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Mitosis powerpoint

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Transcript

  • 1. Cell Division Mitosis
  • 2. Reasons for Mitosis
    • There are three main reasons
      • growth
      • repair/healing
      • asexual reproduction
  • 3. Cell Division by mitosis
    • Some cells divide constantly: cells in the embryo, skin cells, gut lining cells, etc.
    Epithelial Cell Intestinal Cell 7 week old embryo
  • 4. Cell Division
    • Other cells divide rarely or never.
    Brain Cell – Nerve cell Spinal Cord Cell- Nerve cell Cardiac Cell (Heart Muscle)
  • 5. Cell Division
    • 2 kinds of cell division:
      • 1. Mitosis: division of somatic cells
      • 2. Meiosis: creation of new sex cells
    Sperm cells Human egg cell Pancreatic cells
  • 6. Cell Division Vocabulary
    • Somatic cell – a body cell; a cell whose genes will not be passed on to future generations.
    • Germ cell - a cell that is destined to become a gamete (egg or sperm); a cell whose genes can be passed on to future generations
  • 7. Cell Division Vocabulary
    • diploid (2N) – a cell with 2 chromosome sets in each of its cells; all body (somatic) cells
    • haploid (N) – a cell with 1 chromosome set in each of its cells; all gametes (sperm, eggs)
  • 8.
    • A diploid cell will give rise to a diploid cell
    • Chromosome number remains the same
    • The DNA remains identically the same
    • One cell (2N) gives rise to two cells ( 2N)
    Characteristics of Mitosis
  • 9. Cell Cycle
    • A typical cell goes through a process of growth, development, and reproduction called the cell cycle.
    • Most of the cycle is called interphase.
    INTERPHASE
  • 10. Cell Cycle
    • The longest phase in the cell cycle is interphase.
    • The 3 stages of interphase are called G 1 , S, and G 2 .
  • 11.  
  • 12. Cell Division
    • All living cells come from other living cells.
    • During mitosis, the nucleus of the cell divides, forming two nuclei with identical genetic information.
  • 13. Mitosis
    • Mitosis produces two genetically identical cells.
    • Mitosis is referred to in the following stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
  • 14. Prophase
    • In prophase, the cell begins the process of division.
    • The chromosomes condense.
  • 15. chromatin duplicated chromosome
  • 16. Prophase
    • Nuclear envelope disappears.
  • 17. Prophase
    • Centrioles migrate to opposite poles of the cell.
    • Asters and spindle fibers form.
    Aster and the mitotic apparatus in an animal cell
  • 18. Draw Prophase
  • 19. Prophase Aster Sister chromatids Centromere Centriole Spindle fibers
  • 20. Metaphase
    • The chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell (metaphase plate), with the centrioles at opposite ends and the spindle fibers attached to the centromeres.
    Centriole Centriole Spindle fibers Metaphase plate
  • 21.  
  • 22. Draw Metaphase
  • 23. Anaphase
    • In anaphase, the centromeres divide.
    • At this point, each chromosome goes from having 2 sister chromatids to being 2 separate chromosomes
  • 24. Anaphase
    • The spindle fibers contract and the chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles.
  • 25. Draw Anaphase
  • 26. Telophase
    • In telophase the nucleus actually divides.
    • The chromosomes are at the poles of the cell.
    • The nuclear envelope re-forms around the two sets of chromosomes.
  • 27. Draw Telophase
  • 28. Cytokinesis
    • The division of the cytoplasm.
    • In animal cells, a Cleavage Furrow forms and separates Daughter Cells
    Cleavage furrow in a dividing frog cell.
  • 29. Cytokinesis
    • In plant cells, a Cell Plate forms and separates Daughter Cells.
    Cell Plate forming
  • 30. ANIMAL VS. PLANT MITOSIS
    • ANIMAL CELL
      • Centriole and aster present
      • Daughter cells separated by cleavage furrow
    • PLANT CELL
      • No visible centriole or aster
      • Daughter cells separated by cell plate
  • 31. Mitosis: Can you name the stages? 1 2 3 4 5
  • 32. Mitosis: Can you name the stages? Prophase 2 3 4 5
  • 33. Mitosis: Can you name the stages? Prophase Metaphase 3 4 5
  • 34. Mitosis: Can you name the stages? Prophase Metaphase Anaphase 4 5
  • 35. Mitosis: Can you name the stages? Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase 5
  • 36. Mitosis: Can you name the stages? Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis
  • 37.
    • Phases of cell cycle- IPMATC
    Interphase Cytokinesis
  • 38.
    • Phases of cell cycle - IPMATC
    I mportant P eople M ust A nalyze T asks C orrectly I mpatient P eople M ay A ttack T eachers C onstantly