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Cell structure and function
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Cell structure and function

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Cell structure and function Cell structure and function Presentation Transcript

  • Cell Structure and Function The relationship between structure and function is a cornerstone of biology!!!
  • Objectives/Warm-Up
    • SWBAT: State the similarities and differences in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
    • Warm-Up: Define the words “prokaryote” and “eukaryote” in your notes. . .
  • Answers to Warm-Up
    • Prokaryote: A unicellular organism with no nucleus or organelles
      • Unicellular = ONE cell only
    • Eukaryote: A multicellular organism with a nucleus and organelles
      • Multicellular = MANY cells
  • History of Cells
    • Cells were first viewed using microscopes over 150 years ago. . .
  • Robert Hooke: First to Observe Dead Cells
    • English scientist who examined thin slices of cork with a microscope
    • Observed that cork was composed of “cells”
    • Actually observed dead cork cells, not live cells
  • Hooke observed dead cork cells like the ones pictured below!!!
    • Hooke called these “cells” because they looked like the small cells or rooms that monks lived in at the monastery
  • Anton Van Leewenhoek
    • First to observe live cells by taking blood scrapings from his own teeth
  • Matthias Schleiden
    • German scientist who worked with plants
    • Used a microscope to observe that all plants are made of cells
  • Schwaan
    • German scientist who used a microscope to observe that all animals are made of cells
  • Cell Theory
    • Observations by these scientists led to the development of the CELL THEORY.
    • The Cell Theory describes what we believe to be true about all life and all cells.
  • Three Statements of Cell Theory
    • All living things are made of one or more cells
    • Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in organisms
    • All cells come from existing cells.
  • Test Yourself!!! Answer the following questions. . .
    • TRUE OR FALSE:
    • Something can be alive and not be made of cells
    • Every living cell comes from another cell
    • Some organisms are not made of cells
    • FALSE
    • TRUE
    • FALSE
  • All cells have. . .STRUCTURE
    • All cells need certain supports to survive:
      • Cell Membrane: outer covering of cell
      • Cytoplasm (also called cytosol): open space inside cell
      • Cytoskeleton: support beams that hold cell’s shape
      • Ribosomes: structures that help make proteins needed to survive
  • Preview It!!!
    • Click here to learn about cell types!!!
    • Use this webpage to learn about 3 cell types . Notice how they are similar and how they are different .
  • Types of Cells
    • There are TWO MAJOR TYPES OF CELLS:
      • Prokaryotes
      • Eukaryotes
      • These cell types are different , but share many common structures
  • Prokaryotes
    • Organisms made of only one cell
    • Simple structure and function
    • Example: Bacteria
  • Taking a closer look. . .
  • Parts of a Prokaryote. . .
    • 1. Cell Wall: surrounds the cell and provides structure and support
    • Think of the cell wall as a fortress around a city – it gives structure and keeps out invaders!!!
    • Cell Membrane: Flexible boundary that lies inside the cell wall in prokaryotes.
    • Think of a cell membrane as a door – substances can enter or exit the cell through the membrane like we access a room through a door!!!
    • 3. Cytoplasm: fluid that fills a cell
    • Think of cytoplasm as the air that fills a room – it seems to simply take up space, but without its presence, life would stop!!!
    Cytoplasm is PURPLE in the above picture!!!
    • 4. DNA: All cells contain DNA, the genetic material for reproduction and maintenance
    • Think of DNA as the blueprints for the cell: they tell the cell how to build what it needs!!!
    • 5. Ribosomes: the site where amino acids are joined to make proteins for the organism
    • Think of ribosomes as factories where proteins are assembled !!!
  • Eukaryotes
    • Organisms made of many cells
    • Complex functions and many organelles
    • Examples: Plant and animal cells
  • Similarities to Prokaryotes:
    • Eukaryotes:
      • Some have a cell wall
      • All have a cell membrane
      • All have cytoplasm
      • All have DNA
      • All have ribosomes
      • EUKARYOTES ALSO HAVE COMPLEX ORGANELLES
  • What is an organelle?
    • An organelle is any structure found inside a cell that carries out a specific function
    • Each organelle has a job that it must do to keep the cell working!!!
  • Nucleus
    • The nucleus is the center of a cell . It holds all the DNA for the cell.
    • Think of the nucleus as a locked safe : important genetic information (DNA) is kept here and is not allowed out!!!
  • Lysosomes
    • Lysosomes are small, round organelles that contain enzymes for digesting waste
    • Think of lysosomes as trash cans : they collect and store waste!!!
  • Vacuoles and Vesicles
    • Vacuoles and vesicles are organelles that store water and nutrients for a cell
    • Plant cells contain on large central vacuole that stores water and nutrients, while animal cells have many smaller vesicles .
  • Find it! Locate the vacuole in the plant cell, and the vesicle in the animal cell.
  • Rough and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a series of channels used to transport proteins throughout a cell
    • Think of the ER as a conveyor belt in a factory – it moves substances from where they are made to where they are used
  • Rough ER is dotted with ribosomes, giving it a rough appearance
    • Smooth ER does
    • not have
    • ribosomes on it
    Take a closer look. . .
  • Golgi Body
    • The Golgi Body looks like a stack of pancakes. Its job is to package and move proteins before they are released from the cell.
    • Think of the Golgi Body as the post office – the Golgi Body makes sure proteins are ready to be “mailed” throughout the body !!!
  • Mitochondria
    • The mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell . It is the site where all ATP (energy) is created to run cell activities.
    • Think of the mitochondria as a power plant – without it creating power, all work would stop!!!
  • Microtubules and Microfilaments
    • Microtubules and Microfilaments help give the cell its three-dimensional shape
    • Think of microfilaments and microtubules as the beams of a building : the beams provide support to the building, just like the microtubules and microfilaments provide support to a cell!!!
  • Chloroplasts
    • Plant cells contain chloroplasts for making energy from sunlight .
    • Think of chloroplasts as solar panels : they are used to make energy from the sun!!!
  • Interesting Fact. . .
    • Chloroplasts are the site of photosynthesis.
    • Photosynthesis occurs in all plant cells – it is how plants make their own food.
    • Animal cells do not have cholorplasts for making food – this is why animals must eat food!!!
  • Structures for Movement
    • Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have structures that help them move .
    • These structures are called cilia and flagella
  • Cilia
    • Cilia are short, numerous hairs on the surface of a cell that allow it to move and/or obtain food
    Paramecium, a simple organism, has cilia all over its body
  • Flagella
    • Flagella are long, whip-like structures that help a cell move or obtain food
    • An example of a cell with a flagellum is a sperm cell : the flagellum is used to move towards the egg in order for fertilization to occur
  • Identify It!!! Fill in the diagram in your notes using this picture
  • Test Yourself. . .
    • Try to answer the following questions WITHOUT LOOKING BACK AT YOUR NOTES. . .
  • Test Yourself #1
    • List the three points of Cell Theory .
  • Answer: Test Yourself #1
    • All living things are made of one or more cells
    • Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in organisms
    • All cells come from existing cells.
  • Test Yourself #2
    • What is the difference between a PROKARYOTE and a EUKARYOTE ?
  • Answer: Test Yourself #2
    • A prokaryote is a simple organism with no nucleus and few organelles
    • A eukaryote is an organism with a nucleus and many organelles
  • Test Yourself #3
    • What is DNA , and where is it located inside a cell?
  • Answer: Test Yourself #3
    • DNA is the blueprint for all cell functions.
    • In eukaryotes, DNA is found in the nucleus
  • Test Yourself #4
    • List the functions of these organelles:
      • Mitochondria
      • Ribosomes
      • Nucleus
      • Golgi Body
  • Answer: Test Yourself #4
      • Mitochondria -- Powerhouse of the cell, produces energy as ATP
      • Ribosomes – Site where proteins are created
      • Nucleus -- Site where DNA is located
      • Golgi Body – Packages proteins for distribution and release
  • Test Yourself #5
    • What are flagella, and what are they used for?
  • Answer: Test Yourself #5
    • Flagella are long, whip-like tails on certain cells that help them to move and to catch food .
  • Test Yourself #6
    • Can you identify the organelles that belong at the red question marks???
  • Answer: Test Yourself #6
  • Next Up. . .
    • Be sure to review all of your materials before taking a quiz with your teacher !!!