Bm 2 review 2010


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Bm 2 review 2010

  1. 1. Benchmark #2 Know these facts or ELSE. . . 
  2. 2. Inorganic Vs. Organic Biomolecules <ul><li>Organic – Contain Carbon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inorganic – Do NOT Contain Carbon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Biomolecules <ul><li>Carbohydrates provide quick energy </li></ul><ul><li>The buliding blocks of carbs are monosacharides. </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose is a carbohydrate </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids are long term energy storage </li></ul><ul><li>The cell membrane contains phospholipids. </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids cushion and protect organs in animals. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Biomolecules <ul><li>Types of proteins include enzymes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building blocks are amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enzymes control metabolic function and work best at an optimal pH level. </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleic acids are made from nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleic acids include DNA and RNA </li></ul><ul><li>DNA contains genetic code </li></ul><ul><li>RNA is needed for protein synthesis in ribosomes </li></ul>
  5. 5. Prokaryotes <ul><li>Contain no membrane bound organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Lack a nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is free floating in the cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes are floating in cytoplasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a cell wall and cell membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>May have cilia, flagella or pseuopodia </li></ul>
  6. 6. Picturing Movement Structures Flagella Cilia Pseudopodia Long tail(s) Numerous, short hairs Cytoplasm extensions
  7. 7. Eukaryotes <ul><li>Contain membrane bound organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name three organelles!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Include plant and animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Have cell membranes </li></ul><ul><li>PLANTS and FUNGI have a cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Have a nucleus housing their DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Most are multicellular!!! </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cells <ul><li>Mitochondria release energy as ATP. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle cells contain many mitochondria. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA contains genetic information for making proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes are the site for protein synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Golgi apparatus is the packaging and distribution center </li></ul><ul><li>ER transports substances within the cell. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Active and Passive Transport <ul><li>Active Transport Uses Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocytosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exocytosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ion Pumps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember: This is movement AGAINST the concentration gradient </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Passive Transport Does NOT Use Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion: Moves substances through phospholipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osmosis: Moves water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is movement WITH the concentration gradient </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Solutions and Osmosis <ul><li>Hypertonic Solutions: </li></ul><ul><li>Contain less water than the cell associated with it – water will move out of the cell, causing it to shrink </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Hypotonic Solutions: </li></ul><ul><li>Contain more water than the cell associated with it – water will move into the cell, causing it to swell </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Isotonic Solutions: </li></ul><ul><li>Water has reached equilibrium </li></ul>
  13. 13. Metric Measurements <ul><li>Time = Seconds (s) </li></ul><ul><li>Distance/Length = Meters (m) </li></ul><ul><li>Volume/Liquids = Liters (L) </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature = Celsius (C) </li></ul><ul><li>Mass = Grams (g) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Common Biology Measurements <ul><li>Small measurements: </li></ul><ul><li>Milli = 0.001 </li></ul><ul><li>Micro = 0.00001 </li></ul><ul><li>Nano = 0.000000001 </li></ul><ul><li>Microscopic organisms = micro or nanometers in length </li></ul><ul><li>Short distance = mm </li></ul><ul><li>Small liquid dosage = mL </li></ul><ul><li>Formula for microscopic magnification = eyepiece (10) times whatever the magnification is (usually 4, 40, or 100) </li></ul><ul><li>Question: If an organism is viewed under a magnification of 100 with an eyepiece of 10, how many times larger than real life does it appear? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Microscopic Measurements <ul><li>Remember – relative size between decimals is an ABSOLUTE VALUE </li></ul><ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><li>Organism A is 1X 10 -3 in length. How many times LARGER is A than organism B, which is 1 X 10 -9 in length? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Homeostasis <ul><li>Maintains constant internal environment in a changing external environment. </li></ul><ul><li>When blood glucose is low, stored glucose enters the blood stream. </li></ul><ul><li>A hormone insulin helps manage blood sugar levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Passive and active transport help maintain homeostasis of ions and chemicals in cells. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Photosynthesis and cell respiration <ul><li>Light energy is used by ALL plants to make carbohydrates (glucose) </li></ul><ul><li>Elodea (water plant) releases oxygen bubbles in water during photosyntheis and CO 2 bubbles during cellular respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts of ALL plants. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Cellular respiration <ul><li>Cell respiration is associated with releasing energy stored in ATP within the mitochondria. </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic respiration uses oxygen and makes the most ATP. </li></ul><ul><li>Anerobic respiration (fermentation) does not use oxygen and makes 2 ATP. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Chemosynthesis <ul><li>Chemosynthetic organisms like archaebacteria produce their own food. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemotrophs are producers also a type of autotroph. </li></ul><ul><li>They create carbohydrates (glucose) without sunlight. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy from inorganic compounds like hydrogen and sulfur, not sunlight. </li></ul>