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# Benchmark 1 study guide

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Review of scientific method, water, biomolecules, enzymes, vitamins and minerals

Review of scientific method, water, biomolecules, enzymes, vitamins and minerals

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### Transcript

• 1. Benchmark 1 Study Guide Honors Biology
• 2. Lab Safety
• When working with chemicals, heat, or glassware, safety goggles and an apron should always be worn
• Know how to use all safety equipment and where it is located in case of an emergency
• Never place a stopper in a test tube before heating
• 3. Metric Measurements
• Time = Seconds (s)
• Distance/Length = Meters (m)
• Volume/Liquids = Liters (L)
• Temperature = Celsius (C)
• Mass = Grams (g)
• 4. Common Biology Measurements
• Small measurements:
• Milli = 0.001
• Micro = 0.00001
• Nano = 0.000000001
• Microscopic organisms = micro or nanometers in length
• Short distance = mm
• Small liquid dosage = mL
• Common Lab Measurement Tools:
• A graduated cylinder is used for precise mL measurements
• A beaker is used for L measurements
• A meter stick with cm/mm is used for precise short lengths
• 5. Experimental Design
• Independent Variable
• What “I” set up (CAUSE)
• Always plotted on the X-axis
• Dependent Variable
• What “I” measure (EFFECT)
• Always plotted on the Y-axis
• 6. Practice #1. . .
• What is the IV of this experiment?
• In what unit is the IV measured?
• What is the DV of this experiment?
• In what unit is the DV measured?
• 7. Practice #2. . .
• What is the IV of this experiment?
• What is the DV of this experiment?
• Can you think of three constants that would be appropriate?
• 8. Practice. . .
• Based upon the data table, what question do you think this experiment was trying to answer ?
• Explain. . .
• 9. Practice #3. . .
• The table below shows the number of species of different types of simple land plants.
• According to the table, approximately what proportion of all simple plant species are bryophytes?
• A     1/3   B     1/2   C     2/3   D     3/4
• 10. Which of these is an accurate statement about the data?
• A    The beginning and the end of the song sparrow's sound pattern are identical.
• B     The swamp sparrow's sound pattern is similar to the white-crowned sparrow's sound pattern.
• C     The end of the white-crowned sparrow's sound pattern is very different from its beginning.
• D     The end of the swamp sparrow's sound pattern is identical to the end of the song sparrow's sound pattern.
• 11. Bias
• Placebos are used to set up control groups when human beings are test subjects
• Placebo = sugar pill – It is identical in shape, size, and color to medication but it contains no medicine.
• 12. Bias
• Unintentional
• Accidental sources of bias
• May be the result of not setting up enough constants OR forgetting to set up a control group
• Intentional
• Purposely skewing data, omitting trials, or falsifying test results
• Usually done to make your hypothesis appear correct
Remember: GOOD SCIENTIFIC DESIGN IS REPEATABLE BY ANYONE WITH SIMILAR RESULTS
• 13. Important Properties of Water
• High Heat Capacity: Allows for temperature homeostasis in living things and keeps bodies of water at a relatively stable temperature
• Polarity: Causes cohesion of water molecules and adhesion of water to other substances
• High Surface Tension: Gives small insects the ability to skim across water/due to cohesion
• Universal Solvent: Many substances are able to dissolve in to water forming solutions.
• Example: Fluoride dissolves into drinking water because it is attracted to polar water molecules
• 14. Water and pH
• Water is neutral with a pH of 7.
• All substances below 7 = acids
• All substances above 7 = bases
• The further from 7 a substance is, the STRONGER it is considered on the pH scale
• 15. pH Scale Remember: BOTTOM of the pH scale = acids TOP of the pH scale = bases (It is not based upon orientation of a particular picture)
• 16. Inorganic Vs. Organic
• Inorganic = no carbon
• WATER
• MINERALS
• Organic = containing carbon bonded to hydrogen and oxygen
• CARBOHYDRATES
• LIPIDS
• PROTEINS
• NUCLEIC ACIDS VITAMINS
• 17. Building Blocks
• Carbohydrates. . .
• Lipids. . .
• Proteins. . .
• Nucleic Acids. . .
• . . .monosaccharides
• . . .fatty acids
• . . .amino acids
• . . .nucleotides (1 sugar + 1 phosphate + 1 base)
• 18. Important Examples
• Carbohydrates = Quick energy source!!!
• CELLULOSE: source of dietary fiber/makes up cell walls in plants and bacteria
• GLUCOSE: molecule created during photosynthesis and used for cellular energy
• STARCH: used in plants to store energy/digested by animals because it contains lots of energy
• Lipids = long-term energy storage
• FATS: molecule used for energy storage in animals
• --Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature
• --Saturated fats are solid at room temperature
• PHOSPHOLIPIDS: makes up cell membranes for all organisms
• 19. Important Examples
• Proteins: Raw materials for structure
• ENZYMES: Special proteins that catalyze important metabolic activities/chemical reactions
• Nucleic Acids: Storage and transmission of genetic information
• DNA: Holds genetic information
• RNA: oversees protein production
• 20. Important Examples
• Vitamins
• D – Bone growth
• C – Heals wounds
• K – Muscle movement and regulation
• Minerals
• Iron – moves oxygen through blood
• Potassium – Muscle regulation
• Calcium – strong bones and teeth
• 21. Enzyme-Substrate Complex
• Enzyme Function is Specific: the shape of the enzyme’s active site determines which substrate can fit
• Enzymes lower activation energy
• Enzyme reactions keep our metabolic activity functioning properly
• 22. Factors Affecting Enzyme Function
• Temperature
• Low temps slow enzyme function
• As temperature increases, enzyme function first increases, then stops (denatured)
• pH
• Too high OR too low from optimal range denatures enzymes
• Remember: Denatured enzymes are permanently destroyed