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  • 1. Biology Slide 1 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 2. 23–1 Specialized Tissuesin Plants Slide 2 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 3. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Seed Plant StructureSeed Plant Structure What are the three principal organs and tissues of seed plants? Slide 3 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 4. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Seed Plant StructureThe three principal organs of seed plantsare roots, stems, and leaves.These organs perform functions such as thetransport of nutrients, protection, andcoordination of plant activities. Slide 4 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 5. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Seed Plant StructureRoots: • absorb water and dissolved nutrients. • anchor plants in the ground. • protect the plant from harmful soil bacteria and fungi. Slide 5 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 6. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Seed Plant StructureStems provide: • a support system for the plant body. • a transport system that carries nutrients. • a defense system that protects the plant against predators and disease. Slide 6 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 7. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Seed Plant StructureLeaves: • are a plant’s main photosynthetic systems. • increase the amount of sunlight plants absorb.Adjustable pores conserve water and let oxygen andcarbon dioxide enter and exit the leaf. Slide 7 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 8. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Plant Tissue SystemsWhat are the three main tissue systems ofplants? Slide 8 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 9. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Plant Tissue SystemsPlants consist of three main tissuesystems:• dermal tissue• vascular tissue• ground tissue Slide 9 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 10. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Seed Plant Structure Leaf Stem Root Slide 10 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 11. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Dermal TissueDermal Tissue The outer covering of a plant consists of epidermal cells. Epidermal cells make up dermal tissue. The outer surfaces of epidermal cells are covered with a thick waxy layer, known as the cuticle. The cuticle protects the plant against water loss and injury. Slide 11 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 12. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Dermal TissueSome epidermal cells have projections calledtrichomes, that help protect the leaf and also give it afuzzy appearance.In roots, dermal tissue includes root hair cells thatprovide a large amount of surface area and aid inwater absorption.On the underside of leaves, dermal tissue containsguard cells, which regulate water loss and gasexchange. Slide 12 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 13. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Vascular TissueVascular TissueVascular tissue forms a transport system that moveswater and nutrients throughout the plant.Vascular tissue is made up of xylem, a water-conducting tissue, and phloem, a food-conductingtissue. Slide 13 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 14. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Vascular TissueWhat specialized cells make up vasculartissue? Slide 14 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 15. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Vascular TissueVascular Tissue Vascular tissue contains several types of specialized cells. • Xylem consists of tracheids and vessel elements. • Phloem consists of sieve tube elements and companion cells. Slide 15 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 16. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Vascular Tissue Cross Section of a Stem Tracheid Companion cell Vessel element Sieve tube elementXylem Phloem Slide 16 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 17. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Vascular TissueXylemAll seed plants havetracheids.Tracheids arelong, narrow cells that Tracheidare impermeable towater. They are Vessel elementpierced by openingsthat connectneighboring cells toone another. Slide 17 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 18. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Vascular TissueAngiosperms also havevessel elements.Vessel elements form acontinuous tube throughwhich water can move. Tracheid Vessel element Slide 18 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 19. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Vascular TissuePhloemPhloem containssieve tube elementsand companion cells. Companion cellSieve tubeelements are Sieve tube elementphloem cells joinedend-to-end to formsieve tubes. Slide 19 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 20. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Vascular TissueThe end walls ofsieve tube elementshave many smallholes.Sugars and other Companion cellfoods can movethrough these holes Sieve tube elementfrom one adjacentcell to another. Slide 20 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 21. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Vascular TissueCompanion cells arephloem cells thatsurround sieve tubeelements.Companion cells Companion cellsupport the phloem Sieve tube elementcells and aid in themovement ofsubstances in and outof the phloem. Slide 21 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 22. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Ground TissueGround Tissue Cells that lie between dermal and vascular tissues make up the ground tissues. The three kinds of ground tissue are: • parenchyma • collenchyma • sclerenchyma Slide 22 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 23. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Ground TissueParenchyma cells have thin walls and largecentral vacuoles surrounded by a thin layer ofcytoplasm.Collenchyma cells have strong, flexible cellwalls that help support larger plants.Sclerenchyma cells have extremely thick, rigidcell walls that make ground tissue tough andstrong. Slide 23 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 24. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Plant Growth and Meristematic TissuePlant Growth and Meristematic Tissue In most plants, new cells are produced at the tips of the roots and stems. These cells are produced in meristems. A meristem is a cluster of tissue that is responsible for continuing growth throughout a plants lifetime. Slide 24 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 25. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Plant Growth and Meristematic TissueThe new cells produced in meristematic tissue areundifferentiated.As the cells develop into mature cells, theydifferentiate.Differentiation is the process in which cells becomespecialized in structure.As the cells differentiate, they producedermal, ground, and vascular tissue. Slide 25 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 26. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Plant Growth and Meristematic TissueNear the tip of each growing stem and root is anapical meristem.An apical meristem is a group of undifferentiatedcells that divide to produce increased length of stemsand roots. Slide 26 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 27. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Plant Growth and Meristemat TissueHow does meristematic tissue differ fromother plant tissue? Slide 27 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 28. 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Plant Growth and Meristemat TissueMeristematic tissue is the only plant tissuethat produces new cells by mitosis. Slide 28 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 29. 23–1 Continue to: Click to Launch: - or - Slide 29 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 30. 23–1 The principle organs of seed plants are a. reproductive organs and photosynthetic organs. b. stems, leaves, and flowers. c. roots, vessels, and cones. d. leaves, stems, and roots. Slide 30 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 31. 23–1 Phloem cells that surround sieve tube elements are called a. epidermal cells. b. cuticle cells. c. companion cells. d. vessel elements. Slide 31 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 32. 23–1 Which type of ground tissue has thin cell walls and large central vacuoles? a. parenchyma b. collenchyma c. sclerenchyma d. tracheids Slide 32 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 33. 23–1 Cells that can differentiate into many plant tissues are found in a. the vascular cylinder. b. dermal tissue. c. meristematic tissue. d. ground tissue. Slide 33 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 34. 23–1 When cells in the apical meristem first develop, they are a. highly specialized and divide often. b. unspecialized and divide rarely. c. highly specialized and divide rarely. d. unspecialized and divide often. Slide 34 of 34 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 35. END OF SECTION