Ecology Unit   Biology
Key concepts include:•   interactions within and among populations•   nutrient cycling with energy flow through    ecosyst...
What is ecology?Ecology- the scientific study of  interactions between organisms  and their environments, focusing  on ene...
What do you mean by environment?The environment is made up of two factors:Biotic factors- all living organisms inhabiting ...
BiosphereEcosystem Community  Population  Organism
Organism- any unicellular ormulticellular form exhibiting all of thecharacteristics of life, an individual.•The lowest lev...
Population-a group of organisms ofone species living in the same placeat the same time that interbreedand compete with eac...
Community- several interactingpopulations that inhabit a commonenvironment and are interdependent.
Ecosystem- populations in acommunity and the abiotic factorswith which they interact (ex.marine, terrestrial)
Biosphere- life supporting portionsof Earth composed of air, land,fresh water, and salt water.•The highest level of organi...
“The ecological niche of an organism depends not only on where it lives but also on what it does. By analogy, it may be sa...
Habitat vs. NicheNiche - the role a species plays ina community (job)Habitat- the place in which anorganism lives out its ...
Habitat vs. NicheA niche is determined by thetolerance limitations of anorganism, or a limiting factor.Limiting factor- an...
Feeding Relationships•   There are 3 main types of feeding    relationships         1. Producer- Consumer         2. Preda...
Feeding RelationshipsProducer- all  autotrophs (plants),  they trap energy  from the sun• Bottom of the food  chain
Feeding RelationshipsConsumer- all heterotrophs: they ingest food containing the sun’s energy            • Herbivores     ...
Feeding RelationshipsConsumer- Herbivores  – Eat plants• Primary  consumers• Prey animals
Feeding RelationshipsConsumer-Carnivores-eat meat• Predators  – Hunt prey  animals for food.
Feeding RelationshipsConsumer- Carnivores- eat meat• Scavengers – Feed on carrion, dead animals
Feeding RelationshipsConsumer- Omnivores -eat both plants  and animals
Feeding RelationshipsConsumer- Decomposers   • Breakdown the     complex compounds     of dead and     decaying plants and...
Symbiotic RelationshipsSymbiosis- two species living together 3 Types of symbiosis: 1. Commensalism 2. Parasitism 3. Mutua...
Symbiotic RelationshipsCommensalism- one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helpedEx. orchids on a treeE...
Symbiotic RelationshipsCommensalism- one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helpedEx. polar bears and cy...
Symbiotic RelationshipsParasitism-one species benefits (parasite) and the other is harmed (host)• Parasite-Host relationship
Symbiotic RelationshipsParasitism- parasite-hostEx. lampreys,leeches, fleas,ticks,tapeworm
Symbiotic RelationshipsMutualism- beneficial to both speciesEx. cleaning birds and cleaner shrimp
Symbiotic RelationshipsMutualism- beneficial to both speciesEx. lichen
Type of      Species   Species    Speciesrelationship harmed    benefits   neutralCommensalismParasitismMutualism        =...
Trophic Levels• Each link in a food chain is known  as a trophic level.• Trophic levels represent a feeding  step in the t...
Trophic LevelsBiomass- the amount of organic matter  comprising a group of organisms in a  habitat.• As you move up a food...
Trophic LevelsE            Tertiary           consumers-          top carnivoresN        Secondary consumers-E          sm...
Trophic LevelsFood chain- simple model that shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem
Trophic LevelsFood web- shows all possible feeding relationships in a community at each trophic level• Represents a networ...
Food chain                  Food web(just 1 path of energy)   (all possible energy paths)
Nutrient CyclesCycling maintains homeostasis(balance) in the environment.  •3 cycles to investigate:   1. Water cycle   2....
Water cycle-    •Evaporation, transpiration,     condensation, precipitation
Water cycle-
Carbon cycle-  •Photosynthesis and respiration cycle carbon and oxygen through         the environment.
Carbon cycle-
Nitrogen cycle-Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) makes up nearly78%-80% of air.Organisms can not use it in that form.Lightning and...
Nitrogen cycle-Only in certain bacteria and industrialtechnologies can fix nitrogen.Nitrogen fixation-convert atmosphericn...
Nitrogen cycle-Nitrogen-fixingbacteria:Some live in asymbioticrelationship withplants of the legumefamily (e.g.,soybeans, ...
Nitrogen cycle-•Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria livefree in the soil.•Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria areessential to maintain...
Atmospheric         Nitrogen CycleLightning                    nitrogen                                                   ...
Toxins in food chains-While energy decreases as it moves upthe food chain, toxins increase inpotency.•This is called biolo...
Ecology notes ppt
Ecology notes ppt
Ecology notes ppt
Ecology notes ppt
Ecology notes ppt
Ecology notes ppt
Ecology notes ppt
Ecology notes ppt
Ecology notes ppt
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  • What do you think about when I say ecology? Recycling? Acid rain?
  • What do you think about when I say ecology? Recycling? Acid rain?
  • When I say environment you think what—weather. Well Ok but it it much more than that
  • Just like with classification, ecology is hierarchal. Each level builds on itself and they fit together like nesting boxes.
  • The lowest level is the individual. The organism. Here we see a salmon and a bear as examples of organisms. REMINDER: organisms die, species go extint
  • The next level is a population. A population consists of a single species living together and breeding. Give me an example of a population. Ex. large mouth bass living in Lake Meade. Beetles living under the same log. Here we have salmon spwning and two bears fishing.
  • Next level is a community which is several populations living together and depending on each other. What does interdependent mean? An example of a community is shown here with the bear and the salmon. They both live in a common environment and the bear needs the fish for food? How does the salmon need the bear?
  • Lets review. Organisms make up populations, populations make up communities, communities and abiotic factors make up ecosystems, and all of the ecosystems make up the biosphere. From one to many and each depending on the other.
  • You don’t have to write this down!!
  • Although several species may share a habitat they each have their own niche. A niche is a very narrow range where a species fits within a habitat.
  • Although several species may share a habitat they each have their own niche. A niche is a very narrow range where a species fits within a habitat.
  • How do they trap the sun’s energy? Through what process? What is that process similar to in animal cells?
  • How do they trap the sun’s energy? Through what process? What is that process similar to in animal cells?
  • Energy moves up the food chain through the producer/consumer relationship.
  • Herbivores are the 1 st step up the food chain, they eat the producers
  • Scavengers are a type of carnivore that eat dead animals, or carrion. Vultures, hyenas, crabs, deep sea fish-talk about distance from the sun and must eat the dead things that sink to the bottom, bottom feeders
  • Scavengers are a type of carnivore that eat dead animals, or carrion. Vultures, hyenas, crabs, deep sea fish-talk about distance from the sun and must eat the dead things that sink to the bottom, bottom feeders
  • Humans and bears are omnivores but a large and important subset of omnivores are the decomposers. They breakdown dead producers and release the energy back into circulation.
  • Humans and bears are omnivores but a large and important subset of omnivores are the decomposers. They breakdown dead producers and release the energy back into circulation.
  • Cleaning shrimp
  • You can see here that this polar bear is no longer white.
  • The Egyptian plover takes insects from the backs of buffaloes, giraffes and rhinos. The plover has also been observed taking leeches from the open mouths of crocodiles! In this association the plover receives a supply of food and the other animal rids itself of unwelcome pests
  • The Egyptian plover takes insects from the backs of buffaloes, giraffes and rhinos. The plover has also been observed taking leeches from the open mouths of crocodiles! In this association the plover receives a supply of food and the other animal rids itself of unwelcome pests
  • Ecology notes ppt

    1. 1. Ecology Unit Biology
    2. 2. Key concepts include:• interactions within and among populations• nutrient cycling with energy flow through ecosystems• the effects of natural events and human activities on ecosystems
    3. 3. What is ecology?Ecology- the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environments, focusing on energy transfer• It is a science of relationships.
    4. 4. What do you mean by environment?The environment is made up of two factors:Biotic factors- all living organisms inhabiting the EarthAbiotic factors- nonliving parts of the environment (i.e. temperature, soil, light, moisture, air currents)
    5. 5. BiosphereEcosystem Community Population Organism
    6. 6. Organism- any unicellular ormulticellular form exhibiting all of thecharacteristics of life, an individual.•The lowest level of organization
    7. 7. Population-a group of organisms ofone species living in the same placeat the same time that interbreedand compete with each other forresources (ex. food, mates, shelter)
    8. 8. Community- several interactingpopulations that inhabit a commonenvironment and are interdependent.
    9. 9. Ecosystem- populations in acommunity and the abiotic factorswith which they interact (ex.marine, terrestrial)
    10. 10. Biosphere- life supporting portionsof Earth composed of air, land,fresh water, and salt water.•The highest level of organization
    11. 11. “The ecological niche of an organism depends not only on where it lives but also on what it does. By analogy, it may be said that the habitat is the organisms ‘address’, and the niche is its ‘profession’, biologically speaking.”Odum - Fundamentals of Ecology
    12. 12. Habitat vs. NicheNiche - the role a species plays ina community (job)Habitat- the place in which anorganism lives out its life(address)
    13. 13. Habitat vs. NicheA niche is determined by thetolerance limitations of anorganism, or a limiting factor.Limiting factor- any biotic orabiotic factor that restricts theexistence of organisms in aspecific environment.
    14. 14. Feeding Relationships• There are 3 main types of feeding relationships 1. Producer- Consumer 2. Predator- Prey 3. Parasite- Host
    15. 15. Feeding RelationshipsProducer- all autotrophs (plants), they trap energy from the sun• Bottom of the food chain
    16. 16. Feeding RelationshipsConsumer- all heterotrophs: they ingest food containing the sun’s energy • Herbivores • Carnivores • Omnivores • Decomposers
    17. 17. Feeding RelationshipsConsumer- Herbivores – Eat plants• Primary consumers• Prey animals
    18. 18. Feeding RelationshipsConsumer-Carnivores-eat meat• Predators – Hunt prey animals for food.
    19. 19. Feeding RelationshipsConsumer- Carnivores- eat meat• Scavengers – Feed on carrion, dead animals
    20. 20. Feeding RelationshipsConsumer- Omnivores -eat both plants and animals
    21. 21. Feeding RelationshipsConsumer- Decomposers • Breakdown the complex compounds of dead and decaying plants and animals into simpler molecules that can be absorbed
    22. 22. Symbiotic RelationshipsSymbiosis- two species living together 3 Types of symbiosis: 1. Commensalism 2. Parasitism 3. Mutualism
    23. 23. Symbiotic RelationshipsCommensalism- one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helpedEx. orchids on a treeEpiphytes: A plant, such as atropical orchid or a bromeliad,that grows on another plantupon which it depends formechanical support but not fornutrients. Also calledaerophyte, air plant.
    24. 24. Symbiotic RelationshipsCommensalism- one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helpedEx. polar bears and cyanobacteria
    25. 25. Symbiotic RelationshipsParasitism-one species benefits (parasite) and the other is harmed (host)• Parasite-Host relationship
    26. 26. Symbiotic RelationshipsParasitism- parasite-hostEx. lampreys,leeches, fleas,ticks,tapeworm
    27. 27. Symbiotic RelationshipsMutualism- beneficial to both speciesEx. cleaning birds and cleaner shrimp
    28. 28. Symbiotic RelationshipsMutualism- beneficial to both speciesEx. lichen
    29. 29. Type of Species Species Speciesrelationship harmed benefits neutralCommensalismParasitismMutualism = 1 species
    30. 30. Trophic Levels• Each link in a food chain is known as a trophic level.• Trophic levels represent a feeding step in the transfer of energy and matter in an ecosystem.
    31. 31. Trophic LevelsBiomass- the amount of organic matter comprising a group of organisms in a habitat.• As you move up a food chain, both available energy and biomass decrease.• Energy is transferred upwards but is diminished with each transfer.
    32. 32. Trophic LevelsE Tertiary consumers- top carnivoresN Secondary consumers-E small carnivoresR Primary consumers- HerbivoresG Producers- AutotrophsY
    33. 33. Trophic LevelsFood chain- simple model that shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem
    34. 34. Trophic LevelsFood web- shows all possible feeding relationships in a community at each trophic level• Represents a network of interconnected food chains
    35. 35. Food chain Food web(just 1 path of energy) (all possible energy paths)
    36. 36. Nutrient CyclesCycling maintains homeostasis(balance) in the environment. •3 cycles to investigate: 1. Water cycle 2. Carbon cycle 3. Nitrogen cycle
    37. 37. Water cycle- •Evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation
    38. 38. Water cycle-
    39. 39. Carbon cycle- •Photosynthesis and respiration cycle carbon and oxygen through the environment.
    40. 40. Carbon cycle-
    41. 41. Nitrogen cycle-Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) makes up nearly78%-80% of air.Organisms can not use it in that form.Lightning and bacteria convert nitrogen intousable forms.
    42. 42. Nitrogen cycle-Only in certain bacteria and industrialtechnologies can fix nitrogen.Nitrogen fixation-convert atmosphericnitrogen (N2) into ammonium (NH4+)which can be used to make organiccompounds like amino acids. N2 NH4+
    43. 43. Nitrogen cycle-Nitrogen-fixingbacteria:Some live in asymbioticrelationship withplants of the legumefamily (e.g.,soybeans, clover,peanuts).
    44. 44. Nitrogen cycle-•Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria livefree in the soil.•Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria areessential to maintaining the fertilityof semi-aquatic environments like ricepaddies.
    45. 45. Atmospheric Nitrogen CycleLightning nitrogen Denitrification by bacteria Animals Nitrogen fixing bacteria Plants Decomposers Nitrification Nitrites NitratesAmmonium by bacteria
    46. 46. Toxins in food chains-While energy decreases as it moves upthe food chain, toxins increase inpotency.•This is called biological magnificationEx: DDT & Bald Eagles
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