Enzymes

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Enzymes

  1. 1. Enzymes: Special Proteins <ul><li>SWBAT </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the functions of enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Determine enzyme regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the effect of temperature, pH, and enzyme/substrate concentration on enzyme activity </li></ul>
  2. 2. Properties of Enzymes <ul><li>Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have active site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reused/ remains unchanged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOWERS ACTIVATION ENERGY!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy required to start a chemical reaction </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. How Enzymes Work <ul><li>Substrate – Attaches to the active site of an enzyme </li></ul><ul><li>Active Site – the pocket or groove, that the substrate fits into </li></ul><ul><li>Like a lock and key: enzyme/substrate combination allows reaction to occur like the correct key in a lock opens a door </li></ul>
  4. 4. Enzyme Action: Steps <ul><li>Enzyme attaches to its specific substrate and fits snugly within the active (binding) site. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzyme and substrate interact </li></ul><ul><li>Products are formed and released. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Enzymes in Depth <ul><li>Enzymes are the biological substance (proteins) that act as catalysts and help complex reactions occur everywhere in life </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Enzymes are recycled </li></ul><ul><li>and reused many </li></ul><ul><li>times for the same </li></ul><ul><li>type of reaction </li></ul><ul><li>( never used up ) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Sucrase converts sucrose  glucose + fructose </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sucrase remains unchanged </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Factors that affect enzymes <ul><li>Factors that affect the strength of an enzyme: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration of enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration of Substrate </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Temperature <ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each enzyme has an optimum temperature in which it works the best </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Also a range of temperature in which it will work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the temperature drops/cools, activity of enzyme decreases/slows down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When temperature increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rate of reaction increases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Then decreases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Then stops (Denature) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Biological Enzymes work in a temperature of 37°C </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. pH <ul><li>Most of biological enzymes work in a pH of 7, but there are some exceptions (Pepsin and Trypsin) </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are affected by pH and have an optimum pH </li></ul><ul><li>If the pH goes above or beyond the range, the enzyme becomes denatured </li></ul>
  11. 11. Concentration of Substrate and Enzymes <ul><li>The rate of reaction of the enzyme can be increased by increasing the concentration of the enzyme </li></ul><ul><li>After a while the rate of reaction becomes constant </li></ul><ul><li>At this point , the rate of the reaction can be increased only by increasing the concentration of the substrate </li></ul>
  12. 12. When Enzymes No Longer Work <ul><li>Environmental factors can change an enzyme. This process is called denaturation . </li></ul><ul><li>Denatured enzymes no longer work . </li></ul><ul><li>Example of Enzymes in action </li></ul>

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