Benchmark 1 study guide
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Review of scientific method, water, biomolecules, enzymes, vitamins and minerals

Review of scientific method, water, biomolecules, enzymes, vitamins and minerals

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Benchmark 1 study guide Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Benchmark 1 Study Guide Honors Biology
  • 2. Lab Safety
    • When working with chemicals, heat, or glassware, safety goggles and an apron should always be worn
    • Know how to use all safety equipment and where it is located in case of an emergency
    • Never place a stopper in a test tube before heating
  • 3. Metric Measurements
    • Time = Seconds (s)
    • Distance/Length = Meters (m)
    • Volume/Liquids = Liters (L)
    • Temperature = Celsius (C)
    • Mass = Grams (g)
  • 4. Common Biology Measurements
    • Small measurements:
    • Milli = 0.001
    • Micro = 0.00001
    • Nano = 0.000000001
    • Microscopic organisms = micro or nanometers in length
    • Short distance = mm
    • Small liquid dosage = mL
    • Common Lab Measurement Tools:
    • A graduated cylinder is used for precise mL measurements
    • A beaker is used for L measurements
    • A meter stick with cm/mm is used for precise short lengths
  • 5. Experimental Design
    • Independent Variable
    • What “I” set up (CAUSE)
    • Always plotted on the X-axis
    • Dependent Variable
    • What “I” measure (EFFECT)
    • Always plotted on the Y-axis
  • 6. Practice #1. . .
    • What is the IV of this experiment?
    • In what unit is the IV measured?
    • What is the DV of this experiment?
    • In what unit is the DV measured?
  • 7. Practice #2. . .
    • What is the IV of this experiment?
    • What is the DV of this experiment?
    • Can you think of three constants that would be appropriate?
  • 8. Practice. . .
    • Based upon the data table, what question do you think this experiment was trying to answer ?
    • Explain. . .
  • 9. Practice #3. . .
    • The table below shows the number of species of different types of simple land plants.
    • According to the table, approximately what proportion of all simple plant species are bryophytes?    
    • A     1/3   B     1/2   C     2/3   D     3/4
  • 10. Which of these is an accurate statement about the data?  
    • A    The beginning and the end of the song sparrow's sound pattern are identical.  
    • B     The swamp sparrow's sound pattern is similar to the white-crowned sparrow's sound pattern.  
    • C     The end of the white-crowned sparrow's sound pattern is very different from its beginning.  
    • D     The end of the swamp sparrow's sound pattern is identical to the end of the song sparrow's sound pattern.
  • 11. Bias
    • Placebos are used to set up control groups when human beings are test subjects
    • Placebo = sugar pill – It is identical in shape, size, and color to medication but it contains no medicine.
  • 12. Bias
    • Unintentional
      • Accidental sources of bias
      • May be the result of not setting up enough constants OR forgetting to set up a control group
    • Intentional
      • Purposely skewing data, omitting trials, or falsifying test results
      • Usually done to make your hypothesis appear correct
    Remember: GOOD SCIENTIFIC DESIGN IS REPEATABLE BY ANYONE WITH SIMILAR RESULTS
  • 13. Important Properties of Water
    • High Heat Capacity: Allows for temperature homeostasis in living things and keeps bodies of water at a relatively stable temperature
    • Polarity: Causes cohesion of water molecules and adhesion of water to other substances
    • High Surface Tension: Gives small insects the ability to skim across water/due to cohesion
    • Universal Solvent: Many substances are able to dissolve in to water forming solutions.
      • Example: Fluoride dissolves into drinking water because it is attracted to polar water molecules
  • 14. Water and pH
    • Water is neutral with a pH of 7.
    • All substances below 7 = acids
    • All substances above 7 = bases
    • The further from 7 a substance is, the STRONGER it is considered on the pH scale
  • 15. pH Scale Remember: BOTTOM of the pH scale = acids TOP of the pH scale = bases (It is not based upon orientation of a particular picture)
  • 16. Inorganic Vs. Organic
    • Inorganic = no carbon
    • WATER
    • MINERALS
    • Organic = containing carbon bonded to hydrogen and oxygen
    • CARBOHYDRATES
    • LIPIDS
    • PROTEINS
    • NUCLEIC ACIDS VITAMINS
  • 17. Building Blocks
    • Carbohydrates. . .
    • Lipids. . .
    • Proteins. . .
    • Nucleic Acids. . .
    • . . .monosaccharides
    • . . .fatty acids
    • . . .amino acids
    • . . .nucleotides (1 sugar + 1 phosphate + 1 base)
  • 18. Important Examples
    • Carbohydrates = Quick energy source!!!
    • CELLULOSE: source of dietary fiber/makes up cell walls in plants and bacteria
    • GLUCOSE: molecule created during photosynthesis and used for cellular energy
    • STARCH: used in plants to store energy/digested by animals because it contains lots of energy
    • Lipids = long-term energy storage
    • FATS: molecule used for energy storage in animals
    • --Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature
    • --Saturated fats are solid at room temperature
    • PHOSPHOLIPIDS: makes up cell membranes for all organisms
  • 19. Important Examples
    • Proteins: Raw materials for structure
    • ENZYMES: Special proteins that catalyze important metabolic activities/chemical reactions
    • Nucleic Acids: Storage and transmission of genetic information
    • DNA: Holds genetic information
    • RNA: oversees protein production
  • 20. Important Examples
    • Vitamins
    • D – Bone growth
    • C – Heals wounds
    • K – Muscle movement and regulation
    • Minerals
    • Iron – moves oxygen through blood
    • Potassium – Muscle regulation
    • Calcium – strong bones and teeth
  • 21. Enzyme-Substrate Complex
    • Enzyme Function is Specific: the shape of the enzyme’s active site determines which substrate can fit
    • Enzymes lower activation energy
    • Enzyme reactions keep our metabolic activity functioning properly
  • 22. Factors Affecting Enzyme Function
    • Temperature
    • Low temps slow enzyme function
    • As temperature increases, enzyme function first increases, then stops (denatured)
    • pH
    • Too high OR too low from optimal range denatures enzymes
    • Remember: Denatured enzymes are permanently destroyed