Cell Structure and Function The relationship between  structure  and  function  is a cornerstone of biology!!!
Objectives/Warm-Up <ul><li>SWBAT:   State the similarities and differences in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells </li></ul><...
Answers to Warm-Up <ul><li>Prokaryote:   A unicellular organism with no nucleus or  organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unice...
History of Cells <ul><li>Cells were first viewed using microscopes over 150 years ago. . . </li></ul>
Robert Hooke:  First to Observe  Dead Cells <ul><li>English scientist who examined thin slices of cork with a  microscope ...
Hooke observed  dead   cork   cells  like the ones pictured below!!! <ul><li>Hooke called these “cells” because they looke...
Anton Van Leewenhoek <ul><li>First to observe  live  cells by taking blood scrapings from his own teeth </li></ul>
Matthias Schleiden <ul><li>German scientist who worked with plants </li></ul><ul><li>Used a microscope to observe that  al...
Schwaan <ul><li>German scientist who used a microscope to observe that  all animals are made of cells   </li></ul>
Cell Theory <ul><li>Observations by these scientists led to the development of the  CELL THEORY. </li></ul><ul><li>The Cel...
Three Statements of Cell Theory <ul><li>All living things are made of one or more cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the ba...
Test Yourself!!! Answer the following questions. . . <ul><li>TRUE OR FALSE: </li></ul><ul><li>Something can be alive and n...
All cells have. . .STRUCTURE <ul><li>All cells need certain supports to survive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Membrane:   ou...
Preview It!!! <ul><li>Click here to learn about cell types!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Use this webpage to learn about  3 cell ty...
Types of Cells <ul><li>There are TWO MAJOR TYPES OF CELLS:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryotes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E...
Prokaryotes <ul><li>Organisms made of only one cell </li></ul><ul><li>Simple structure and function </li></ul><ul><li>Exam...
Taking a closer look. . .
Parts of a Prokaryote. . . <ul><li>1.  Cell Wall:   surrounds the cell and provides  structure  and  support </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Cell Membrane:   Flexible   boundary  that lies inside the cell wall in prokaryotes. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of a ...
<ul><li>3. Cytoplasm:   fluid that  fills  a cell </li></ul><ul><li>Think of  cytoplasm as the air that fills a room  – it...
<ul><li>4.  DNA:   All cells contain DNA, the genetic material for  reproduction  and  maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Think...
<ul><li>5. Ribosomes:   the site where amino acids are joined to  make proteins  for the organism </li></ul><ul><li>Think ...
Eukaryotes <ul><li>Organisms made of many cells </li></ul><ul><li>Complex functions and many organelles </li></ul><ul><li>...
Similarities to Prokaryotes: <ul><li>Eukaryotes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some  have a cell wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A...
What is an organelle? <ul><li>An  organelle  is any structure found inside a cell that carries out a specific function </l...
Nucleus <ul><li>The nucleus is the  center of a cell .  It holds all the DNA for the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of the ...
Lysosomes <ul><li>Lysosomes  are small, round organelles that contain enzymes for digesting waste  </li></ul><ul><li>Think...
Vacuoles and Vesicles <ul><li>Vacuoles and vesicles  are organelles that  store water and nutrients  for a cell </li></ul>...
Find it! Locate the  vacuole  in the plant cell, and the  vesicle  in the animal cell.
Rough and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) <ul><li>The  endoplasmic reticulum (ER)  is a series of channels used to trans...
Rough ER is dotted with ribosomes, giving it a rough appearance <ul><li>Smooth ER does </li></ul><ul><li>not have </li></u...
Golgi Body <ul><li>The  Golgi Body  looks like a stack of pancakes.  Its job is to  package and move proteins  before they...
Mitochondria <ul><li>The  mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell .  It is the site where all ATP (energy) is created t...
Microtubules and Microfilaments <ul><li>Microtubules and Microfilaments  help give the cell its three-dimensional shape </...
Chloroplasts <ul><li>Plant cells contain  chloroplasts  for  making energy from sunlight . </li></ul><ul><li>Think of chlo...
Interesting Fact. . . <ul><li>Chloroplasts are the  site of photosynthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis occurs in all...
Structures for Movement <ul><li>Both  prokaryotes  and  eukaryotes  have structures that help them  move .  </li></ul><ul>...
Cilia <ul><li>Cilia are  short, numerous hairs on the surface of a cell  that allow it to  move  and/or  obtain food </li>...
Flagella <ul><li>Flagella are  long, whip-like structures  that help a cell  move or obtain food </li></ul><ul><li>An exam...
Identify It!!! Fill in the diagram in your notes using this picture
Test Yourself. . . <ul><li>Try to answer the following questions WITHOUT LOOKING BACK AT YOUR NOTES. . . </li></ul>
Test Yourself #1 <ul><li>List the three points of  Cell Theory . </li></ul>
Answer:  Test Yourself #1 <ul><li>All living things are made of one or more cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the basic un...
Test Yourself #2 <ul><li>What is the difference between a  PROKARYOTE  and a  EUKARYOTE ? </li></ul>
Answer:  Test Yourself #2 <ul><li>A  prokaryote  is a simple organism with no nucleus and few organelles </li></ul><ul><li...
Test Yourself #3 <ul><li>What is  DNA , and where is it located inside a cell? </li></ul>
Answer:  Test Yourself #3 <ul><li>DNA is the blueprint for all cell functions.   </li></ul><ul><li>In eukaryotes, DNA is f...
Test Yourself #4 <ul><li>List the functions of these organelles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Answer:  Test Yourself #4 <ul><ul><li>Mitochondria   -- Powerhouse of the cell, produces energy as ATP </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Test Yourself #5 <ul><li>What are  flagella,  and what are they used for? </li></ul>
Answer:  Test Yourself #5 <ul><li>Flagella  are  long, whip-like tails  on certain cells that help them to  move  and to  ...
Test Yourself #6 <ul><li>Can you identify the  organelles  that belong at the red question marks??? </li></ul>
Answer:  Test Yourself #6
Next Up. . . <ul><li>Be sure to  review all of your materials  before taking a  quiz  with your  teacher !!! </li></ul>
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Cell structure and function

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Cell structure and function

  1. 1. Cell Structure and Function The relationship between structure and function is a cornerstone of biology!!!
  2. 2. Objectives/Warm-Up <ul><li>SWBAT: State the similarities and differences in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells </li></ul><ul><li>Warm-Up: Define the words “prokaryote” and “eukaryote” in your notes. . . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Answers to Warm-Up <ul><li>Prokaryote: A unicellular organism with no nucleus or organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular = ONE cell only </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eukaryote: A multicellular organism with a nucleus and organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular = MANY cells </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. History of Cells <ul><li>Cells were first viewed using microscopes over 150 years ago. . . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Robert Hooke: First to Observe Dead Cells <ul><li>English scientist who examined thin slices of cork with a microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Observed that cork was composed of “cells” </li></ul><ul><li>Actually observed dead cork cells, not live cells </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hooke observed dead cork cells like the ones pictured below!!! <ul><li>Hooke called these “cells” because they looked like the small cells or rooms that monks lived in at the monastery </li></ul>
  7. 7. Anton Van Leewenhoek <ul><li>First to observe live cells by taking blood scrapings from his own teeth </li></ul>
  8. 8. Matthias Schleiden <ul><li>German scientist who worked with plants </li></ul><ul><li>Used a microscope to observe that all plants are made of cells </li></ul>
  9. 9. Schwaan <ul><li>German scientist who used a microscope to observe that all animals are made of cells </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cell Theory <ul><li>Observations by these scientists led to the development of the CELL THEORY. </li></ul><ul><li>The Cell Theory describes what we believe to be true about all life and all cells. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Three Statements of Cell Theory <ul><li>All living things are made of one or more cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in organisms </li></ul><ul><li>All cells come from existing cells. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Test Yourself!!! Answer the following questions. . . <ul><li>TRUE OR FALSE: </li></ul><ul><li>Something can be alive and not be made of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Every living cell comes from another cell </li></ul><ul><li>Some organisms are not made of cells </li></ul><ul><li>FALSE </li></ul><ul><li>TRUE </li></ul><ul><li>FALSE </li></ul>
  13. 13. All cells have. . .STRUCTURE <ul><li>All cells need certain supports to survive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Membrane: outer covering of cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm (also called cytosol): open space inside cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytoskeleton: support beams that hold cell’s shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribosomes: structures that help make proteins needed to survive </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Preview It!!! <ul><li>Click here to learn about cell types!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Use this webpage to learn about 3 cell types . Notice how they are similar and how they are different . </li></ul>
  15. 15. Types of Cells <ul><li>There are TWO MAJOR TYPES OF CELLS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryotes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eukaryotes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These cell types are different , but share many common structures </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Prokaryotes <ul><li>Organisms made of only one cell </li></ul><ul><li>Simple structure and function </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Bacteria </li></ul>
  17. 17. Taking a closer look. . .
  18. 18. Parts of a Prokaryote. . . <ul><li>1. Cell Wall: surrounds the cell and provides structure and support </li></ul><ul><li>Think of the cell wall as a fortress around a city – it gives structure and keeps out invaders!!! </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Cell Membrane: Flexible boundary that lies inside the cell wall in prokaryotes. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of a cell membrane as a door – substances can enter or exit the cell through the membrane like we access a room through a door!!! </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>3. Cytoplasm: fluid that fills a cell </li></ul><ul><li>Think of cytoplasm as the air that fills a room – it seems to simply take up space, but without its presence, life would stop!!! </li></ul>Cytoplasm is PURPLE in the above picture!!!
  21. 21. <ul><li>4. DNA: All cells contain DNA, the genetic material for reproduction and maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Think of DNA as the blueprints for the cell: they tell the cell how to build what it needs!!! </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>5. Ribosomes: the site where amino acids are joined to make proteins for the organism </li></ul><ul><li>Think of ribosomes as factories where proteins are assembled !!! </li></ul>
  23. 23. Eukaryotes <ul><li>Organisms made of many cells </li></ul><ul><li>Complex functions and many organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Plant and animal cells </li></ul>
  24. 24. Similarities to Prokaryotes: <ul><li>Eukaryotes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some have a cell wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All have a cell membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All have cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All have DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All have ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EUKARYOTES ALSO HAVE COMPLEX ORGANELLES </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. What is an organelle? <ul><li>An organelle is any structure found inside a cell that carries out a specific function </li></ul><ul><li>Each organelle has a job that it must do to keep the cell working!!! </li></ul>
  26. 26. Nucleus <ul><li>The nucleus is the center of a cell . It holds all the DNA for the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of the nucleus as a locked safe : important genetic information (DNA) is kept here and is not allowed out!!! </li></ul>
  27. 27. Lysosomes <ul><li>Lysosomes are small, round organelles that contain enzymes for digesting waste </li></ul><ul><li>Think of lysosomes as trash cans : they collect and store waste!!! </li></ul>
  28. 28. Vacuoles and Vesicles <ul><li>Vacuoles and vesicles are organelles that store water and nutrients for a cell </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cells contain on large central vacuole that stores water and nutrients, while animal cells have many smaller vesicles . </li></ul>
  29. 29. Find it! Locate the vacuole in the plant cell, and the vesicle in the animal cell.
  30. 30. Rough and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) <ul><li>The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a series of channels used to transport proteins throughout a cell </li></ul><ul><li>Think of the ER as a conveyor belt in a factory – it moves substances from where they are made to where they are used </li></ul>
  31. 31. Rough ER is dotted with ribosomes, giving it a rough appearance <ul><li>Smooth ER does </li></ul><ul><li>not have </li></ul><ul><li>ribosomes on it </li></ul>Take a closer look. . .
  32. 32. Golgi Body <ul><li>The Golgi Body looks like a stack of pancakes. Its job is to package and move proteins before they are released from the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of the Golgi Body as the post office – the Golgi Body makes sure proteins are ready to be “mailed” throughout the body !!! </li></ul>
  33. 33. Mitochondria <ul><li>The mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell . It is the site where all ATP (energy) is created to run cell activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of the mitochondria as a power plant – without it creating power, all work would stop!!! </li></ul>
  34. 34. Microtubules and Microfilaments <ul><li>Microtubules and Microfilaments help give the cell its three-dimensional shape </li></ul><ul><li>Think of microfilaments and microtubules as the beams of a building : the beams provide support to the building, just like the microtubules and microfilaments provide support to a cell!!! </li></ul>
  35. 35. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Plant cells contain chloroplasts for making energy from sunlight . </li></ul><ul><li>Think of chloroplasts as solar panels : they are used to make energy from the sun!!! </li></ul>
  36. 36. Interesting Fact. . . <ul><li>Chloroplasts are the site of photosynthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis occurs in all plant cells – it is how plants make their own food. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal cells do not have cholorplasts for making food – this is why animals must eat food!!! </li></ul>
  37. 37. Structures for Movement <ul><li>Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have structures that help them move . </li></ul><ul><li>These structures are called cilia and flagella </li></ul>
  38. 38. Cilia <ul><li>Cilia are short, numerous hairs on the surface of a cell that allow it to move and/or obtain food </li></ul>Paramecium, a simple organism, has cilia all over its body
  39. 39. Flagella <ul><li>Flagella are long, whip-like structures that help a cell move or obtain food </li></ul><ul><li>An example of a cell with a flagellum is a sperm cell : the flagellum is used to move towards the egg in order for fertilization to occur </li></ul>
  40. 40. Identify It!!! Fill in the diagram in your notes using this picture
  41. 41. Test Yourself. . . <ul><li>Try to answer the following questions WITHOUT LOOKING BACK AT YOUR NOTES. . . </li></ul>
  42. 42. Test Yourself #1 <ul><li>List the three points of Cell Theory . </li></ul>
  43. 43. Answer: Test Yourself #1 <ul><li>All living things are made of one or more cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in organisms </li></ul><ul><li>All cells come from existing cells. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Test Yourself #2 <ul><li>What is the difference between a PROKARYOTE and a EUKARYOTE ? </li></ul>
  45. 45. Answer: Test Yourself #2 <ul><li>A prokaryote is a simple organism with no nucleus and few organelles </li></ul><ul><li>A eukaryote is an organism with a nucleus and many organelles </li></ul>
  46. 46. Test Yourself #3 <ul><li>What is DNA , and where is it located inside a cell? </li></ul>
  47. 47. Answer: Test Yourself #3 <ul><li>DNA is the blueprint for all cell functions. </li></ul><ul><li>In eukaryotes, DNA is found in the nucleus </li></ul>
  48. 48. Test Yourself #4 <ul><li>List the functions of these organelles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Golgi Body </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Answer: Test Yourself #4 <ul><ul><li>Mitochondria -- Powerhouse of the cell, produces energy as ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribosomes – Site where proteins are created </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus -- Site where DNA is located </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Golgi Body – Packages proteins for distribution and release </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Test Yourself #5 <ul><li>What are flagella, and what are they used for? </li></ul>
  51. 51. Answer: Test Yourself #5 <ul><li>Flagella are long, whip-like tails on certain cells that help them to move and to catch food . </li></ul>
  52. 52. Test Yourself #6 <ul><li>Can you identify the organelles that belong at the red question marks??? </li></ul>
  53. 53. Answer: Test Yourself #6
  54. 54. Next Up. . . <ul><li>Be sure to review all of your materials before taking a quiz with your teacher !!! </li></ul>

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