Scientific Method Review• Using microscopes:Total magnification = eyepiece X objective lensExample: 40X magnification = 10X eyepiece times 4X lens
Scientific Method Review (con’t.)Independent Variable: Dependent Variable:• Always graphed on • Always graphed on the X-axis the Y-axis• What “I” set up in • What I measure as an experiment the experiment progresses
Scientific Method (con’t.)• Positive Exponents: • Negative ExponentsPositive exponents add Negative exponents zeros to the end of a add zeroes to the number, making the FRONT of a number, number larger than making the number 10 smaller than 1Example: 102 = 100 Example: 10-2 = 0.01
Scientific Method Review (con’t.)• Relative Size Using Example: Exponents: A certain protist is 5.4 X 10-8 mm in size. A certain bacterium isSize differences = 6.1 X10-11 in size. absolute values Which organism is larger, and roughly how many times larger?
Biomolecules Review Organic Molecules: Inorganic Molecules: • Contain carbon (C) in their structure • DO NOT contain carbon (C) in their • Examples include structure nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, • Examples include carbohydrates, and minerals and water vitamins
Quick Facts: Carbohydrates• Quick source of • The mitochondria breaks glucose in to energy ATP during cellular respiration• Built from monosaccharides • Because glucose is soluble in polar water• Glucose, made molecules, it is moved from our digestive during system to cells via the photosynthesis, is a circulatory system carbohydrate
Quick Facts: Lipids• Used in animals and humans to store energy • Waxes waterproof long-term feathers and leaves. This prevents plant cells from bursting due• Phospholipids are a to over absorption of component of the cell water during osmosis membrane for all on very rainy days prokaryotes and eukaryotes • Building blocks: Fatty Acids
Quick Facts: Nucleic Acids • RNA bases: A—U• Built from nucleotides G—C• Two types: DNA and • DNA is double-stranded RNA and held in the nucleus of eukaryotes• DNA bases: A—T • RNA is single-stranded C—G
Quick Facts: Proteins • Enzymes, catalysts of chemical reactions, are one type of• Assembled by linking protein amino acids at the ribosomes • Enzymes typically end in –ase. Each type of• Physical result of enzyme has its own gene reading and optimum temperature assembly (DNA— and pH range in which it works best. mRNA—protein)
Quick Facts: Vitamins and Minerals • Important Vitamins • Important Minerals C – Wound healing Calcium – strong D – strong bones and bones teeth Potassium – Muscle K – Muscle regulation regulation Iron – Oxygen transport in blood via the circulatory system
Cell Structure and Function • Eukaryotes• Prokaryotes DO have a TRUE nucleusHave NO nucleus or nuclear surrounded by a nuclear membrane membrane Possess cell membranes, Have many complex DNA, ribosomes, organelles to help perform cytoplasm and a cell wall complex functions for like structure called a multicellular life capsule Examples: Plant and animalExample: Bacteria cells
Producers: Sources of Energy• Autotrophs (producers) perform both cellular respiration and photosynthesis• Plants use their chloroplasts to photosynthesize• Chemosynthesis: Performed by archaebacteria to create glucose and oxygen from carbon dioxide and inorganic compounds• Equation for photosynthesis:Sunlight + carbon dioxide + water glucose (sugar) + oxygen
Harnessing Sources of Energy• Heterotrophs must consume glucose because they cannot make it within their bodies• Cellular respiration refines glucose in to ATP for cellular functions in heterotrophs and autotrophs • Cellular Respiration Equation: Glucose + Oxygen ATP + Carbon Dioxide + Water (Happens in the mitochondria)
Homeostasis Many processes we studied this year help maintain body balance• KIDNEYS and the EXCRETORY SYSTEM help remove wastes created in the cells• OSMOSIS and DIFFUSION regulate the movement of important nutrients and water into the cells• MITOCHONDRIA create the needed ATP for cellular functions and muscle firing
Homeostasis: Systems in Tandem Many body systems work together to keep balance in the bodyCirculatory and Respiratory Systems: Exchange of oxygen and carbondioxide as cellular respiration occursNervous and Muscular: Worktogether for muscle movement andfiring at the proper time. Maintainheartbeat, breathing, and voluntarymuscle movement
Active and Passive Transport PASSIVE TRANSPORT ACTIVE TRANSPORT does not require ATP requires ATP • Substance move from• Substances move from high concentration to low concentration to low concentration (with high concentration the gradient) (against the gradient) • Ex: Osmosis and• Ex: sodium potassium diffusion pump/ion pumps
Asexual Reproduction• Creates clones• Major types: • Vegetative – used by plants • Binary Fission – used by bacteria • Budding – Used by sponges and hydra • Fragmentation – used by starfish
MITOSIS • Makes diploid (2N) cells from a diploid cell (2N)• Creates genetically identical cells• Used in our bodies for growth, repair, and healing
• Makes haploid (N)MEIOSIS cells for sexual reproduction • Creates genetically unique egg and sperm cells (gametes) • Cells created are used in fertilization to make a zygote • Occurs in plants and animals to make reproductive cells
Application Questions• One species of Amazonian frog has 124 chromosomes in each cell. How many chromosomes are in its egg cells?• A bacterial cell in the Amazon reproduces by binary fission. The bacterium contains 20 chromosomes. How many are in its offspring?
Genetics: Major Vocabulary• Homozygous dominant: DD• Homozygous recessive: dd• Heterozygous: Dd• Genotype: Genetic makeup of an organism – use Punnett Squares to predict for offspring• Phenotype: Physical characteristics of an organism – Pedigrees always mark phenotypes for a given family
Genetics: Two Major Types of Punnett Squares Autosomal Sex-LinkedInherited the same way Inherited differently in males and females by gender
Pedigrees: Visual analysis of trait inheritance in a family • Shaded individuals have the phenotype (“are affected”) – is this a dominant or recessive disorder?
Genetic Applications• Gene splicing: • Gel electrophoresis:Used to create insulin and Used to compare bandother medicines for patterns in DNA ofhumans. Inserts a organisms.human gene intobacterial cells so they can Can be used to determinequickly produce a protein paternity, solve crimes, and determine common evolutionary ancestry
Natural Selection • Adaptations: Any features in a species that help them survive and/or reproduce offspring in their environment • The development of adaptations in a species over time is called EVOLUTION
Determining Relatedness• Many modern species share common ancestors. Modern species evolved differently due to their different habitats. Embryo similarities, DNA comparison, vestigial structures, and homologous structures are analyzed to look for common ancestors.• Homologous structures: Structures that look the same between species• Vestigial structures: Structures that exist within an organism but serve no purpose (Ex: appendix in humans)
EcologyFood webs show energy transfer in an ecosystem List the PRODUCERS HERBIVORES OMINVORES CARNIVORES
Thinking about relationships. . . A decrease in the tree population would most immediately decrease available energy for which organisms?
Ecology: Basic Vocabulary• Trophic Level: Feeding level in a food chain• Abiotic Factor: Nonliving factor that affects an ecosystem (temperature, water, soil. . .)• Biotic Factor: Living factor that affects an ecosystem (lion population, trees, berries. . .)• Population: One species living in the same place at the same time
Human Impacts on the Environment• Combustion: Heightened levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is caused by burning fossil fuels• Eutrophication: Fertilizer runoff causes heightened levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in bodies of water. This depletes oxygen levels in the water.