Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Ecology notes ppt
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Ecology notes ppt

15,495
views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education

1 Comment
7 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
15,495
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
701
Comments
1
Likes
7
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • What do you think about when I say ecology? Recycling? Acid rain?
  • What do you think about when I say ecology? Recycling? Acid rain?
  • When I say environment you think what—weather. Well Ok but it it much more than that
  • Just like with classification, ecology is hierarchal. Each level builds on itself and they fit together like nesting boxes.
  • The lowest level is the individual. The organism. Here we see a salmon and a bear as examples of organisms. REMINDER: organisms die, species go extint
  • The next level is a population. A population consists of a single species living together and breeding. Give me an example of a population. Ex. large mouth bass living in Lake Meade. Beetles living under the same log. Here we have salmon spwning and two bears fishing.
  • Next level is a community which is several populations living together and depending on each other. What does interdependent mean? An example of a community is shown here with the bear and the salmon. They both live in a common environment and the bear needs the fish for food? How does the salmon need the bear?
  • Lets review. Organisms make up populations, populations make up communities, communities and abiotic factors make up ecosystems, and all of the ecosystems make up the biosphere. From one to many and each depending on the other.
  • You don’t have to write this down!!
  • Although several species may share a habitat they each have their own niche. A niche is a very narrow range where a species fits within a habitat.
  • Although several species may share a habitat they each have their own niche. A niche is a very narrow range where a species fits within a habitat.
  • How do they trap the sun’s energy? Through what process? What is that process similar to in animal cells?
  • How do they trap the sun’s energy? Through what process? What is that process similar to in animal cells?
  • Energy moves up the food chain through the producer/consumer relationship.
  • Herbivores are the 1 st step up the food chain, they eat the producers
  • Scavengers are a type of carnivore that eat dead animals, or carrion. Vultures, hyenas, crabs, deep sea fish-talk about distance from the sun and must eat the dead things that sink to the bottom, bottom feeders
  • Scavengers are a type of carnivore that eat dead animals, or carrion. Vultures, hyenas, crabs, deep sea fish-talk about distance from the sun and must eat the dead things that sink to the bottom, bottom feeders
  • Humans and bears are omnivores but a large and important subset of omnivores are the decomposers. They breakdown dead producers and release the energy back into circulation.
  • Humans and bears are omnivores but a large and important subset of omnivores are the decomposers. They breakdown dead producers and release the energy back into circulation.
  • Cleaning shrimp
  • You can see here that this polar bear is no longer white.
  • The Egyptian plover takes insects from the backs of buffaloes, giraffes and rhinos. The plover has also been observed taking leeches from the open mouths of crocodiles! In this association the plover receives a supply of food and the other animal rids itself of unwelcome pests
  • The Egyptian plover takes insects from the backs of buffaloes, giraffes and rhinos. The plover has also been observed taking leeches from the open mouths of crocodiles! In this association the plover receives a supply of food and the other animal rids itself of unwelcome pests
  • Transcript

    • 1. Ecology Unit Biology
    • 2. Key concepts include:• interactions within and among populations• nutrient cycling with energy flow through ecosystems• the effects of natural events and human activities on ecosystems
    • 3. What is ecology?Ecology- the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environments, focusing on energy transfer• It is a science of relationships.
    • 4. What do you mean by environment?The environment is made up of two factors:Biotic factors- all living organisms inhabiting the EarthAbiotic factors- nonliving parts of the environment (i.e. temperature, soil, light, moisture, air currents)
    • 5. BiosphereEcosystem Community Population Organism
    • 6. Organism- any unicellular ormulticellular form exhibiting all of thecharacteristics of life, an individual.•The lowest level of organization
    • 7. Population-a group of organisms ofone species living in the same placeat the same time that interbreedand compete with each other forresources (ex. food, mates, shelter)
    • 8. Community- several interactingpopulations that inhabit a commonenvironment and are interdependent.
    • 9. Ecosystem- populations in acommunity and the abiotic factorswith which they interact (ex.marine, terrestrial)
    • 10. Biosphere- life supporting portionsof Earth composed of air, land,fresh water, and salt water.•The highest level of organization
    • 11. “The ecological niche of an organism depends not only on where it lives but also on what it does. By analogy, it may be said that the habitat is the organisms ‘address’, and the niche is its ‘profession’, biologically speaking.”Odum - Fundamentals of Ecology
    • 12. Habitat vs. NicheNiche - the role a species plays ina community (job)Habitat- the place in which anorganism lives out its life(address)
    • 13. Habitat vs. NicheA niche is determined by thetolerance limitations of anorganism, or a limiting factor.Limiting factor- any biotic orabiotic factor that restricts theexistence of organisms in aspecific environment.
    • 14. Feeding Relationships• There are 3 main types of feeding relationships 1. Producer- Consumer 2. Predator- Prey 3. Parasite- Host
    • 15. Feeding RelationshipsProducer- all autotrophs (plants), they trap energy from the sun• Bottom of the food chain
    • 16. Feeding RelationshipsConsumer- all heterotrophs: they ingest food containing the sun’s energy • Herbivores • Carnivores • Omnivores • Decomposers
    • 17. Feeding RelationshipsConsumer- Herbivores – Eat plants• Primary consumers• Prey animals
    • 18. Feeding RelationshipsConsumer-Carnivores-eat meat• Predators – Hunt prey animals for food.
    • 19. Feeding RelationshipsConsumer- Carnivores- eat meat• Scavengers – Feed on carrion, dead animals
    • 20. Feeding RelationshipsConsumer- Omnivores -eat both plants and animals
    • 21. Feeding RelationshipsConsumer- Decomposers • Breakdown the complex compounds of dead and decaying plants and animals into simpler molecules that can be absorbed
    • 22. Symbiotic RelationshipsSymbiosis- two species living together 3 Types of symbiosis: 1. Commensalism 2. Parasitism 3. Mutualism
    • 23. Symbiotic RelationshipsCommensalism- one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helpedEx. orchids on a treeEpiphytes: A plant, such as atropical orchid or a bromeliad,that grows on another plantupon which it depends formechanical support but not fornutrients. Also calledaerophyte, air plant.
    • 24. Symbiotic RelationshipsCommensalism- one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helpedEx. polar bears and cyanobacteria
    • 25. Symbiotic RelationshipsParasitism-one species benefits (parasite) and the other is harmed (host)• Parasite-Host relationship
    • 26. Symbiotic RelationshipsParasitism- parasite-hostEx. lampreys,leeches, fleas,ticks,tapeworm
    • 27. Symbiotic RelationshipsMutualism- beneficial to both speciesEx. cleaning birds and cleaner shrimp
    • 28. Symbiotic RelationshipsMutualism- beneficial to both speciesEx. lichen
    • 29. Type of Species Species Speciesrelationship harmed benefits neutralCommensalismParasitismMutualism = 1 species
    • 30. Trophic Levels• Each link in a food chain is known as a trophic level.• Trophic levels represent a feeding step in the transfer of energy and matter in an ecosystem.
    • 31. Trophic LevelsBiomass- the amount of organic matter comprising a group of organisms in a habitat.• As you move up a food chain, both available energy and biomass decrease.• Energy is transferred upwards but is diminished with each transfer.
    • 32. Trophic LevelsE Tertiary consumers- top carnivoresN Secondary consumers-E small carnivoresR Primary consumers- HerbivoresG Producers- AutotrophsY
    • 33. Trophic LevelsFood chain- simple model that shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem
    • 34. Trophic LevelsFood web- shows all possible feeding relationships in a community at each trophic level• Represents a network of interconnected food chains
    • 35. Food chain Food web(just 1 path of energy) (all possible energy paths)
    • 36. Nutrient CyclesCycling maintains homeostasis(balance) in the environment. •3 cycles to investigate: 1. Water cycle 2. Carbon cycle 3. Nitrogen cycle
    • 37. Water cycle- •Evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation
    • 38. Water cycle-
    • 39. Carbon cycle- •Photosynthesis and respiration cycle carbon and oxygen through the environment.
    • 40. Carbon cycle-
    • 41. Nitrogen cycle-Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) makes up nearly78%-80% of air.Organisms can not use it in that form.Lightning and bacteria convert nitrogen intousable forms.
    • 42. Nitrogen cycle-Only in certain bacteria and industrialtechnologies can fix nitrogen.Nitrogen fixation-convert atmosphericnitrogen (N2) into ammonium (NH4+)which can be used to make organiccompounds like amino acids. N2 NH4+
    • 43. Nitrogen cycle-Nitrogen-fixingbacteria:Some live in asymbioticrelationship withplants of the legumefamily (e.g.,soybeans, clover,peanuts).
    • 44. Nitrogen cycle-•Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria livefree in the soil.•Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria areessential to maintaining the fertilityof semi-aquatic environments like ricepaddies.
    • 45. Atmospheric Nitrogen CycleLightning nitrogen Denitrification by bacteria Animals Nitrogen fixing bacteria Plants Decomposers Nitrification Nitrites NitratesAmmonium by bacteria
    • 46. Toxins in food chains-While energy decreases as it moves upthe food chain, toxins increase inpotency.•This is called biological magnificationEx: DDT & Bald Eagles