>4. Cytocine </li></ul><ul><li>5. Guanine </li></ul>
  11. 11. Functions of Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Nucleic acids store and pass on genetic information </li></ul>
  12. 12. Types of Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provides “directions” for its own copying (replication) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passed on from one generation to the next </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>looks like a “twisted ladder” or double helix which is held together with hydrogen bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>composed of repeating units of nucleotides </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. DNA continued <ul><ul><li>Nitrogen bases of DNA include adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>responsible for storing genetic information, or the building plan for all living organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>makes up genes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>goes through a process known as DNA replication which is when DNA will make a copy of itself. DNA is located in the nucleus of the cell </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. DNA Base-Pair Rules <ul><li>DNA looks like a twisted ladder with bases making up the rungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Adenine on one side bonds to thymine on the other </li></ul><ul><li>Cytosine on one side binds to guanine on the other </li></ul>
  15. 15. Types of Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>directs the production of a protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is a single strand of nucleotides one side of a ladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen bases of RNA include adenine (A), uracil (U), cytosine (C), and guanine (G) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. RNA continued <ul><ul><li>helps to make proteins in a process known as protein synthesis </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Nucleic Acids Checkpoint <ul><li>Name the building blocks of nucleic acids. </li></ul><ul><li>True or false: RNA stores genetic information and passes it go the next generation </li></ul><ul><li>Which nucleic acid looks like a twisted ladder ? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the base-pairing rules for DNA . </li></ul>