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personas, persona, field studies, The Persona Lifecycle book, Interview with Pruitt and Adlin by Frank Spillers

personas, persona, field studies, The Persona Lifecycle book, Interview with Pruitt and Adlin by Frank Spillers

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Personas Live Web Seminar Final 9 11 Personas Live Web Seminar Final 9 11 Presentation Transcript

  • Personas LIVE! Interview with persona book authors Pruitt & Adlin With: John Pruitt, PhD and Tamara Adlin, MS Moderated by: Frank Spillers, MS Experience Dynamics Web Seminar Series
  • Agenda 1. The Persona Lifecycle: What is it?; What is the book about? Why is this book a milestone for the user experience community? 2. Persona case studies: The most interesting case studies and why. What can practitioners learn from the book? What information does the book offer for those new to personas? 3. Persona best practices: Are personas hype or helpful? What are some results of personas? How should they be used? What do personas look like? How are they used, under-used or misused in organizations? 4. Open Q&A with the authors
  • The book!
  • The structure of the book
    • Intro & overview of the persona lifecycle
    • Chapters 3-7: the 5-phase persona lifecycle
    • Chapters 8-12: invited chapters:
      • Larry Constantine on Users, Roles, & Personas
      • Whitney Quesenberry on Storytelling & Narrative
      • Tamara Adlin & Holly Jamesen on Reality & Design Maps
      • Bob Barlow-Busch on Marketing v. Design Personas
      • Jonathan Grudin on the Psychology behind Personas.
  • 1. The Persona Lifecycle: What is it?; What is the book about? Why is this book a milestone for the user experience community?
  • The persona lifecycle
      • Family Planning
      • Conception
      • & Gestation
    Birth & Maturation Adulthood Retirement & Lifetime Achievement
  • The persona lifecycle is a framework for user-centered product planning & development
      • Family Planning Organizational introspection, user research and data collection
      • Conception & Gestation Turn data into information and information into personas
      • Birth and Maturation Create a persona campaign and introduce the personas to your product team
      • Adulthood Help your personas do their jobs
      • Lifetime Achievement & Retirement Measure the success of the persona effort and create a plan to reuse or retire the personas
  • What are personas?
    • Alan Cooper’s Definition:
    • “ personas are not real people … they are hypothetical archetypes of actual users…
    • defined with significant rigor and precision .” 1999, p.124
  • One great idea, many names
    • “ Heros” of design
      • Dreyfuss, Designing for People 1955
    • Market Segments
      • Sissors, What is a Market 1966
    • Target Customer Characterizations
      • Moore, Crossing the Chasm 1991
    • Actors & Agents in scenarios
      • Carroll, Scenario-based design 1995
    • Indivisualization
      • Upshaw, Building Brand Identity 1995
    • User Profiles
      • Hackos & Redish, User and task analysis for interface design 1998
    • Use Cases and User roles
      • Constantine and Lockwood, Software for use 1999
    • Personas
      • Cooper, The inmate are running the asylum 1999
    • User Archetypes
      • Mikkelson & Lee, Incorporating user archetypes into scenario-based design 2000
    • Customer Image Statements
      • Mello, Customer-Centered Design 2002
    from Marketing
  • Personas are…
    • Fake people (concrete representations) based on real data
      • which provide context and motivation regarding goals, behaviors, and beliefs
    • A practical tool to help prioritize features & maintain focus on target customers
    • A vehicle for bringing customer data alive
  • Personas are not…
    • Every possible customer (a taxonomy or a customer segmentation)
    • A replacement for existing design & development processes
  • What’s the big idea?
    • “To create a product that must satisfy a broad audience of users … you will have far greater success by designing for one single person. ”
    • Alan Cooper, 1999 p.124
  • Personas work because:
    • 1) People references are powerful and rich
      • Data is complex; hard to memorize, internalize, and recall
      • We’re wired to remember things about people
    • 2) Personas are generative
      • Personas can ‘come to life’ and participate in design
      • Personas use the power of empathy, personal experience, & relationships through narrative & storytelling
      • Personas are more powerful than scenarios alone
    • 3) Personas help focus a team on the important aspects of their target users
      • Personas simplify the world and don’t have distracting idiosyncrasies
  • 2. Persona case studies: The most interesting case studies and why. What can practitioners learn from the book? What information does the book offer for those new to personas?
  • Persona Lifetime Achievement (aka, ROI)
    • Personas are not free
      • Costs? Other efforts?
    • ROI comes in two main places:
      • Improvements to the bottom line
            • Your product is better (happier customers, less support costs, more sales)
      • Improvements to your process, team, & company
            • Your development process is less costly or faster
            • Your team is more in-tune, bought-in
            • Your company is more user-centered (eager to invest in other UCD approaches)
  • Reduced Dev Costs at Medco Health
    • Medco Health Solutions redesigned Medcohealth.com using personas.
    • "We wanted the developers and workgroups to have empathy for the individuals they were building the software systems for, having them rally around somebody tangible as opposed to just building a website in a vacuum, which is the more conventional way of doing it."
    • “ When the site went live in December 2002. Medco Health has seen a 33 percent increase in the number of transactions and a 26 percent increase in the number of prescriptions ordered online. The number of abandoned shopping carts has decreased by 13 percent.”
    “ Based on the entire number of logins, the number of e-mails from users to the help desk with questions about the site has decreased by 18 percent.” "How to Play to Your Audience“, http://www.cio.com (Nov 15, 2003) http://www.cio.com/archive/111503/play.html http://www.cio.com/archive/111503/play_sidebar_1.html
  • Market dominance at Best Buy
      • ''Jill,'' a busy suburban mom;
      • ''Buzz,'' a focused, active younger male;
      • ''Ray,'' a family man who likes his technology practical;
      • ''BB4B'' (short for Best Buy for Business), a small employer, and
      • ''Barry,'' an affluent professional male who's likely to drop tens of thousands of dollars on a home theater system.
    • Over the next few years, each of Best Buy's 608 stores will focus on one or two of the five segments, with 110 stores scheduled to make the switch by February.
      • Stores that focus on the ''Jill'' segment have play areas for kids. Instead of a booming bass beat, the soundtrack at ''Jill'' stores is instrumental, or children's music.
    • Same-store sales at the 32 test stores were an average of 7 percentage points higher than at other Best Buy stores.
    • Joshua Freed, Associated Press
    • http://www.chicagosuntimes.com/output/business/cst-fin-best19.html
    • http://www.projo.com/business/content/projo_20040520_best20x.201cc9.html
  • How is the Lifecycle different?
    • Utilizes any and all kinds of data
      • Not just interviews
        • Embraces iterative design
          • Don’t just design once and build
          • Embraces the full development cycle
            • Not just a consultant approach
        • Defines specific uses for personas for a broader group of team members
          • Not just “using them in design discussions”
    • Enhances (not replaces) other UCD methods
      • personas work with and enhance user testing, participatory design, etc
  • The persona lifecycle forces user-focus before the waterfall ‘starts’ System Requirements Software Requirements Analysis Program Design Coding Testing Operations
  • The persona lifecycle works in concert with existing UCD methods
  • 3. Persona best practices: Are personas hype or helpful? What are some results of personas? How should they be used? What do personas look like? How are they used, under-used or misused in organizations?
  • Personas are powerful, but why do some persona efforts fail?
    • In many early persona case studies, the personas were perceived as not useful by the team and basically not used.
    • What happened?
      • No support from above (VPs, GMs, team leaders)
      • Characters not believable, designed by committee, not based on data (or the relation to data was not clear)
      • Not communicated well
      • No real understanding about how to use them (no process, feels silly, not used in specs, no user scenarios)
  • At issue: Effective use
    • “Though increasingly popular, personas remain widely misunderstood. Successful efforts key off of actual user behaviors , read like a story about a real person, and get used by everyone”.
    • The Power of Design Personas, Forrester 12/03
  • Assumption Personas are okay… Susan Lee Marketing Manager Tektronix Susan is the Product Marketing Manager for the Tektronix 2000, which is the hot new Tektronix printer. Tektronix wants to achieve an image of a cutting-edge company given the new exciting Internet technology. It’s part of Susan’s job to create and foster this image. Her primary function is to develop a good story about her company and product that is well known. So she needs to educate people about her products, and to build relationships between people and Tektronix. She represents the company. Susan gives PowerPoint presentations to live audience around 4 times a month. About once a month she has the need to communicate to a larger dispersed audience, which she currently does by sending her audience members a PowerPoint presentation and scheduling a conference call. On the call, she tells everyone when to flip to the next slide. The tools she uses most in her everyday job are:
  • Use data if at all possible.
  • Another Good Example Experience Dynamics: Sample Persona
  • Things to consider regarding the lifecycle framework
    • The lifecycle is not a one-size-fits-all process; it’s a menu. No one has time to do it all
    • There’s still tremendous benefit even if you have to radically shorten the process and cut steps
    • The lifecycle framework will help you be strategic and systematic in your approach
  • 4. Open Q&A with the authors
  • What if your team is not ready for Personas?
    • Goal: Get your team to be more rigorous and explicit about defining their target audience
    • In reality, “personas” aren’t required
    • You can still get a lot mileage from
      • Taxonomies & segmentations (user classes, clusters)
      • User profiles & face-less archetypes
      • User roles, Use Cases, and Scenarios
    • Push towards the persona methodology in little, substantive ways
      • Progressive definition of profiles over time
  • Common questions…
    • What makes up a persona?
      • How much detail is needed?
      • relevant vs. irrelevant “facts”; role of stereotypes
    • How many personas are needed?
      • How do you decide?
    • What is the best process for creating a persona?
      • How many people should be involved?
    • Do personas incorporate and reflect user data?
      • How? What types of data are used?
      • Can a real user serve as a better exemplar or prototype?
    • How do you communicate personas to the other members of a development team?
      • What materials do you need?
    • How do you use personas?
      • Do you incorporate personas in development activities and other user-centered research, for example, scenario development?
      • Do designers as well as developers utilize them?
  • Thank You! John Pruitt [email_address] Tamara Adlin [email_address] Frank Spillers [email_address]