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  • 1. THE MAP OF CIVILIZATION A Geocultural Synthesis A Presentation of FAR ORIENT FOUNDATIONS
  • 2. vi ABSTRACT There are literatures about civilizations the world over, starting from civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, India, Mesoamerica to Southeast Asia and many others. There are also plenty of writings or even books searching for the origin of civilization. But the comprehensive conclusion about history of human civilization is hardly to draw resulting in inevitable continuing controversy and debate about it. The question now is, why is it elusive to pattern history of human civilization ? One answer the author can give is because there is no existing map of civilization one can use as a reference to the said pattern of human history. Although repeated, the rise and fall of civilizations are essentially of the same nature but in different forms. However, each civilization has its owned uniqueness, specialization, and characteristics. For this reason, mapping of civilizations is indeed elementary. Utterly required, however, people might have overlooked it. To labor the preparation of this map of civilization, the author divides the civilizations based on the way they migrated, by foot and by boat, because this was likely the nature of mankind inherited in their human genetic. Therefore, the author uses other approaches in addition to historical data and archeological evidence. These are the linguistic and genetic approaches. Fundamental description about human history is not only about the origin of civilization, but also about the thorough reconstruction of the path or route map of civilization itself. The purpose of this thesis is to map the existing civilization on earth, according to the cultural lines. Conclusively, the map of civilization can be used not only to find the origin of civilization but also to know the site of each civilization in the world, the spread and its transformation, and also its connection one another. September 2012
  • 3. 1 PART I. INTRODUCTION For generations, archaeologists, anthropologists, and historians have attempted to define the proper meaning of civilization. Unfortunately, the definition of civilization today does not embrace all aspects and cover a great multitude of complex societies thereof. In defining the word civilization scholars should be objective and wiseful to omit the label of barbarism or even the word preindustrial of it. Mapping the civilization, therefore, requires that the definition of the word “civilization” is to be elaborated first. For certain, the word “civilization,” implicitly, cannot be separated from the word “culture.” This is discussed in Part II. Moreover, from the definition of civilization, the author attempted to rediscover the general chronological history of the so called ancient civilizations. The chronological history of ancient civilizations shall include the cause and the trail of their migration, their new homelands, characteristics, transformations and the spread. The information and chronology of the ancient civilizations generally came from two sources, namely historical data or tradition (including myth) and archaeological evidence. Archaeologically speaking, finding the relation and the connection of each civilization as traced from their artifacts, monuments and its religions should be reviewed. This is the role of archaeology which is to reinforce the historical data. The feature of advancement of a civilization is to be defined first. The core elements are often measured by its progress in agriculture, long-distance trade, occupational specialization and urbanism. These features are used to identify the uniqueness and specialization of each civilization, to depict as to where the site of each civilization in the world, its origin and also its connection one another. In mapping of civilization, however, other disciplines below should be also considered as well. The role of the said disciplines is described in Part III. One of these disciplines is linguistics. Language in its broader context includes evolutionary linguistics, historical linguistics, and sociolinguistics. These sub disciplines explore the origins of language, language changes and also describe the relation between linguistic variations and social structures. Linguistics, therefore, can be used to depict the spread of a language brought by people who migrated. Every traces of the language then became important.
  • 4. 2 The pattern was nearly the same with the trip of human migration a long time ago. Strictly speaking, this was the trail of civilization the world over. The other discipline is genetics. Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with heredity, especially the mechanism of hereditary transmission and the variation of inherited characteristics among similar or related organisms. One of the most exciting developments in genetics is the initiation of the Human Genome Project, designed to provide a complete genetic map outlining the location and function of the 40,000 or so genes that are found in human cells. Actually, genetics is one of the key disciplines that can definitively trace human migration. Although the migration happened more than 10,000 years ago, the genetic mark of the origin in the DNA cannot be erased. This is an essential element in determining the geographical coordinate of the map of civilization which is defined herein by the author as the geocultural coordinate. Because civilization interwovenly deals with culture, the culture that still endures to this day must to be first defined and ‘extracted out’ so to speak. Even though, it does not necessarily reflect any advanced civilization today, it may happen that it is truly the source or origin of civilizations itself in the past. Ironically, in ancient civilizations history, only one place that is hardly mentioned, that is the Far East. Apparently, there are a lot of cultures that still endures until today in the Far East; a multicultural place no one has ever found before or elsewhere. The lack of history and archaeological evidence in the Far East makes the cultural traditions, folklores, unwritten stories, or even myths and legends, especially from this region are important to be rediscovered. Comparison and connection between history depicted in cultural traditions in the Far East and history of ancient civilizations in other regions are also crucial to be resolved. Delineating the Map of Civilization which encompasses all regions in the world stretching from the east to the west is given in the end of Part IV. Based on existing geographical situation, the main objective of this thesis is to map the civilization in the form of topographical superimposed geocultural presentation. Based on all of the methodology used, the said geocultural presentation then concluded that civilizations in the world are classified into two roots of culture, namely the Austronesian or Sea People and the Austroasian or Land People.
  • 5. 3 PART II DISPERSION OF CIVILIZATION II.1 Definition of Civilization The proper definition of civilization has occupied minds of archaeologists, anthropologists, and historians for generations. An enormous scholarly literature surrounds this complex subject. The definition of civilization should have been a simple, if possible, but all-embracing, and covers a great multitude of complex of early societies. According to the ultimate arbiter of the English language, the Oxford English Dictionary, “to civilize” is “to bring the state out of barbarism”; to instruct in the art of life; to enlighten and refine. The notion that “civilization” was a condition superior to “barbarism,” underlies Victorian doctrines of racial superiority of more than a century ago. Regrettably, it‘s definition still lives today in the popular understanding of the word. Implicitly, there are two substantive matters in the word civilization and those are culture and the product of culture itself. Thus, the definition of culture has to be elaborated first. The etymology of the modern term "culture" has a classical origin. In English, the word "culture" is based on a term used by Cicero1 in his Tusculan Disputations. He wrote of a cultivation of the soul or "cultura animi," thereby using an agricultural metaphor to describe the development of a philosophical soul, which was understood teleological as the one natural highest possible ideal for human development. In other words, definition of culture is simply given as the connection of human and the universe or nature. Culture produces many ideas and things for human to survive. The most important thought produced by culture is belief and religion. This thought makes human to believe in some powerful being to worship to. The other is state and social hierarchy. Meant by state was the structure of society that was typically led by chieftain or king. Nonetheless, both the said belief and state formed human societies to more advanced and complex thought. From the above brief, the conclusion is that civilization is nothing but the complex product of culture. Or in a broad sense, civilization is the complex product generated from the connection of human and the universe, to maintain life at a certain period of 1 Marcus Tullius Cicero (January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman philosopher, statesman, lawyer, political theorist, Roman constitutionalist and created a Latin philosophical vocabulary.
  • 6. 4 time. The words “a certain period of time” in the definition of civilization are needed because of the characteristic of civilization itself which is dynamic and a function of time while, on the other hand, culture is more likely steady. Civilization was developed in accordance with the development of human thought patterns. That is why civilization always tends to transform to another advanced form. This is the basic character of civilization. Meanwhile, culture always becomes the primary reference of the developments of civilization. Thus, rise and fall of civilization become then a common cycle in human history. In the next period of time, a new civilization then rise, typically, with a distinct nuance but, obviously, of the same culture. Therefore, if civilizations become the reference in mapping out themselves, then bias is would arise, because too many form of civilizations that make scholars confuse to identify them one by one. On the other hand, if the culture become the reference to map the civilizations then it would be easier to identify every civilization, because, indeed, the primary reference of every civilization is culture itself. Thus, the highest civilization does not necessarily posses highest culture too. In fact, highest civilizations tend to collapse more quickly, whereas conservative civilization, usually, can last longer because they were consistent in maintaining their culture and customary law for that sake. A good example to elaborate the words “culture” and “civilization” came from the historical data of ancient China. The First Chinese King, Fu Xi, was named Philosopher King only due to his great accomplishment in finding a connection between the world and the self, between the patterns of nature and the impulse of human mind to manage everything around it. The latter connection apparently refers to material which then means civilization. Because, by some definition, civilization is the term used to refer to the material and instrumental side of human cultures and it is complex in terms of technology, science, and division of labor. While the first of the above connection, more likely symbolical, is culture since culture, also known as an integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior, depends upon the capacity for symbolic thought and social learning. Nonetheless, the term "culture" was originally meant the cultivation of the soul or mind of mankind.
  • 7. 5 From the brief above, it is delimitated indeed, that culture is the soul of civilization. Therefore, it is crucial to trace, for instance, what kind of culture that really built Sumerian, Egypt, Indus Valley, China or even Mesoamerica civilizations. To find the origin of culture that inspired the great civilizations, therefore, the origin of culture should be defined. To go to the origin of culture then the rudiment or root should become a reference. Ironically, in ancient civilizations history, only one place that is hardly mentioned, that is the Far East. Undeniably, the culture in the Far East, today, is still basic and rudiment. Some of them only live dependent on the nature and believe in animism or dynamism. Even though, it does not necessarily reflect any advanced civilization today, it may happen that it is truly the source or origin of civilizations itself in the past. Unfortunately, there is very little information about their being in the past. Notably, the Far East region, lying exactly in the heart of the Ring of Fire zone is one of the most fertile lands in the world. Naturally, this is the most suitable place on earth for culture to born and for civilization to build. At the same time, this place was also known as the fragile region because it always punctuated by many catastrophes all the time. In addition, ethnographers also often find religious practices that magical and mythical among the inhabitants of the Pacific islands have a close relationship with the cultures of Europe and the Near East. In Part IV.1, the author will elaborate and extract both history and culture in the Far East. Hypothetically, only this place has the greatest chance and perfect characteristics to be the place of origin of culture as well as civilization in the world. II.2 The Cause of the Ancient Migration As recounted in various ancient civilizations such as the Sumerian, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, ancient China, ancient Egypt and Mesoamerica, as well as other ancient civilizations, it was claimed that they were the survivors of some great event. Moreover, this event expelled them from their former homeland and forced them to find a new place to settle. Absolutely, this historical data of ancient civilizations talks about a migration from one place to another place. But the first question now is, what event that makes them migrate ? Is it the great catastrophe or is there other explanation ? This
  • 8. 6 question is the most intriguing question in studying the history of ancient civilization. It cannot be denied that all ancient history always begins with this event. But if the answer is the great catastrophe, unfortunately, this event seems to hover on the border between reality and myth. To further elaborate this question, one phenomenon should be taken into account and that is the cycle of the earth itself. The history of the earth has been punctuated by great catastrophes which apparently wiped out entire categories of life forms. It conforms to ancient history that was always preceded by major disasters that drowned civilization on earth. Then, the survivors were scattered around the world to build the civilizations anew in new homelands. Before discussing the dispersion of mankind based on genes, mother languages and archaeological heritage of our ancestors, first, the author will explore the cause and the traces of the ancient migration based on existing legends and myths. Nonetheless, the major task in studying the ancient myths and legends are nothing but to essentially realize the realms of various human mental areas and distinguish between allegory/metaphor and imagination, analogy and reason, folklore tale and legend, fiction/fantasy and fallacy/lie, dream scientific hypothesis and the truth. In the ancient myths, there is an incredible storehouse of wisdom about human nature collected over centuries of observation. The myths are stories in which the surface structure is false, because things did not happen exactly that way, but in depth meaning is true. As one of the markers of cultural assimilation, myths and legends have an antiquity, specificity, and purpose, which are often not found in stone, bone, and genes. They also offer alternative models to the models of genetic and linguistic experts. As explicitly told in many recounted of the ancient civilizations, the history of ancient civilizations was always preceded by great catastrophes event. The story started from a very terrible disaster, the eruption of volcanoes, earthquakes and tsunamis, followed by great floods then the sinking of land and the civilization itself. Not only one civilization who told about the great catastrophe, but also other early ancient civilizations in almost of the same period, although they were geographically located quite far apart. Here are
  • 9. 7 some excerpts from the legend and myth story of ancient civilizations about great catastrophe in very distant past : The Sumerian’s story of great catastrophe as written in the ‘Tablet of Destinies’ which was envisaged as a clay tablet inscribed with cuneiform writing around 2,100 BC (perhaps the oldest historical record in the world). Based on the tablet, Eight Kings ruled before the enormous catastrophe and before the flood swept over the land. Presumably, the First King of Sumerian should have been in the distance past and place from their being then in south Mesopotamia around 4,000 BC. The Babylonian version of the story is called the “Poem of Atrahasis”. In the story, it was told that Atrahasis, the wisest king on earth, was warned of the coming disaster. He built an ark and saved only a few of his own people. The most familiar flood story was undoubtedly the one told in Genesis. God determined to cleanse his creation of corruption, so he told Noah, “blameless among his people,” to build an ark which would save him and his family from destruction. Then rain fell “the great spring of the deep burst and the floodgates of the heaven were opened,” and water swallows the earth. In Indian mythology, a fish warned the wise king Manu that an enormous flood was coming and he should build a ship and climb into it as soon as the waters began to rise. According to Rig Veda, “The waters swept away all three heavens,” and “Manu alone was saved.” The story about the great catastrophe is also reinforced in writing on the Tablet XI of the Epic of Gilgamesh. This writing told that Utnapishtim, the Sumerian Noah, told Gilgamesh the story of the great flood, where he was the only human being who survived. This writing also described that the great catastrophe had destroyed their former homeland, called paradise. The Greek mythology also described about the great catastrophe event. This myth recounted that a long time ago; perhaps before the golden age was over, humans,
  • 10. 8 bothering Zeus, were so arrogance and proud of themselves. As they kept getting worse, Zeus finally decided that he would destroy all humans on earth. The legend and myth stories above, essentially, told about the same story. Most likely, the legends and myths have been brought by the survivors in their minds. It had been delivered independently from one person to another. The difference here was only in how it was delivered. Ancient myths, legends and prophecies from around the world above told about frightening tales of how humanity has suffered through destructions by fire and flood (La Violette 1997). These stories of catastrophe are so extreme and pervasive, that until recently they tended to discount them as imaginative exaggerations. Thus, is the great catastrophe was the cause of the migration ? The answer is, although it might not happen exactly that way but the in depth meaning of that event is probably true. The great catastrophe is one of the key facts of ancient history. Nonetheless, the power of myth as means of belief to explain the past or justify the present made itself difficult to be avoided or neglected in historical narratives. Two things for certain, firstly that the great catastrophe was not just a local event. It took place in a cosmic scale basis covering the whole world. Secondly, the great catastrophe event had left an indelible impression on the memory of the entire human race. Furthermore, it would be strange enough if the event is written all over again in every ancient civilization, including in the holy book, but having no further account as to where on earth the great catastrophe exactly took place. At the ancient time, seemingly this became the secret of the ancient mysteries, and this divulgation was considered a grievous crime of profanation, often punished with death. So, the true location of the so called homeland was only dealt in a sort of coded language based on allegories, riddles and puns that were intelligible only to the initiated in those secrets. The question now is, when and where did this event take place ? In order to find the origin of their former homeland, it is crucial to find the origin of these legends and myths first. In defining the origin of the legend and myth stories, there is one analogy that has to be considered, that is on people who can create the myth themselves. Usually, those are the people who live with greater spiritual content. Because spiritual content sometimes
  • 11. 9 cannot be explained explicitly, therefore, metaphors are used to describe it. Eventually, these metaphors then evolve to be myth or legend. The question now is, who are the people who live in such a way ? To answer this question, in fact, today, nobody would deny that eastern societies can accept all religions equally. In other words, people in the east are live with greater spiritual content than the other region in the world. Indeed, spiritual content is nothing but to read the sign from the nature and be implemented to the human life harmonizing mankind and the nature. It also conforms to the definition of culture in Part II.1 above that culture was necessarily meant as the cultivation of the soul or mind. Culture is the substantive issue of the legend as well as what myth is all about. Therefore, it is also natural if the Far East has a multicultural place no one may find anywhere in the world. If this analogy is true, then the origin of the legends and myths should come from around this eastern region. Then, the great catastrophe event should have had also happened in this area. Therefore, the spread pattern of the legend and myth are supposedly more inclined from the east to the west rather than otherwise. The above analogy, actually, also conforms to the myth and legend stories which told about a place that the ancient civilizations called former homeland. It was told in Sumerian poem that their former homeland was a dream city, peaceful and painless. It was also filled with fruit trees, watered by fresh streams and uncorrupted by salt unlike the Mesopotamian Plain where they lived at that time. The Egyptian priest also reported that their former homeland was filled with abundant fountains and springs of fresh water in the fertile plain. In other words, the author can assume that their former homeland was a ‘heavenly’ land abundant with natural resources on a fertile soil. The Mayas told, in their myths of origin, of a mysterious island or continent whence they originally came from. They were driven out by the volcanic cataclysm that destroyed their land. Their homeland later sunk undersea, forcing them to leave. They also told that they sailed from the western location of their new homeland. This voyage was recorded in documents such as the Codex Boturini. Based on their mythical story, so to say, the author can assume that they sailed eastbound from their former homeland somewhere in the west of America continent.
  • 12. 10 In Indian mythology, it was told that when the flood subsided, Manu anchored his ship to a far northern mountain, disembarked, and then he became the first king of historical India. In other words, the author can assume that he sailed northbound from his former homeland somewhere in the south of India so to speak. The above stories were told about one place that they called former homeland. The characteristics of their former homeland that they told tend to point to one place between India and America that the author defines herein the Far East. Because let alone the above characteristics even locations are suitable with these of the Far East region. In addition about the east, the Egyptian Book of the Dead which is considered to contain much information on Pre-dynasty mentions sixteen times about the east, mostly in a tone of fear. East was described as a butcher across the sea from which life must be protected. East was also described as crawling place for them. It means that some event might take place in the east, probably, the great catastrophe. This ancient book also mentions several times about "Manu's territory across the water .... where Ra back." Surprisingly, Manu in Hindu mythology was the ancestor of mankind, a figure reincarnated as "Manu the fisherman." Manu was also represented to be the same as of Noah but in Indian version. This assumed a connection between Indian and Egyptian civilizations which portrayed the trail of migration of these people as further discussed in Part II.3.1.2. Now, there are also evidences from several sources which stated that the arrival of the Sumerians in Mesopotamia was preceded by a rise of the sea level. The Sumerians were regarded as immigrants from the east. An archaeologist by the name of Henri Frankfort2, in discussing the ethnic proximity of the Sumerian states: "About the people who appear in the south in the early period of Uruk ... brachycephalic them ... .”While some have different skull form ascribed to the Sumerians, brachycephalic skulls (literally, big-headed) is a special characteristic of the people of the Far East. Another famous archaeological comment about the origins of the Sumerians came from Benno Landsberger3. He stated that they sailed from the east across the ocean, and stories such as the great creation, heaven and the flood of Noah came along with them. 2 3 Henri Frankfort, (born Feb. 24, 1897, Amsterdam, Neth.—died July 16, 1954, London, Eng.), American archaeologist who completed a well-documented reconstruction of ancient Mesopotamian culture, established the relation between Egypt and Mesopotamia, and discovered much new information on both civilizations. Benno Landsberger (21 April 1890, Friedek, Austrian Silesia – 26 April 1968) was one of the most important German Assyriologists. From1908 he study Oriental Studies at Leipzig.
  • 13. 11 In Europe, brachycephaly is also a feature to consider in the "Beaker People" that appeared throughout the coast to the west European rivers during the third millennium BC. Beaker culture was defined by the common use of a pottery style — a beaker with a distinctive inverted bell-shaped profile found across the western part of Europe during the late 3rd millennium BC. The pottery was well-made, usually red or red-brown in color, and ornamented with horizontal bands of incised, excised or impressed patterns. The early Bell Beakers had been described as "International" in style, as they were found in all areas of the Bell Beaker culture. These include cord-impressed types, such as the "All Over Corded" (or "All Over Ornamented"), and the "Maritime" type, decorated with bands filled with impressions made with a comb or cord. Figure 1 Beaker Culture Objects. In European history, the origin of these Beaker people is still debatable. But, on some Beaker Culture artifacts in Figure 1 above, map of such origin was clearly painted. Undeniably, this proves that the Beaker People were seemingly sailed across the ocean to reach the coast of Europe and painted the trail of their trip in their potteries. Thus, the origin of these people were somewhere across the ocean. These people, indeed, connected to the Sea People who migrate by the boat from the Far East (see Part II.3.1.1).
  • 14. 12 To find the evidence on the ideas and culture of migration, the best marker should be from the culture itself rather than from the people. Surprisingly the links from the oldest culture in the Far East to the ancient Near East is far more heavily on non-physical, but located in folklore which were preserved in written texts in Sumerian language on the tablets which buried in Iraq until 5,000 years ago. Today, the stories in Genesis, in a thousand different languages, clearly connected to the same stories. Indeed, the original stories have been told thousand of years ago, and written copies are found in India in ancient sacred books like Ramayana and Mahabharata where these stories come from. But in fact these stories are still passed from mouth to mouth, complete and precise, along the Indian and Pacific Ocean including Papua to the west. Undoubtedly, the stories such as the great catastrophe, heaven and the flood indeed came from the east. From the above evidences, it is clear that the origin of the homeland was more inclined toward the east rather than other place. Then the question now is, when did this event occur in their former homeland ? Geologists today should have the answer to this question. Speaking of which, there was a global catastrophe that caused the end of the Pleistocene Ice Age, and the melting of the Himalayan glaciers. Then, it caused huge floods of the rivers of Asia, rendering the region unfit for human habitation. At the same time, the giant conflagration of the Far East volcanoes and the huge tsunamis also ravaged this region. Thus, the so called homeland was greatly destroyed by this original cataclysm. The geologists predicted that the destruction took place around 11,000 until 7,000 years ago. In accord with the above geological evidence, some of the legends stories of a flood in the Far East also told about permanently change of the shape and topography of the earth after that event. One clear example of this is there were stories that narrated a line extension or contraction, once a continent, of the sea and the formation of many islands. This relative changes of sea level either as a result of the emergence of land and depreciation locally or in a more universal as a result of global after glacial events caused people to migrate. In fact, the only continent that sunk at that period was once located in the east. The map in Figure 2 below shows a huge extension of continental size prolonged Southeast Asia all the way down to Australia, before the event. After that event this continent forms several islands in that region.
  • 15. 13 Figure 2 The Map of Sunken Continent. Moreover, as informed by Dr. Aone van Engelenhoven4 there was a series of story that told about a formation of small Sunda5 Islands in eastern Indonesia. In short, it told about the flooding caused by sea creatures as they crushed or broke up the island in the process of creating topography of an area. This story was widespread in eastern Indonesia, along the Southwest Maluku and East Nusa Tenggara territory. This story is not just 'explaining' about the sinking of a continent of post-ice age, but also the reasons for inter-island migration. The bottom line here is, although this story has a resemblance to the fairy tale story of floods in India, but in the above area there are no records pertaining to the influence of Hinduism. Recent findings point to the submerged Sundaland as the probable cradle of Asian population: thus the "Out of Sundaland" theory. A study from Leeds University and published in Molecular Biology and Evolution, examining mitochondrial DNA lineages, suggested that humans had been occupying the islands of Southeast Asia for a longer period than previously believed. 4 5 Dr Aone Van Engelenhoven is a lecturer in the Leiden University Centre for Linguistics (LUCL). He is expertise in the Southeast Asian linguistics, especially Austronesian. Sundaland is a biogeographical region of Southeastern Asia which encompasses the Sunda shelf, the part of the Asian continental shelf that was exposed during the last ice age. It included the Malay Peninsula on the Asian mainland, as well as the large islands of Borneo, Java, and Sumatra and their surrounding islands.
  • 16. 14 Population dispersals seem to have occurred at the same time as sea levels rose, which may have resulted in migrations from the Far East to as far north as Taiwan within the last 10,000 years. The population migrations were most likely to have been driven by climate change; the effects of the drowning of an ancient continent. Rising sea levels in three massive pulses may have caused flooding and the submerging of the Sunda continent, creating the Java and South China Seas and the thousands of islands that make up Indonesia and the Philippines today. New findings from the Human Genome Project also suggest that Asia was populated primarily through a single migration event from the south. Genetic similarities were found between populations throughout Asia and an increase in genetic diversity from northern to southern latitudes. Although the Chinese population is very large, it has less variation than the smaller number of individuals living in Southeast Asia, because the Chinese expansion occurred very recently, within only the last 10,000 years. The evidences shown above are just a small sample of several hundreds of compelling evidences like the ones presented below and elsewhere. The strongest evidences for the origin of their homeland are both geological and anthropological. They include racial characteristics, blood types, myths, traditions, customs, techniques, artistic motifs and, above all, the linguistic, cultural and religious affinities. The last two are just about the strongest and most unequivocal of all links between different nations derived from a single stock. Undeniably, all the above evidences are in accord with the simple analogy on myth and legend which the author mentioned before. Both have postulated a conclusion that the origin of the myths and legends are leaning toward the east rather than other places. These legend and myths story were brought along during migration and adapted to the local customs. Again, these people was obliged to flee, emigrating, along the ensuing millennia, to remote places such as Mesopotamia, Levant, North Africa, Europe, North Asia, and even Oceania and the Americas. In the next period of time, these survivors succeeded to rebuild the civilizations in their new homeland Furthermore, the ancient migration was done by two ways. Some came by foot in huge hordes like those of the Israelite exodus. Others came by boat like Noah in his Ark or
  • 17. 15 Aeneas with his fleet. In mapping the civilizations, the way they migrate is the best reference to classify them. It is due to the fact that the ways they migrate were connected to their basic culture; some were maritime culture (hereinafter called as the Sea People), while the other were land culture (hereinafter called as the Land People). In fact, in forming the culture, human was determined by the environment where they live. In human history, the Sea People usually contributed in sailing technology, magic, religion, astronomy, hierarchy and the concept of empire. The above characteristics influenced some ancient civilizations such as Sumerian, Egyptian, Etruscan including Beaker People, the Han (Chinese) and Japanese, Mauryan (India) and Persian (see Part II.3.1.1). Meanwhile the Land people had been able to provide expertise on more mundane such as cereal farming and bronze technology. These typical characteristics influenced some ancient civilizations such as Mongols, Khmer, Gauls (present day France) and Mesoamerican (see Part II.3.2.1). Based on all the evidence above, the author can conclude that the cause of the migration was some great catastrophe event which drowned their former homeland. Geologically speaking, this event occurred around 10,000 – 7,000 BC in a sunken continent by the name of Sundaland. It formed the pattern of their migration that is from the east to the west. There were two ways of migration one by foot and the other by boat. From this homeland they migrated to four directions as further discussed in Parts II 3.1.2 and 3.2.2. From this point on, the survivors were scattered around the world. Now, these earlier civilizations are well known as “Ancient Civilizations.” Nevertheless, the great catastrophes event is a common cycle on earth. Since billion of years ago the earth always punctuated or even formed by this event. The above ancient migration time happened around 10,000 – 7,000 BC, but geologists today also discovered two super volcanoes eruption that happened in the Far East dated back to 75,000 and 60,000 years ago. This was Mount Toba in North Sumatra, and Mount Sitinjau in West Sumatra, Indonesia. These two mountains now change into great lakes; one is the Toba Lake, while the other is Maninjau Lake. Unfortunately, there are no records on the people and culture that lived in around that time. Presumably, these super volcanoes eruption also became one of the causes of the great migration and, at
  • 18. 16 the same time, caused the extinction of a civilization. That is the reason why recent findings have confirmed that there were other civilizations older and more sophisticated than what were now called ancient civilizations. As if historical data had neither point of direction nor reference to start with. Hence, the map of civilization as depicted in Part IV.3, plotting at least from the ancient civilization period to modern day, is utterly required. However, as long as the basic reference used in mapping civilization is culture, most likely, the map could also be used to trace the other older civilization that existed even long before the ancient civilization period. Culture of mankind, fundamentally, is steady even since human was first created. II.3 New Settlements II.3.1 Survivors by Boat II.3.1.1 The Characteristics and Transformations of the Sea People in Ancient World After the survivors of the catastrophe managed to find a dry land, they began to rebuild the civilizations. The civilizations began in the Fertile Crescent where a village of any size needed careful management to survive. Some of these early civilizations were built in the area following the river valley such as : Sumerian in the Tigris and Euphrates Valley, Egyptians in the Nile Valley and Yang-shao in the Yellow River Valley. These survivors were migrated by boat from their former homeland, which the author called them as the Sea People. Once they had adapted to a new place, the social structure started once again. Leader was to manage their new life and begin the "aristocracy" of nobility to lead his nation. The Sumerians were considered the first nation to the rise of aristocracy. Long after the rise of aristocracy, empires began to form and ruled some of the surrounding areas by conquering the neighborhood and strengthening their own power within the region. In about the year 3,200 BC, Egypt was considered the first nation to become an empire again by uniting the northern and southern Egypt under one rule. That was during the time of the Scorpion King. Empire was one of the characteristics of the Sea People. The rising of the empire on the other side of the world such as in China also occurred at the same time. The First Chinese King by the name of Fu Xi ruled in 2,850 BC.
  • 19. 17 The other characteristics of the Sea People, was that they usually used to use writing. In ancient world, history of writing probably began in Sumerian at the earliest 3,800 – 2,400 BC. They began to use seals and signs, and people had made marks to keep count of objects. This was mark as the seeds of writing. When the Sumerian cities grew, things became more advanced and complex. To convey these complexities of information, the Sumerian needed signs that would stand for words not just for things. They needed pictograms. Pictogram is a form of writing which uses representational, pictorial drawings. Over the course of at least six hundred years, Sumerian pictograms evolved into phonetic symbols. In Egypt, pictograms, now called hieroglyphs, came into use slightly later than they did in Sumer. Egyptian learned the technique of pictograms from their neighbors to the northeast. And for centuries, clay had been the traditional writing materials for both Sumerians and Egyptian. Around 3,000 BC, Egyptian had begun to use papyrus as material to write hieroglyphs on. Later in China, around 1,200 BC, the Shang people had progressed to use writing. Chinese script was unique and seemed to have developed in complete independence from writing elsewhere in the ancient world. Once they knew and used writing as a way to communicate or even trade, it became easier for all things. Easy to trade, make rules or another, made them begin to grow more rapidly and interact more frequently with their own neighbors. Then, the desire to rule over neighboring regions, being considered more fertile, more prosperous or more advanced, began. Sumerian started all of these under the king by the name of Gilgamesh about the year 2,700 BC. He was the first who had the desire to conquer neighboring regions and was followed by others kings in whole parts of the world and in all time. Around 2,600 – 2,400 BC what happened in Sumerian was different from that happened in Egypt. Under the authority of the Third Dynasty, the power of the Pharaoh was getting stronger. They were also supported by the abundant of natural resources used for the Glory of the Dynasty. King Djoser was the first Pharaoh who began to have an obsession to get immortality by building a magnificent tomb to mark the triumph in life and after death. The tombs of the Egyptian Pharaohs were now called Pyramids. Pyramids were ones of the largest and most perfectly constructed artifacts, having layout related to macrocosmic. Followed later by Ch’in Dynasty, under the First
  • 20. 18 Emperor, Shi Huang-ti, a magnificent tomb was also built to his tribute. Even to this day, these remarkable artifacts remain a mystery as to how they were actually made. Sumerian had a different story about the year 2,500 – 2,300 BC, where wars still continued to take place and neighbors of the Sumerian conquered one another. Amid the people who was constantly squeezed by higher taxes and had to go to war, there was a king in Lagash named Urukagina who did big changes in society by reducing taxes and want to restore Lagash "to the state of justice intended by god”. Urukagina’s moral rectitude became his own political suicide. The courage to change the society, though amid a very chaotic situation, made Urukagina known as the first reformer. Other reformers also came to scene in several places and different time, such as, Confucius in China, Siddhartha Gautama in India, and Jesus in Jerusalem. They brought the same message, the moral rectitude. They all would be the first leader for all their religions in the next period of time. Religions were also one of the characteristics of the Sea People. In the chronological terms of early European history, there were the twin foci of civilizations of the Aegean Bronze Age. Minoan civilization located on Crete Island came first. Minoan culture’s influence spread widely through the Cycladic islands. Minoan civilization was categorized as the Sea People’s ones. Next, on the mainland, there came Mycenaean, the based civilization of the Greek, which arose during the sixteenth century B.C. Mycenaean, on the other hand, was categorized as the Land People (see Part II.3.2.1). The island of Crete was long and mountainous, having peaks rising to 2,500 meters and a handful of a fertile plain stretching toward the coast and to the harbor town. The Minoan were nonetheless great sailors. Since the third millennium BC onward, there was evidence that they had regular contact with Egypt and the Near East. Archaeologists discovered that the Minoan used three major scripts, usually inscribed on clay tablets. The earliest script, called hieroglyphic came into use near the beginning of the Palace period around 2,000 BC. Actually, this was in accord with the characteristic of the said Sea People above who used to use writing.
  • 21. 19 Furthermore, in European history, the Etruscans occupied the region to the north of Rome, between the Arno and Tiber Rivers to the west of the Apennine Mountains. The Etruscans, later the inferiors, were first a subject people of the Romans. The Etruscan culture was well-developed and advanced but distinctively different from the cultures of the other peoples in the region. This distinctive difference immediately led to the question of where the Etruscans actually originated. This question was subject to active speculation among the Greeks. Some Greeks held that the Etruscans were a branch of the Pelasgians, aboriginal inhabitants of the Aegean region. The Pelasgians may have been the Sea People who invaded the Egyptian Empire around 1,200 BC. Long before the Etruscan occupied the region of Europe, the Beaker People were already known as one of the oldest culture in Europe. They were also known as the Sea People as seen from their ‘Maritime’ type artifacts (see Figure 1). They migrated to the west coast of Europe from somewhere across the Atlantic Ocean. The other transformation of the Sea People was the Persian Empire (present day Iran). This empire rose when Cyrus set on the throne of the empire. In around 500 BC, Persian ruled over the Mesopotamia to the east and west. Cyrus the Great ruled over his empire a little less than nine years and fell in a skirmish with an unknown queen by the name of Tomyris from Massagetae tribe. In the next period of time, the King of Persian Empire by the name of Cambyses II succeeded to attack Egypt. But the most famous war of the Persian Empire period was at the time when Xerxes, the king of Persia, failed to attack Greece. Since this failure, the next kings of Persia struggled to defend the empire. At the same time when Persian Empire started to fall in around 400 BC, in the western region, Roman Empire just arose. Roman Empire was one of the transformations of the Etruscan and the Beaker People. They succeeded to extent and colonize their territories. For at least six hundred years, their dominance was stretching from Rome to Persia including Egypt. Meanwhile, in the east region, in the beginning of the first century AD, the Han emperors abandoned Changan and moved their capital to the east to Luoyang. This marked as the beginning of the second period of the Han China known as the Eastern
  • 22. 20 Han Period. However, within a little more than a century, signs of the declining of Han dynasty were evident. A lot of ordinary farmer did not show any improvement. There were also serious peasant rebellions. From AD 187, the Han dynasty was steadily shorn of real power. Finally, in AD 220, Han dynasty was officially abolished. The unified Chinese empire was now fragmented. The following centuries only saw the rise and fall of many states and dynasties, coupled with serious incursions by the northern nomads. Chinese central control was not restored until the Sui (581 – 618) and Tang (618 – 907) dynasties. During these post-Han centuries, Korea and Japan formed their secondary state formation. At this time, evidence showed that several native kingdoms had arose in Korea. The kingdoms were Koguryo in the north, Silla and Paekche in the South, and the more amorphous polity known as Kaya. The period of AD 300 – 668 was known as the Three Kingdoms period. In this period, the above kingdoms were vied and fought for political supremacy. By the AD 313, in the north, Koguryo captured the seat of the Chinese Lelang commandery. Then, they began to expand southward absorbing parts of Paekche. However, all these three kingdoms maintained contacts with China. They also adopted the Chinese scripts and the Buddhism religion. The intricate culture associated with civilization has a tendency to spread to and influence other cultures, sometimes assimilating them into civilization. During the seventh century the southern kingdoms of Silla emerged as a major power. They conquered Kaya and Paekche and then defeated Koguryo. This victory marked as the beginning of the unified Silla period (AD 668 - 918). Silla adopted much features of the Tang dynasty from China, such as administrative system and also the capital city plan. In short, since around the first century AD, the Korean civilization had been greatly influenced by Chinese civilization. Japanese developments were closely parallel with those of Korea during AD 100 – 700. The evidence showed that Japan and China had diplomatic contacts during the Han period. Japanese envoys visited Luoyang in AD 57 and 107. Nevertheless, the greatest formative influence on the early Japanese state did not come from the Chinese but from southern Korea instead.
  • 23. 21 The above mentioned civilizations always tends to develop such intricate cultures, including literature, professional art, architecture, organized religion, and complex customs associated with the elite. In general, these civilizations have the same characteristics. They have the story about the migration and sailed by boat from their former homeland, they built the empire; they also used to use writing, they used technology to build pyramids and other monumental architectures and make weapons. Religions were also arisen at this time. From the above characteristics and their transformation, the author concludes that they are having the same characteristics and grouped into the Sea People. II.3.1.2 The Trail of the Sea People The situational characteristics and transformation illustrated in Part II.3.1.1 clearly described the vast region of the Sea People and it civilizations. But the trail of their migration is still unclear. If the great catastrophe occurred in the Far East, then the most possible hypothesis is that they started migrating from this region. The Sea People were generally the inhabitant along the South China Sea, such as Southeast Asia, China, Taiwan and Philippines. They were also settled in Japan, Korea, and West Coast of Europe as explained before. If they started migrating from the Far East, then, the trail should have been toward the North East. The route map of the North East trail would be described as follow. First, they sailed through the South China Sea to South China Mainland, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea. Furthermore, they sailed towards Europe through the Antilles region. Parts of them settled in Canary Islands, the other sailed further and settled in around Aegean region in the Islands of Crete and along the west coast of Europe. In Europe, the Aegean People or called the Etruscan also often called as the Sea People for their skills in sailing and fighting. The other group of the Sea People was the inhabitant in South Asia, North and Northeast Africa and part of the Near East. If they also started migrating from the Far East, then, this trail should have been that going toward the South West direction. The route map of the South West trail would be described as follow. They sailed through the Indian Ocean to the south of India, including Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, until Madagascar, East and Northern Africa. However, the above dispersal did not happen in one time, but
  • 24. 22 it lasted for more than two to three millennia. These two trails then became the steady trail of the Sea People. Actually, the evidence of the North East trail was also found on the Etruscan or the Sea People in Europe. Some scholars consider that the origin of the Etruscan is Mexico. The genetic origins are a mix between aboriginal people of that region and people from Europe, predominantly Spain. It is in accord with the trail of their migration that was from the Pacific to Atlantic Ocean through the Antilles region. That is why, the scholars found a connection between people in the Antilles region and the Etruscan. The question became more intriguing when, in the nineteenth century, it was discovered that most of the European languages actually belonged to one of the big language family called the Indo-European but Etruscan was not one of them. The explanation here is that the Etruscan was some group who migrated by boat from a place to the west and south coast of Europe. Meanwhile, the Indo-European was another group who migrated by foot not by boat to the east of Europe (see Part II.3.2.2). Obviously, they had differences in both language and culture. Actually, the connection of the Etruscan people in Europe with the American inhabitant was not the Mesoamerican people, but it was the Sioux Indian who lived in North Central America. Undeniably, the Amerindian contacts with the Far East were both regular and intensive throughout antiquity. This argument was also reinforced by the solid evidence afforded on the domesticated plants and animals that existed on both sides of the Pacific Ocean, and on the cultural and linguistic parallels that make the pre-Columbian America the perfect duo of the ancient Indies. Similarity on culture was one way to connect the Etruscan and Amerindian with the Far East. Much attention has been focused on the funerary practices of the people of North Italy. The Etruscans cremated their dead and put the ashes in elaborate funeral urns. These funerary practices were also very common for the Sea People around the world, such as the Amerindian, China, Egypt, India, and in the Far East itself such as Bali of Indonesia. This burial by funeral was also one of the cultures of the Sea People.
  • 25. 23 One of the most important things here is the fact that the Sea People tribe, such as the Bajao tribe, still live today in the Far East region. They are tribes who live on boats and currently reside in the area stretching from Sumatra to the Pacific. Culturally speaking, they are also having the same characteristics, especially, in its basic culture, with the Sea People around the world. In addition, in the history of the Far East itself, there was also a history the so called Maritime Nusantara Trading Network (Wilheim G. Solheim6 called it "Nusantao"). In Solheim's hypothesis, the Nusantao were the people who constituted this trading network. Solheim notes: “My hypothesis about the origins and development of maritime trade network Nusantao is as follows. Nusantao origins are the peoples, who sail and surf, came from Eastern Indonesia and close to southern Philippines. Advance of their sailing abilities to grow driven by the rising sea level .... which require movement across the stretch of open sea which gradually getting longer to maintain relations and contacts with the country of origin. Framed canoes may be required for expansion Nusantao. The origins and nature of the innovation center of all Austronesian boats located on the islands that surround Sulawesi.” (Solheim 1975a:158) One of Solheim’s journals also stated that the Nusantao was dispersed to the north and south from their former homeland. This Nusantao people had sailed as far as Madagascar and Tahiti in the North Pacific. Trace of their journey can also be found in South China such as in Hong Kong and Taiwan. They also initiated inter island trade in the region long before western civilization did. Recently, genetics traces had also found some existence of human DNA of the Far East people in Madagascar and the east coast of Africa. This DNA finding proved that people in the Far East is regarded as the ancestor of the people in Madagascar and East Africa. This DNA finding also justified the South West trail. The DNA connections will be further discussed in Part III.2. 6 Wilhelm G. Solheim II is an American anthropologist recognized as most senior practitioner of archaeology in Southeast Asia, and as a pioneer in the study of Philippine and Southeast Asian prehistoric archaeology. He is perhaps best known, however, for hypothesizing the existence of the Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network (NMTCN), one of two dominant hypotheses regarding the peopling of the Asia-Pacific region during the Neolithic age.
  • 26. 24 In next period of time of around AD 1,200, one of the kingdoms in Java, Indonesia called Majapahit re-explored the vast area of the Maritime Nusantara Trading Network. From around AD 1,200 until 1,500, this Kingdom territory stretched from Madagascar, China to the Pacific, almost the same with the pattern of the Maritime Nusantara Network. Uniquely, Kingdom of Majapahit was the acculturation of the Sea People and the Land People. It was due to the fact that they had also conquered the areas of the Land People such as Indochina, and Central Asia (see Part II.3.2) and assimilation thereby. In addition, archaeologically speaking, as seen from the carving and description on the Panataran’s temple site complex in Java, Indonesia (see Part II.4.3.2) these people had apparently conquered Mesoamerica also. Thus, at that time, the Kingdom of Majapahit was not only tracing the Maritime Nusantara Trading Network but also the migration trail of their ancestor. Traces of the Sea People’s cultures and civilizations in two directions, namely North East and South West from the Far East could be easily found. These were based on the evidences of archaeology, genetic, linguistic, culture, myth and legend which clearly depicted the trail of the migration of the Sea People. Here, the author also found that no matter how many great catastrophes or other events might have occurred, the pattern of the Sea People route is always essentially the same. Today, this group of people whether in West Europe, Central America, North Africa and Asia including Indonesia shares many aspects in life, such as ideology, religion and economic system. II.3.2 Survivors by Foot II.3.2.1 The Characteristics of the Land People in Ancient World Soon after the end of the Ice Age, at least 12,000 years ago, the survivors called the Palaeo-Indian groups settled in Mesoamerica. The roots of the early Mesoamerican civilization lied deep in the remote past, among hunting-gathering and farming cultures on both highlands and lowlands. By 7,000 BC, some groups experimented with the deliberate cultivation of wild plants foods that eventually led to agriculture. The prominent diversity of the Mesoamerican environment, with its widely distributed food resources and raw materials, made everyone depend on neighbors. From earliest time barter network was important linking village to village and between lowlands groups to
  • 27. 25 those living on the semiarid highlands or in the basin of Mexico. The same exchange networks spread compelling ideologies forming the symbolic formation of ancient Mesoamerican civilization. While in other region, for ten thousand of years, the Near East was populated by nomadic bands of hunters and gathers. Only by 9,000 BC, the area was no longer for gathering, but also for planting and harvesting. This was the time when the agriculture period had begun. By then, farming village scattered throughout the Fertile Crescent in cultivable land, stretching from the southern Levant to the north Mesopotamia plain, and down toward the Persian Gulf skirted the edge of the arid zone. These villages were clusters made of mud-brick houses. They planted wheat, barley, and pulses. They also herded sheep, goat, cattle and pigs. They made pottery and began to experiment with copper metallurgy. These earlier phase of developments in Mesopotamia took place in Hassuna, Samarra, Halaf and Ubaid from seventh millennium BC until fourth millennium BC. Actually, these people were categorized as Semitic people, and they were the precursor settlement before the Sumerian came to Mesopotamia. Once they adapted to a new place, the social structure started once again. Different from the Sea People, the social hierarchy built by the above mentioned civilizations was Chieftain or tribal chief. A tribal chief was the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom. Tribal societies with social stratification under a single (or dual) leader emerged in the Neolithic period out of earlier tribal structures with little stratification, and they remained prevalent throughout the Iron Age. In the case of indigenous tribal societies existing within larger colonial and post-colonial states, tribal chiefs might represent their tribe or ethnicity in a form of self-government. The most common type would be the chairman of a council (usually of "elders") and/or a broader popular assembly in "parliamentary" cultures, the war chief (might be an alternative or additional post in war time), the hereditary chief and the politically dominant medicine man (in "theocratic" cultures). In general, they were all communally oriented. The life of the people only followed and depended on their Chieftain. Chieftain for them was the leader and everything; their doctor and even their high priest or spiritual leader. The civilizations other than Semitic people in the Mesopotamia and also those in Mesoamerica who built the chieftain hierarchy were known all over the places including Indochina, West and Central Asia, Northern and Eastern part of Europe.
  • 28. 26 Actually, chieftain hierarchy was one of the characteristics of the Land People. Societies in the above mentioned regions tended to marry and socialize mostly among themselves, thus forming a separate social and economic class, which eventually became a distinctive ethnic group. Commonly, they had no king and court, no taxes and tributes and no foreign sea trade. The based economic system that they used was agriculture and barter trade. They farmed, survived and had no particular need to write anything down. Therefore, there is very little information about their being in the past. Actually, they left many stones carved in the region their passed by, but these carved stones are still undecipherable, leaving the meaning of them still in mystery. Even though the Mesoamerican left many ruins of architectural buildings, the background story behind them is difficult to define. In ancient world, they just came slightly to the picture of history, such as the Gauls, Dorians (present day Greek), Massagetae, Druids (present day Scotland), Hitties (present day Turkey) or even the Huns. Including in the Land People are the present day Mongol, Khmer, the Amazons, Mesoamerican and many other tribes around Eurasia and Mesoamerica. They were, fortunately, consistent in maintaining their culture and customary law for that sake. It make easier for people to identify them because their inherent culture still exists until today. This means that they just have made a slight cultural transformation since thousand of years ago to date. To clearly describe the distinctive characteristics of the Land people and the Sea People, the author will take the example of the Greeks civilization and the Roman Empire. In around second millennium BC European peninsula was inhabitant by the Mycenaean. Later, this tribe was called the Greeks. During this time, the most crucial development was the city-state, or polis. The concept of the city-state was the major organizing principle in the Greek world. Uniquely, they all never unified into one empire. Based on the city-state characteristic above, the Greeks were leaning more toward the Land People rather than to the Sea People. This was different from their neighbor such as the Roman who unified the region into one empire. This situation proved that Roman and Greeks had indeed different culture. The main point here is that the Roman are the descendant from the Sea People (see Part II.3.1.1), while the Greeks are those from the Land People. Both people came to Europe by different ways of journey from their former homeland.
  • 29. 27 Unlike the sailable Sea People, the roving Land People commonly lived on mountain terrain or savannah environment. Yet from the above mentioned vast regions of the Land People, the path of their migration over the habitant was still unidentified. The explanation in Part II.3.2.2 below will look further into it. II.3.2.2 The Path of the Land People The range area and spreads of the Land People as described above includes West and Central Asia, Indochina, North and Eastern Europe. If they started the migration from the Far East area, this path should be then towards the North West side of the Far East. Here, they marched towards Indochina, East and North India, Central and West Asia and reached the North and East Europe. The other reached Mesoamerica. This path was the South East path from the Far East. In the South East path they went through the Bering Strait way down to Mesoamerica and settled in Central and South America. These two paths, then, became the steady path of migration of the Land People. The paths above conform to the traces of ethnic below. They are grouped as Mongoloid. Mongoloid is a term sometimes used by forensic anthropologists and physical anthropologists to refer to populations that share certain phenotypic traits such as epicanthic fold and shovel-shaped incisors and other physical traits common in Central and East Asia, Southeast Asia, the Americas and the Arctic. The word is formed by the base word "Mongol" and the suffix "-oid" which means "resembling". It was introduced by early racial science primarily to describe various Central and East Asian populations, one of the proposed three major races of human kind. Although Mesoamerican is included in the Mongoloid race, the origin of Mongoloid race did not come from Central or even East Asia. In 1996, Rebecca Haydenblit of the Hominid Evolutionary Biology Research Group at Cambridge University did a study on the dentition of four pre-Columbian Mesoamerican populations and compared their data to "other Mongoloid populations". She found that "Tlatilco", "Cuicuilco", "Monte Albán" and "Cholula" populations followed an overall "Sundadont" dental pattern "characteristic of Southeast Asia" rather than a "Sinodont" dental pattern "characteristic of Northeast Asia."
  • 30. 28 Based on the above findings, the Mongoloid race should have covered the areas extending from Eastern Europe to Mesoamerica, yet other findings indicate that Mesoamerican is apparently closer to Southeast Asia than the northeast race. Thus, the origin of the Mongoloid race lies in the possibility of cross road between the Eurasia and America continent. This ought to be somewhere in the Far East region. The spreads of “Sundadont” feature, actually, become one of the suggestive proofs that, ancient migrations should have started from this region. As compared to the Sea People, in fact, the origin of the Land People was easier to identify because most of these tribes still maintain their culture associated with their original homeland. Today, their traces are yet clearly visible on the area where they first spread and settled. In those areas, many aspects of life of the Land People, such as ideology and agriculture based economic, are still shared along to date. II.4 Advancement Level of Civilizations At the early stage, there were many variations of development among the early civilizations. Growth of early civilization was formed by many features. To map the civilizations, the basic features of the advancement of them have to be first elaborated. The core elements of the advancement of a civilization are often measured by its progress in agriculture, long-distance trade, occupational specialization and urbanism. Agriculture came as the first element. The consequences of agriculture were enormous. The most significant was that it allowed the growth of larger settlements. Larger settlements and dense concentration of people were the ground for both city-dwelling and state formation. The advancement of agriculture was also in line with the advancement of irrigation and other agriculture technology. Therefore, archaeological records on agriculture system and/or technology which had been left by the earlier societies can be used to trace as to where agriculture was first started. Long distance trade came as the second element. Long distance trade and the division of labor were established after the first feature above. Commonly, the long distance trade was divided into two ways : by sea and by land through caravan. The consequences of the long distance trade were also enormous. The long distance trade
  • 31. 29 activities made early civilizations, sometimes at a very different level of social organization, come into contact with other communities. Therefore, long distance trade also became tools of dispersion of culture at the same time. Then assimilation as well as acculturation was established from this point on. Thus, in mapping civilizations, description or definition of the first long distance trade is crucial. However, the above said contact was not always peaceful. The enormous human resources and centralized organization of early civilizations made mostly everything possible for them to dispense under the protocol of commerce; to simply raid, invade, or annex neighboring areas and steal their valuables. Some of the leaders emerged as successful warlords, to become chieftains, and preside over large tribal polities. Then warfare intensified until the region fell under the sway of a single successful warrior who presided over a single state. From this point on, warfare period between neighbors, cities, and states began to take place. The third element was the advancement of occupational specialization toward formal keeping, craft specialization, astrology, astronomy, mathematics, and some form of written script. The advancement of occupational specialization of early civilizations, reaching out to every corner of the society, was also related to religious beliefs and philosophies. These ideologies, as reflected in their distinctive art styles, served as visual reminders of a state’s ideology reinforcing the power of the supreme rulers and their special relationship to the gods and the spiritual world. This was reflected through the construction of impressive public building and monumental architecture, such as, for examples, the Mayan ceremonial centers, Egyptian pyramids, Borobudur Temple and many more. The latter, however, became the landmark of early civilization which still stands to this day. In the beginning, direction of the growth of early civilization had only one purpose and that was to maintain life on earth. Change of environment would also change human mind and attitude or otherwise. Civilizations formed many features to survive. Things became more advanced and complex than before. Therefore, all the above core elements of advancement of civilization produced one massive effect, which is urbanism. Urbanism is nothing but only the way of mankind to survive. Surely, people would move into the place, such as to the central economy that can better support their
  • 32. 30 life. However, the author will not elaborate urbanism separately; it is only a partial effect of the advancement above. At the early stage, the development of the ancient civilizations had many features in common. The evidences show, for example, that they had similar agriculture and trade system, even they worshipping the same deities. They had also similarities in their construction of various monuments of architecture such as in the case of urban planning, temple and palaces. These similarities, to a great extent, suggested that they must have referred to a very same place or culture that was the one they should first originate from. The explanation below is to delineate as to where and when the above advancement had first occurred. Moreover, it is also crucial to define what kind of culture that ancient civilization referring to. Given the path of ancient migration based on historical data in Part II.3, archaeological records and discovery will be used here as a reference to justify. Archaeology and historical data, indeed, would complement one another. If both disciplines were referred to the same universal approaches, in this case to the origin of culture, then both would result in the synthesis of history. II.4.1 Agriculture The first priority of the levels of advancement of a civilization is agriculture. It is necessary to define where and when the first agriculture or farming was started. Several archaeological findings have formed the view that the region of Southeast Asia and the Far East were only branches of China and Western civilization. On the contrary, apparently, systematic farming in the Far East was much ahead than the achievement in Old World of Neolithic Revolution in China or even in Western civilization. Archaeologist from Thailand by the name of Surin Pookajarn, stated that grain rice had been found together with pottery and other artifacts of the Neolithic period such as polished stone adze in the Cave of Sakai, far south of China, in the Malayan peninsula. This settlement was dated between 9,260 to 7,620 years ago. In archaeological levels, these artifacts are almost the same in style with the Neolithic sites of other early
  • 33. 31 Indochina in Ban Kao (Thailand) and in Cha Cave farther down of the peninsula. Right below this site in the Cave of Sakai was also found a layer of pre-Neolithic culture which was called the Hoabinh culture. This was known as a culture of the pre-glacial event. They were signified as a sustainable settlement. Actually, Hoabinh people were the pre-Neolithic settlements who were the inhabitants of Indochina of at least 10,000 years ago. Culture with the same style had also been found in northeast Sumatra, Indonesia. One of the proofs was dated to 6,000 BC. The Hoabinh were considered to have the ancestors of the Austroasiatic speakers (see Part III.1.2). They were also considered to learn the skills of their farms for thousand of years. Later the skills spread with the cultural assimilation of the Early Neolithic farther north to China. The Bronze Age artifacts had also been found in burial sites at Ban Chiang in Southern Thailand and Phung Nguyen, Northern Vietnam. The dating of these sites has raised the dispute, but recently, carbon dating, impeccably drawn from a pot of rice husk from the Bronze Age period, had been confirmed that the dating of these artifacts was nearly 6,000 - 5,000 years ago. If this carbon dating were confirm, this would then skip the hypothesis that the Near Eastern Bronze Age and China were the oldest one. Because this date was long before both the Near East and China reached this stage of development. The above archaeological discoveries were evidences that the cultivation of rice might have been practiced in the 7,000 – 6,000 BC in the Thailand peninsular which was much earlier than when China found it. This findings, actually, was supported by the environment itself, because only the Far East region a suitable place for plantation and agriculture to be started. Fertile soil and tropical climate were one of the supporting environments that made possible for the people in the Far East to do plantation as well as agriculture in the very beginning of time. The other hypothesis on the dispersal of agriculture was stated by Wilheim Solheim. Solheim hypothesized that rice agriculture was introduced into western Japan from Korea, but also, the artifacts associated with the beginnings of rice agriculture in both Korea and western Japan were, for the most part, brought north from northern Mainland Southeast Asia (South China in particular) by the Nusantao maritime traders not as a complex but element by element over one to two thousand years. Solheim also
  • 34. 32 shown that it is likely that the earliest rice in Taiwan and the Philippines was javanica and not japonica and that this rice not only came from Indonesia, but continued through the Philippines and Taiwan to Japan …. (Solheim 1993b). Moreover, Mark Hudson (1990: 68-69) states that most Japanese archaeologists see rice agriculture coming from South China, and in particular from around the mouth of the Yangtze River, either directly to Japan or by way of Korea. “There can be no doubt, however, that most of the concrete parallels are with Korea rather than coastal China (cf. Harunari 1990; Wang 1989).” Hudson (1990:69) also feels that the spread of rice agriculture east along the Japanese coast of the Japan Sea during early Yayoi times was through the agency of a maritime culture. The hypothesis above, suggested that the dispersal of agriculture was done by Maritime Nusantao around 7,000 – 5,000 BC. They were inhabitant of the Far East region. They brought the skill of agriculture to their trading network territories. The evidence of earlier cultivation of sweet potatoes and taro dated to 15,000 and 10,000 BC was also found in the Far East. The people of Papua New Guinea highlands had practiced horticulture since 9,000 years ago. Moreover, the North Solomon had been occupied by people who might have been grinding cereal at least 28,000 years ago. These early Melanesian populations seemed to have survived in their own habitants, perhaps because these were places as far as they could sail at the time. The above findings and hypothesis, further suggested that plantation and agriculture system most probably began in the Far East region. The Far East region was notably a suitable place in nature to do plantation as well as agriculture. In fact, until today this region still become the biggest supplier of food to the entire world. In the ancient time, this skill of agriculture and plantation then spread to the entire world through many ways. One of the massive dissemination of these skills was due to the dispersal of people caused by the great catastrophes. The other ways were long distance trade and cultural assimilation. Implicitly, these findings also support the above hypothesis, that the most possible former homeland for civilizations was the Far East.
  • 35. 33 II.4.2 Long Distance Trade The oldest long distance trading that can be traced today is Maritime Nusantao Trading Network. The primary concern of this explanation is to present details of the development of the Nusantao Maritime Trading Network between Taiwan, the coastal of South China and Northern Viet Nam from a bit before 7,000 BC until about 2,000 BC. The Nusantao Maritime Trading Network is seen as a very widespread trading and communication network which came to cover all of the Pacific Ocean, the coastal areas of the China Sea and Japan, the coastal areas of the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean as far as Madagascar, the Southeast Asia island and the coastal area of Mainland Southeast Asia. Having begun in eastern Island Southeast Asia a few hundred years before 5,000 BC, they expanded from there to the north through the Philippines to Taiwan and coastal South China and then north along the coast of China to western and southern Korea and finally to Kyushu in Japan, starting here just before 3,000 BC, but becoming best developed in Korea and Japan during the first millennium BC. The above explanation came from hypothesis of Solheim, who researched the trail of the Maritime Nusantao. Solheim also hypothesized that the Early Nusantao Maritime Trading Network, after advancing from south to north through the Philippines, reached southern Taiwan and coastal southeastern China sometime shortly before 5,000 BC. Nusantao peoples made contact, cultural and genetic, with the Middle Neolithic people of southeast China. He also hypothesized that these people were very adaptable to new conditions. With their knowledge both of the ocean and of land based economic activities such as hunting, gathering, and horticulture, they quickly incorporated the new cultural elements they came into contact with, forming a somewhat new and different culture in their sand dune and shell mound located sites. He concluded that these Middle Neolithic sites along the China coast were the land portion settlements of the Nusantao. Due to their rapid amalgamation with the local cultures with which they came into contact, their material culture in their land settlements would have varied from site to site as they moved north and south from southeastern coastal China. He also said that this Nusantao combination skill of land settlement and expanding maritime trading network was, unique in the world, so there is no existing model which can be looked to, except for the no doubt much evolved maritime cultures still in existence in Asia and the
  • 36. 34 Pacific. Actually, this unique combination model was followed by their descendant, like the author explained in Part II.3.1.2 that was by Kingdom of Majapahit. Moreover, Christy Turner II (1976; 1979; 1985: 49-50; 1989) has proposed two general and related tooth types for the Mongoloid peoples, these being Sinodonty for the northern Mongoloids and part of American Indians and Sundadonty for the southern Mongoloids, including the peoples of Southeast Asia, Micronesia and Polynesia. The Sundadonts included the Jōmon peoples of prehistoric Japan, from about 12,000 to 2,000 years ago, after which dental types changed to Sinodont, like the peoples of Korea, northern China, and Siberia (Turner 1989: 91; Hanihara 1990a, 1990b). This development from Korea within Yayoi Culture should be seen as connected with the Nusantao Maritime Trading Network. While Turner, Hanihara, and others consider that the relationship of the Ainu, Okinawans, and prehistoric Jōmon with the peoples of Southeast Asia resulted from a movement north towards the end of the Pleistocene, long before the Nusantao Maritime Trading Network. (Solheim 1993a). Undeniably, the above trail is more likely the same with the trail of the Sea People. They spread from the Far East region in two ways that is, toward North East and South West. The early trade, or barter, did not make anyone wealthy, but it did provide a living for many people of varying but similar cultures. It also provided a communication network that could pass around ideas, tool types, and elements of many different shared technologies. In addition, it produced a method of movement of portable luxury products and some relatively rare materials needed for tools, such as obsidian, which was traded widely in Island Melanesia, and even from Melanesia into western Indonesia, by the Lapita people from around 1,500 to 500 BC. Furthermore, the Lapita people were also recorded as the people who did the earlier long distance trade in the Pacific. The evidence came from the motif of Lapita pottery tradition which was found across the Pacific area. This indicates that, at approximately the second millennium BC, the Lapita Culture had colonized this region. They had a center of trade in the Bismarck Archipelago. In addition, on the basis of linguistics, physical anthropology, and archaeology it is now generally agreed that, the Lapita
  • 37. 35 Culture of Melanesia was the ancestor of the Polynesian. It is also suggested that the ancestry of the Lapita people came from the eastern Island Southeast Asia who came to the Pacific before the middle of the second millennium BC. Nevertheless, the long distance trade was actually one of the characteristics of an advanced civilization. The people should have the ability to adapt, transact and the ability in the military field to do so. Based on the above discussion, it can be concluded that the long distance trade was first performed by the people of the Far East. This, implicitly, proved that in those days people of the Far East were people who had advanced civilization, because they were able to do long distance trade long before other did. II.4.3 Occupational Specialization The advancement of occupational specialization of mankind was achieved in many aspect of life. Before human thought develop to another advance form, firstly, mankind specializes to make things to support their basic life, such as pottery, axe, mud-brick house, sphere, canoe and other basic things. Secondly, the advancement of skill of mankind is connected to their belief or to respect the nature. Actually, the later of advancement then brought human to make something more valuable, such as temple, monumental building, shrine and other religious things. Indeed, the first advancement is to fulfill the physical needs, while the second is to feed the soul. Then, both makes human become a perfect creature in this life. Actually, the occupational specialization of mankind is numerous, but in the ancient times, there were just basic skills that spread from the origin of culture to the world over. From this point on, many disciplines were developed including craft specialization, astrology, astronomy, chemistry, mathematic, philosophy, formal keeping and some form of written script. Naturally, the aforementioned dispersal of agriculture and long distance trade had borne the same for occupational specialization. Justify the above hypothesis, below the author will discuss the subject from the artifacts and monumental buildings point of view that, indeed, connected to the origin of culture, in this case, to the Far East region.
  • 38. 36 II.4.3.1 Artifacts As mentioned above in the Egyptian Book of the Dead, it was considered to contain much information on Pre dynasty, this book mentioned sixteen times about the east. Archaeology also claimed the same thing that there was an initial input from the east in Egyptian Pre-dynasty before 3,000 BC. This evidence included the styles of art in short reliefs (bas relief), architecture, and painting of large vessels made of wood with high masts on the pottery (see Figure 3 below). Figure 3 Egyptian Motif of “The Dead Boat.” Apparently, motif of "The Dead Boat" appeared in the designs found farther south to the island of Sumba in Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, to the west on the famous Lampung woven fabrics in southern Sumatra, Indonesia (see Figure 4), and went as far north as Vietnam described on the sides of the bronze drums of Dong Son of the first millennium BC. Actually, the motif of “The Dead Boat” was related to the culture and belief or, somehow, to the myth story. In ancient times, most if not all in ancient civilizations, there was a lot of this type of motif existed. Uniquely, in Southern Sumatra, today, there are some weaver still make this motif. In the Far East, this motif actually was not preserved as artifacts, but as a culture inherited from their ancestor.
  • 39. 37 Figure 4 Woven Fabric of Lampung, Southern Sumatra of Motif of “The Dead Boat.” The other unique features of influence of the east are clearly seen in the Gerzeans civilization. The Gerzeans were a civilization of pre-Dynastic Egypt during the Nagada II Period (3,500 to 3,000 BC). The Gerzeans were probably proto-Phoenician, as judged from their symbols and their white bearded figures. Gerzean vase decorations (see Figure 5) are rather unique for their epoch. These decorations also include a dancing naked goddess, the ithyphallic twins, palm-trees, twin pylons, peaked volcanic mountains, standards and streamers. However, seemingly they painted their former homeland in their potteries. Undeniably, the above characteristics are similar to that of the Far East. Sometimes, to find the origin of the artifact is not necessary from the artifact itself, but it comes from a place that still produces the similar featured goods. In that place these goods are not considered as a relic of the past. Although, little information was seemingly found about the Far East in the past, but what really happens is the people of the Far East still maintain the same old culture handed down from their ancestors. For other nations, this culture might look like an ancient matter, but it is not true for the Far East people. From this point of view, it can be authentically perceived as if their culture were timeless.
  • 40. 38 Figure 5 Decorated Ware with Boat from the Gerzean civilization. The other artifacts that have the same wide distribution as motif of the dead boat were the bronze axes. In the Bronze Age, Sweden had typical crescent-shaped bronze axe ceremonial. This axe was very similar to the Dong Son axe style which was found in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea (see Figures 6 and 7). In fact, the distribution of the bronze axe was most likely the same with the dispersal of the Land People, because the same style of axe was also found around the Eurasia region. Figure 6 Axe from Roti Island in Eastern Indonesia. Figure 7 Galstad Axe, Goteborg, Sweden. The artifacts shown in Figures 3 to 7 are just a few sample of several hundreds of compelling evidences like the ones presented below and elsewhere. The sample artifacts above represented the two distinct cultures, namely the Sea People and the
  • 41. 39 Land People. The motif of “The Dead Boat” and the potteries painting were seemingly made by the Sea People, because it was found, notably, in the area of the Sea People. While the axes and another agriculture tools were made by the Land People. Such tools were commonly found along the path of the Land People. Nevertheless, the motif of the artifacts and the history behind it, were referring to the same culture, that is to its origin. Here, it seems that the Far East culture had disseminated widely, then, it became a culture the others referred to. II.4.3.2 Monumental Buildings Today, ancient monumental building found in the Western civilizations had been defined and researched almost completely. But the connections between one monumental building with the other was still hardly to define. Therefore, the continuity of historical events is elusive to achieve. It is due to the fact that western scholars never refer to the origin of or genuine culture. In this Part II.4.3.2, the author would focus in the remains of the ancient monumental building appearing in Far East region in order to find the connection between the west and the east, and most importantly is to describe the path of historical events. In ancient time, the most prominent phenomenon was the megalithic constructions called the pyramids. The evidence about pyramids was initially discovered only in Egypt and South America. But as time went by, the pyramidal shapes were also discovered in China, United States, Europe, Russia, Southeast Asia and the Far East. The truth is that hundreds of giant ancient pyramids have now been discovered all over the world. How could so many diverse civilizations all over the globe build such similar structures involving such advanced engineering ? To answer this question, firstly, the author would elaborate the pyramidal shapes that appeared in the Far East such as Borobudur and Angkor. Then, from this point on, the author would try to delineate the connection between all the monumental buildings in other region with that appeared in the Far East. First pyramidal shape appearing in Far East is Borobudur Temple (see Figure 8 below). Borobudur, or Barabudur, is a ninth century Mahayana Buddhist monument in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia. The monument consists of six square platforms
  • 42. 40 topped by three circular platforms, and is decorated with 2,672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues. A main dome, located at the center of the top platform, is surrounded by 72 Buddha statues seated inside a perforated stupa. Figure 8 The Pyramidal Temple of Borobudur – Perspective. Borobudur is built as a single large stupa, and when viewed from above takes the form of a giant tantric Buddhist mandala, simultaneously representing the Buddhist cosmology and the nature of mind. The foundation is a square, approximately 118 meters (387 ft) on each side. It has nine platforms, of which the lower six are square and the upper three are circular. The upper platform features seventy-two small stupas surrounding one large central stupa. Each stupa is bell-shaped and pierced by numerous decorative openings. Statues of the Buddha sit inside the pierced enclosures. The design of Borobudur took the form of a step pyramid. Previously the prehistoric Austronesian megalithic culture in Indonesia had constructed several earth mounds and stone step pyramid structures called punden berundak as discovered in Pangguyangan, Cisolok and Gunung Padang, West Java. The construction of stone pyramids is based on native beliefs that mountains and high places are the abode of ancestral spirits or hyangs. The punden berundak step pyramid is the basic design in Borobudur, believed to be the continuation of older megalithic tradition incorporated with Mahayana Buddhist ideas and symbolism.
  • 43. 41 Figure 9 Borobudur Ground Plan taking the form of a Mandala. Figure 9 describes that the monument’s ground plan are consisting of the three divisions which symbolize the three "realms" of Buddhist cosmology, namely Kamadhatu (the world of desires), Rupadhatu (the world of forms), and finally Arupadhatu (the formless world). Ordinary sentient beings live out their lives on the lowest level, the realm of desire. Those who have burnt out all desire for continued existence leave the world of desire and live in the world on the level of form alone: they see forms but are not drawn to them. Finally, full Buddhas go beyond even form, and experience reality at its purest, most fundamental level, the formless ocean of nirvana. The liberation from the cycle of Saṃsāra where the enlightened soul had no longer attached to worldly form is corresponds to the concept of Śūnyatā, the complete voidness or the nonexistence of the self. Kāmadhātu is represented by the base, Rupadhatu by the five square platforms (the body), and Arupadhatu by the three circular platforms and the large topmost stupa. The architectural features between three stages have metaphorical differences. For instance, square and detailed decorations in the Rupadhatu disappear into plain circular platforms in the Arupadhatu to represent how the world of forms – where men are still attached with forms and names – changes into the world of the formless. Even the meager remains of the Far East pyramids that have survived from a relatively recent past are splendid enough to dazzle even the hardiest of skeptics. The fact that the pyramidal symbolism is very much alive and meaningful in the Far East, in contrast
  • 44. 42 to, say, Egypt, where it never was explained at all, is proof enough of its origin there, in these countries full of the mountains portrayed by the pyramids themselves. The pyramid complex of Borobudur (Java) has been hailed as the most significant monument in the Southern Hemisphere and, perhaps, even of the whole world. Its pyramid stands on a hill and rises 35 meters from its base, which measures 123x123 square meters. The above evidence basically proved that, the Far East people had a higher level in the occupational specialization as compared to any civilization in the world. They made grandiose structure together with the deep meaning of it, making their creation more valuables and magnificent ever. The above evidence is nothing but to justify the hypothesis on the ancient migration, that the skills to build a magnificent monument had been also spread from the east to the west when the great catastrophe event occurred. Undeniably, the link formed between Javanese and the Egyptian as well as Indian civilizations was through the trail of the Sea People. Another wonder of Southeast Asian are the temples of Angkor and, particularly, Angkor Vat and Angkor Thom. The Vat is an enormous pyramidal complex of some 1500 x 1400 m2. The complex is surrounded by a vast cloister and is approached from the west. This is done via a monumental paved road built upon a causeway delimited by balustrades formed from standing serpents (nagas). The Vat rises in three concentric enclosures that define three courtyards, as in the Javanes and the Egyptian temples discussed above. The symbolic meaning of the Vat pyramidal complex is clear to specialists. It corresponds to the Polar Mountain (Meru), the hub of the universe. The central shrine corresponds, as in Borobudur, to the supreme reality, while the lower levels, the gate complex, the cloister, the city of Angkor and the outer world represent, in descending order, the outer shells of reality. The orientation of Angkor Vat towards the west represents the fact that it was a mortuary temple. The Angkor Thom is even more grandiose than Angkor Vat. Like its predecessor, it replicates the sacred city of Paradise (Lanka), built upon the slopes of Mt. Meru. The city was in turn, also a symbolic replica of the Cosmos, on whose shape it was designed. This symbolic universe follows Hindu Cosmological doctrines. When possible, the kings of Angkor utilized natural hills for the construction of their holy cities.
  • 45. 43 When this was impossible, they built artificial mountains in the shape of stepped pyramids like the beautiful ones of Angkor Thom and Angkor Vat. The central pyramidal complex of Angkor Thom, the Bayon, is the biggest though not by all means finest of them all. Within the moats of Angkor Thom, fully 16 km around, lie the huge complexes of buildings and of barays (dams), lakes and irrigation channels that formed the sacred city, its temples, houses and palaces. The stepped pyramids of Angkor and Indonesia, deriving from native beliefs or traditions, were as perfect and as magnificent with those of Egypt. The Angkor Vat was built by the king of Khmer, named Suryawarman II, in the early twelfth century. Like Borobudur Temple of Buddhism in Central Java, Indonesia, the Angkor Vat was not inspired by the Hinduism culture of India, but it was based on local inspirations instead. Moreover, the aforementioned king of Khmer was also named after a king of Tarumanagara Kingdom in West Java, Indonesia. Suggestively, the Khmer Kingdom had indeed some or more influence of the Far East culture as compared to India. The evidences that can connect the Far East civilization with the other in ancient world such as Sumerian, China even Mesoamerica, were clearly found in several temple complexes in Java, Indonesia. Such temple complexes, commonly, were carved with the figures from other civilizations besides the Javanese people. Actually, the depiction of several civilizations in one complex temple was never found at other sites in all over the world except in the Far East. Because of its uniqueness, the author will elaborate further below. The first temple complex is Ceto Temples. Ceto (Indonesian: Candi Ceto) is a fifteenth century Javanese-Hindu temple that is located on the western slope of Mount Lawu (elev. 900 m or 3,000 feet above sea level) on the border between Central and East Java provinces, Indonesia. The uniqueness of this temple is there are many ancient statues that were older than when this temple was built. One of the unique features of this temple is shown in Figure 10. The figures were not recognized as the Javanese people, but as foreigner. Seen from their bracelet, the figures looked like Sumerian people. In fact, in ancient time, the Sumerian people were known as the people who wore bracelet. Unfortunately, these statues have not been researched completely. But
  • 46. 44 at least, the statues proved that there was some connection between the Sumerian civilization and Javanese one in the past. Figure 10 Sumerian Statues in the Ceto Temple, East Java, Indonesia. The second temple complex is Panataran. Penataran or Panataran (Indonesian: Candi Penataran) is the largest Hindu temple complex in East Java, Indonesia, located roughly 10 km north of Blitar. Believed to have been under construction from the twelfth to fifteenth century, the temple played a significant role in the Majapahit Kingdom, especially under King Hayam Wuruk. Penataran was believed to be dated back to Kediri era. This temple was identified in Nagarakertagama as Palah temple and reported being visited by King Hayam Wuruk during his royal tour across East Java. The unique feature of this temple is there were two stories carved on the wall of the complex temple that connected Javanese to the Mesoamerican civilization and other civilizations in the ancient times. This unique feature is shown in Figure 11. The explanation about the below carved wall, actually, matched with the story of the Maritime Nusantara Trading Network and the story of Kingdom of Majapahit themselves. Both, in different time, had expanded their territory as far as Madagascar and Mesoamerica.
  • 47. 45 Figure 11 The Carved Wall in Panataran Temple, East Java, Indonesia. In Figure 12, also carved in the same complex, clearly shows typical figures of the people of the ancient civilizations. The figures, as identified from left to right, illustrate those of the Han people (Chinese), the Champa people in Vietnam, the chieftain of Mesoamerica, the Java people and, last but not least, of the Jewish people. Figure 12 The Carved Wall in Panataran Temple, East Java, Indonesia. In its heyday, Kingdom of Majapahit or their ancestor overwhelmed all the civilizations above. On another carved wall at the same temple complex, but not presented here,
  • 48. 46 are the typical figures of other ancient people such as Egyptian, Nubian and even African. Undeniably, all the stories on the carved wall matched with the fact that the Kingdom of Majapahit or their ancestor had indeed connections with the above mentioned civilizations. The question now is, were the Far East temples older than Egyptian ones ? Egyptian temples appeared to be consistently older than their Hindu and the Far East counterparts. This is due to the fact that the Egyptian temples were buried under the desert sands and, thus, spared in great extent from the fanatic destruction by the early Christians and their Muslims successors. Meanwhile, the tradition that eventually appeared in the sacred geometry of the Egyptian temples was probably brought to Egypt by the Gerzeans who conquered pre-Dynastic Egypt some five or six millennia ago. Based on their potteries, indeed, the Gerzeans seemed to have been protoPhoenicians whilst the proto-Phoenicians was intimately connected to the Far East tradition. Actually, the symbolism of pyramidal complexes extended farther out into the Pacific region all the way to the Americas (Mayan and Aztec pyramidal complexes and temples). It raises the question now as to where did this universal tradition first started ? To answer the above question, then the third complex temple below should be considered as an inspiration. The third temple complex is Sukuh (Indonesian: Candi Sukuh) fifteenth century Javanese temple that is located on the western slope of Mount Lawu (elev. 910 m (3000 ft)) on the border between Central and East Java provinces of Indonesia. The main structure of Sukuh temple (see Figure 13) likes no other ancient edifice; a truncated pyramid reminiscent of a Maya monument and surrounded by monoliths and meticulously carved life-sized figures. Sukuh temple did not follow Hindu architecture Wastu Vidya because Sukuh temple was built when Hindu religion was weakened at that time. Usually the temple shape was rectangle or square, but Sukuh temple was trapezium in shape with three terraces, one terrace was higher than the other in the back. A stone stairway rose through the front side of the pyramid to its summit. It is not
  • 49. 47 known what was the monument's unique shape intended to symbolize. The Sukuh temple, most likely, was symbolizing that there was a similar culture with Mesoamerica in the Far East. The date when Sukuh Temple was built was almost the same with the date when some Mesoamerican Pyramid was also built. This indicates, to some extent, a connection between the Javanese and Mesoamerican. Nonetheless, the forms of the pyramidal complexes found in the Far East resemble several monumental buildings of other civilizations, such as Egypt and Mesoamerica. The Far East seems to have both cultures. This mixture of features was never found anywhere else except in the Far East. Figure 13 The Main Monument of Sukuh Temple. The above explanation suggests that clear expression on the archetypes of the symbols and the sacred geometry of temples and cathedrals around the world can only be found in the Far East region. In fact, the pristine tradition of the Far East became the basic and essence of the ancient religions all over the world, not only Hinduism and Tantric Buddhism, but also Egyptian's religion, Mesopotamian's religion, Mesoamerican's belief and even the Christians and the Jews. From the religious point of view, there is no argument that could deny that the Far East was the place where something began and sprung into being. That is also the reason
  • 50. 48 why, as elaborated in Part II.2, that people in the Far East could accept all religions equally. It was simply due to the fact that the essence of all religions came from the pristine tradition of the Far East itself. Actually, the deepest meaning of every ancient monumental building in the world was as a silent symbol about their connection with their origin. Meanwhile, pedagogy of the original culture had transformed into religions and implemented in accord with the local customs in their respective regions. In the Far East itself, religions were also shared by many people, but for them the local indigenous cultures remained upheld higher. Nonetheless, all the above evidences, especially from historical data and archaeological discoveries, have pointed out that the Far East was the original homeland for culture as well as civilization. But, to justify these findings, other disciplines should be consulted as well such as linguistic. In Part III, the author describes the scientific connection of the Far East with the other civilizations by means of their linguistics and genetics.
  • 51. 49 PART III CULTURAL DISCRETION OF CIVILIZATION III.1 Lingual Characteristic The elaboration of human history on previous Part is based on the historical data and archaeological discoveries. However, both disciplines are involved in some dispute against each other. The biggest dispute is more likely due to the fact that archaeology often contrasts its own conclusions against history. Archaeology wants to make its own postulation on human history. Moreover, this contrast might also happen due to the fact that historians may have bended historical data for other pretentions such as political practices. Actually, the conclusion of human history can only be achieved if archaeology stays in their function to validate and purify the site evidence as a complement to historical data. It should neither oppose nor make a new version of history. On the other hand, history shall be purely based on a genuine culture that was neither adopted nor otherwise. If only both disciplines elaborated human history as mentioned, then there would be no dispute taken place at all, because both disciplines, indeed, are to complement each other. However, to get around the above situation, other disciplines have to be involved in postulating human history. One of the disciplines that related to human history as well as human culture is linguistics. Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. Linguistics in its broader context includes evolutionary linguistics, which considers the origins of language; historical linguistics; it explores language change; sociolinguistics, which looks at the relation between linguistic variation and social structures. Actually, these three sub-disciplines of linguistics especially historical linguistics are needed to construct the map of civilization. Historical linguistics is a study of the history and evolution of languages through the comparative method and its aim is to classify languages in language families descending from a common ancestor. Therefore, historical linguistics can be used to track the movement of ancient migration. In general, there are two language families which have connection with human migration and the spread of agriculture or culture. Those are the Austronesia and Austroasiatic languages. Both belong to Austric language family. These two languages
  • 52. 50 are defined by the linguists as the two major phyla of indigenous languages of the Far East and Southeast Asia. Therefore, in mapping of civilization, the spread of these two languages becomes an important factor in order to know the area of its dispersal as well as the origin of both languages. The geographical span of Austronesian ranging from Madagascar off the southeastern coast of Africa to Easter Island in the eastern Pacific was the largest of any language family before the spread of Indo-European in the colonial period. Hawaiian, Rapanui, and Malagasy (spoken in Madagascar) are also the geographic outliers of the Austronesian family. Seen from its area, the dispersal of the Austronesia language was, most likely, the same with the dispersal of the Sea People. They had been scattered across the Pacific and possibly around the Indian Ocean. Meanwhile, Austroasiatic languages, also spelled as Austro-Asiatic and stock of some 150 languages spoken by more than 65 million people, are scattered throughout Southeast Asia and eastern India. These languages have numerous dialects. Khmer (present day Cambodia) and Vietnamese are culturally the most important and have the longest recorded history on spoken Austroasiatic language. The remainders are languages of nonurban minority groups reported, if at all, just recently. The stock is of great importance as a linguistic substratum for all Southeast Asian languages. Actually, the spread of Austroasiatic language had close connection to the spread of the Land People. Recently, some scholars had claimed that the Austronesia language, Sanskrit and the Sumerian have the same vocabulary. Undeniably, it is in line with the spread of the Sea People, who brought Austronesia language from their former homeland to India and Mesopotamia. Some scholars have also claimed some existence of the links between the Austroasiatic and the Austronesia language. The link between the Austronesia and Austroasiatic languages, actually, can only be seen from the origin of both languages that was the first place where these two languages came from. Based on historical linguistics, the beginning of the spread of both languages occurred when the sea rose and separated the islands of Southeast Asia from mainland Asia.
  • 53. 51 The explanation below depicts clearly the spread of these two language families. At the same time, based on the elaboration of linguistic discipline, the author would try to define the most possible places of the origin of these two languages. In short, Austroasiatic language mostly evolved among people of Indochina mainland, West and Central Asia, while Austronesia one evolved among the inhabitants of the islands in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. III.1.1 Austronesia The prefix "Austr-" or "Austro-" means "south" suffix "-sia" means islands. Austronesia literally means "islands of the south" is a language phylum consisting of different spoken languages by many ethnic groups. The terminology of the Austronesia was first introduced by W. Schmidt7 (1899). It was described as a family of languages spoken by the people who inhabitant in the islands of Indonesia and the Pacific. This language family is also known as "the Malayo-Polinesian,” this term was introduced by a linguist, Hendrik Kern8, ten years earlier. Essentially, the word Austronesia refers to the language, but the study in this area always closely related to human and cultural speakers. In this context, Austronesian was a great and unique phenomenon in human history. These speakers were scattered in a vast area, reaching about 15,000 kilometers long or covering more than half of the circumference of the world. This was also the language which had the widest distribution prior to western colonization in various parts of the world. This language family has variations that are astonishing, covering 1,000 to 1,200 languages, depending on the criteria used in distinguishing language and dialect (Tanudirjo and Simanjuntak 2004; Bellwood et al., 1995). Following the geographical span of Austronesian mentioned in Part III.1, the deployment of the Austronesia language had a great impact to the development in the said areas, at the same time, the Austronesian speaking people also brought in their knowledge on technology and culture; thereby making significant changes therein. 7 8 Wilhelm Schmidt (1868–1954) was an Austrian linguist, anthropologist, and ethnologist. He was born in Hörde, Germany in 1868. He entered the Society of the Divine Word in 1890 and was ordained as a Roman Catholic priest in 1892. He studied linguistics at the universities of Berlin and Vienna. Johan Hendrik Caspar Kern (April 6, 1833 – July 4, 1917) was a Dutch linguist and Orientalist. In the literature, he is usually referred to as H. Kern or Hendrik Kern; a few other scholars bear the same surname.
  • 54. 52 The question now is, where was the origin of the Austronesia language ? There are many theories on the original homeland of the Austronesian. First theory stated that Austronesian came from Taiwan. The second theory stated that they came from Far East or Southeast Asia Islands. The latter theory was justified by many evidences. The spreads of the Austronesian may have started from Southeast Asia Islands or the Far East more than 7,000 years ago. About the same time, they reached the north coast of Papua New Guinea. As stated by an American archaeologist named Wilhelm Solheim, that there is a sand dune settlements inhabited by migrant people, which is part of a whole network of islands and coastal maritime trade across the Pacific ring and the Islands of Southeast Asia from about 7,000 years ago until now. Solheim called this maritime culture as "Nusantao" (see Part II.3.1.2). "... I now define Nusantao as natives of Southeast Asia, and their descendants, with a maritime-oriented culture from their beginnings, these beginnings probably in southeastern Island Southeast Asia around 5,000 BC or possibly earlier. Most of the Nusantao probably spoke a related or pre-Austronesian language, but there were likely some who spoke a non-Austronesian language as well... I did not consider non-maritime Austronesian-speakers as Nusantao." (Solheim 1975a:158) Solheim also saw that the settlements at Pearl River sandbar in nowadays Hong Kong as a mixed culture between Middle Neolithic Nusantao and South China. He also believed that this mixture may have been spread locally to Taiwan, and produced the similar Austronesian speaking people settlements with a culture called the Dapenkeng by archaeologists. Through trade, these Austronesian speaking people then influenced the inhabitant along the Pacific coast of China and Korea as well as that off the coast of Japan. He also suggested that the original homeland of the maritime culture Nusantao was Sundaland in Islands Southeast Asia. He suggested that the Neolithic cultures of Southeast Asia maritime life dispersed when the floods hit Southeast Asia over 7,000
  • 55. 53 years ago, that was the same time when the ice age ended. He also argued that the country of origin of Austronesian language speaking people with the sailing skills, were possible lied in the area of Sulawesi. In addition, in 1786, Sir William Jones9 announced earth-breaking news in the linguistic field in Calcutta, India. He stated that Sanskrit and the European languages "have sprung from some common source which, perhaps, no longer exists." This statement set a trend in the linguistic study of Sanskrit and the use of the term "Aryan", first came into effect, to describe not only the Indian languages, but also those of Europe as well. The above announcement suggested that the languages, especially, Sanskrit and Aryan came from the same source. The so called source, most likely was the Austronesia language, since Sanskrit and Austronesia language had the same vocabulary as mentioned in Part III.1. Based on all the evidences found and the known spreads of the Austronesian speaking people, there is no doubt that the languages of Aryan and Sanskrit were brought from the Far East by people migrating to India as well as to Europe. They just came different directions, namely from the east and the west side. The second theory above on the origin of the Austronesian is more acceptable than the first, because it conforms to the spreads of the Sea People who sailed across the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It also matched with the found characteristics that they build in the next period of time. The culture of Indian and Aryan, essentially, are the same with those in the Far East, especially, on the tradition of Hindu. The most important conclusion from the explanation above is that the pattern of dispersal of the Austronesian is most likely the same with the pattern of the ancient migration going toward North East and South West directions from the Far East. In other words, the Austronesian or Sea People followed the same pattern of dispersal of their race. Indeed, the dispersal did not happen in one time but it took more than a thousand year. This linguistic finding justified the so defined steady trail of the Sea People as discussed in Part II.3.1.2. 9 Sir William Jones (28 September 1746 – 27 April 1794) was an Anglo-Welsh philologist and scholar of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among Indo-European languages.
  • 56. 54 Expulsion of the Austronesian speaking population has proven one of the most perfect examples of cultural diffusion. Thus, the spreads of Austronesia language was nothing but one of the strongest evidence proving that the migration around 10,000 to 7,000 years ago was started from the Far East by Maritime Nusantao. This hypothesis also has been justified by results of genetic studies, which stated that the Austronesian people formerly had a house in Islands Southeast Asia during the ice age and then they spread to the Pacific and South India. This migration, surprisingly, came from an old Sundaland etnolinguistik, a homeland of Austronesian in eastern Indonesia. III.1.2 Austroasiatic Austro- means "south" in Greek, hence the name Austroasia means the South of Asia. Most of the languages belonging to this family are spoken in Southeast Asia, in countries located between China and Indonesia. A few are spoken to the west of this area in the Nicobar Islands and in India. The Austroasiatic family, the principal linguistic substrate of mainland Southeast Asian languages, exists today as a patchwork of more than a hundred languages spreading across an area that ranges from central India to Vietnam and from Yunnan in China to Malaysia and the Nicobar Islands of the Andaman Sea. In only two countries the Austroasiatic languages are the official tongues: Cambodia (Khmer, or Cambodian) and Vietnam (Vietnamese). They are minority languages and spoken in single villages by only a few hundred people as well as in communities of several million people. Long time ago the Austroasiatic people were probably the main population in Southeast Asia, and their languages may have been spoken even more widely than today. Austroasiatic languages are spoken by most of the people of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and traces of isolated groups scattered in Thailand, Burma, Bangladesh, to the tribes Mundaik in Central and Eastern India. In addition, Austroasiatic societies also develop agriculture cereal and land development. Undeniably, observed from the traces of the Austroasiatic language the trail is, most likely, the same with the pattern of spreads of the Land People.
  • 57. 55 The common ancestry of the Austroasiatic languages is clearly shown by the retention of a distinctive basic vocabulary which readily identifies that group of language. Because it was a prehistoric culture, the location of the original Austroasiatic homeland was not really known, but some linguists speculated that it was in the hills of southern Yunnan in China between 4,000 and 6,000 years ago. Despite their common origins, Austroasiatic languages are structurally diverse, principally because many of them have been influenced by other, very different, language families for a long time. In Eastern India, the Munda languages, being in contact with the Aryan and Dravidian languages have complicated word structures that permit two or more syllables per word and an extensive system of grammatical affixes for both nouns and verbs. Other typological and geographical extreme is Vietnamese: its lexicon or vocabulary is basically monosyllabic, and it relies on word order and compounding to express grammatical functions. In this case the direct influence of Chinese is clearly responsible. The great bulk of Austroasiatic languages, utilizing a combination of affixation and word order lie between these extremes. If the above hypothesis saying that the Austroasiatic came from Yunan, China, then the findings below explained another one. Adelaar10 findings did not only expand the country of origin of the Austroasiatic coast farther south, but also support the site near the West Borneo, where the "split Austrik" between the old Austroasiatic family and Austronesian took place. Adelaar saw link Austroasiatic/Dayak Army as a result of language shift. From here the Austroasiatic speakers then spread to the North West direction and might have brought the cultivation of rice to the east and north of India. The author concludes that Adelaar indeed had found the link between the two languages in one island, called Borneo. Perhaps, it is because he saw a mixture culture in this island. Borneo Island was basically divided into two major cultures : Austronesia and Austroasiatic. Austronesian speaking people are the inhabitant of the North, South, Central and East Borneo, while Austroasiatic ones are the inhabitant of the West Borneo. However, how they became such geographically separated is still a question mark. The aforementioned link is one of the strongest proof that indeed the origin of both languages were from the same region. Nevertheless, Borneo was still not the 10 K. Alexander Adelaar is Associate Professor and Reader at the Melbourne Insitute of Asian Languages and Societies (MIALS) and holds a PhD from Leiden University. His main field of academic interest is Austronesian historical and descriptive linguistics, especially regarding the languages of Madagascar, Taiwan and Borneo.
  • 58. 56 strongest candidate to become the original homeland, because the environment did not really support this assumption. Farther to the east, perhaps, the place seemed to be more suitable to become the original homeland, because, naturally, east Borneo has the mixture characteristics for people and other species. Notably, Borneo lies to the west of the so called Wallace Line. Further discussion on this Wallace Line will be given in Part III.2.2. Although, there are some scholars who already point to the Far East as the original place of Austroasiatic language, however, to illuminate this theory further, in depth research must still to be done. However, the most important here is that the dispersal of Austroasiatic people was the same with the dispersal of the Land People. In other words, they were the inhabitant in the same area where the Land People first appeared. This is the most important issue in mapping of civilizations. III.2 Genetic Inheritance Although, linguistics had concluded that the spread of the Austronesia and Austroasiatic people was originated from the same region, but there are still many gaps in linguistics study that are hardly to eliminate. These gaps are the language changes, acculturation and, especially, extinct languages that supposedly connected to the origin. Therefore, to answer the skeptics about the initial spread of Austronesia and Austroasiatic languages above, the genetic evidence should come to scene. Now, geneticists can reconstruct the DNA sequence in mapping the movement of prehistoric peoples. Genetics (from Ancient Greek γ ν ό genetikos, "genitive" and that from γέν genesis, "origin"), a discipline in biology, is the science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms. Genetics deals with the molecular structure and function of genes, gene behavior in context of a cell or organism (e.g. dominance and epigenetics), patterns of inheritance from parent to offspring, and gene distribution, variation and change in populations. Given that genes are universal to living organisms, genetics can be applied to the study of all living systems, from viruses and bacteria, through plants and domestic animals, to humans (as in medical genetics).
  • 59. 57 The fact that living things inherit traits from their parents has been used since prehistoric times to improve crop plants and animals through selective breeding. However, the modern science of genetics, which seeks to understand the process of inheritance, only began with the work of Gregor Mendel11 in the mid nineteenth century. Although he did not know the physical basis for heredity, Mendel observed that organisms inherit traits via discrete units of inheritance, which are now called genes. Over the past three decades, fascinating and exciting work have been done in mapping the movement of prehistoric peoples by means of their genetic legacies. There are two research methods on the genetic of human. The most common method involves the use of the DNA in cell structures called mitochondria. This DNA is referred to as mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA). MtDNA has certain advantages for this kind of historical detective work. The other method focuses on Y chromosome. Mitochondria can only be inherited from the mother, thus allowing genetic historians to follow a single family tree. MtDNA mutates much faster than regular DNA, allowing tracing changes for the carrier over shorter periods of time. The logic behind this work is simple: the closer two populations are the fewer the differences in their mutations would be. Research has been used simple chain of variance to trace how groups "split" from a main locus and proceed on to other parts of the world. Based on the number of mutations, the approximate date when such divisions occurred can be calculated. The other method uses mutations on the Y or male chromosome. Scientists have used mutations in the Y chromosome (following the same logic described above) and overlaid these with archeological data of different pottery styles. The interaction between the applications of these two methods has really supported a new way of studying human migration. Some sociobiologists, for example Steven Goldberg12, argued that social behavior is primarily determined by genetics. Thus, patriarchy and matriarchy arise more as a result of inherent biology rather than social conditioning. Although, Goldberg received critics but his statement was supposedly true. Perhaps, the only thing that he could not provide was the proof and the right argument. 11 12 Gregor Johann Mendel (July 20, 1822 – January 6, 1884) was an Austrian scientist and Augustinian friar who gained posthumous fame as the founder of the new science of genetics. Steven Goldberg (born 14 October 1941) is a native of New York City and was president of the sociology department at City College of New York (CCNY) from 1988 until his retirement. He is most widely known for his theory of patriarchy, which attempts to explain male domination through biological causes.
  • 60. 58 The connection between social behavior and genetics is important in the mapping of civilization the author is proposing herein, because DNA research could be useful not only to trace the origin of mankind but also to better describe the dispersal path of human through its characteristics. Basic human characteristic is formed by these genes. Then, it evolves interactively with the environment where the human lives. This is an essential element in determining the geographical coordinate, preferably defined herein by the author as the geocultural coordinate, of the map of civilization as discussed further in Part IV. III.2.1 Matriarchy A matriarchy is a society in which females, especially mothers, have the central roles of political leadership, moral authority, and control of property. It is also sometimes called a gynocracy, a gynecocracy or a gynocentric society. Based on many research on cultures, matriarchy societies appear in, especially, among indigenous peoples of Asia and Africa, such as those of the Minangkabau, E De (Rhade), Mosuo, Berbers and Tuareg and, in Europe, e.g., Sardinian people. The Hopi Indian tribe (in what is now the U.S.), according to Alice Schlegel13, had as its "gender ideology ... one of female superiority, and it operated within a social actuality of sexual equality." A legendary matriarchy related by classical Greek writers was the Amazon society. Herodotus14 reported that the Sarmatians were descendants of Amazons and Scythians, and that their females observed their ancient maternal customs, "frequently hunting on horseback with their husbands; in war taking the field; and wearing the very same dress as the men." The maternal clans also linked to the Austroasiatic speakers of mainland Asia who spread radially toward north to Indochina and Tibet, and to the west of the northeast India. Surprisingly, the above mentioned cultures are the same with that of the Land People. They are for certain the Land People. Culturally speaking, the Land People followed matriarchy structure in their social hierarchy. However, they were some reluctance to accept the existence of matriarchies. 13 14 Dr. Schlegel is a Professor Emerita of Anthropology. Her work on adolescence began when she was doing field research on kinship and gender relations on the Hopi Indian Reservation. Herodotus (Ancient Greek: Ἡ ό ο ο Hēródotos) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus, Caria (modern day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (circa 484 – 425 BC). He has been called the "Father of History", and was the first historian known to collect his materials systematically, test their accuracy to a certain extent and arrange them in a well-constructed and vivid narrative.
  • 61. 59 This might be based on a specific, culturally biased notion of how to define 'matriarchy' : because in a patriarchy 'men rule over women', a matriarchy has frequently been conceptualized as 'women ruling over men', whereas in reality women-centered societies are - apparently without exception – egalitarian. Because of this reluctance, in recent day, many matriarchy society change their leadership to men, women just back off as spiritual leader or other major position in the societies. However, their matriarchy culture does not change and is still applied in their societies. Essentially, the matriarchy social behavior was primarily determined by genetics, that is, the mtDNA. The Land as well as Austroasiatic People having matriarchy structure borne their mtDNA that was inherent in their blood. This gene influenced their culture and the way they thought and lived. As describe in Part II.3.2.1, commonly, they had no king and court, no taxes and tributes and no foreign sea trade. They farmed, they survived, and they had no particular need to write anything down. The above characteristics necessarily came out from the instinct power of female. Once again, this instinct power is influenced by their mtDNA. This is the culture, so to say, is produced from this gene that they carry. The concept of the Mitochondrial Eve is attempts to discover the origin of humanity by tracking the lineage back in time. In the original scientific publication on evidence by mtDNA, scholars suggested that Africa was the site of origin of modern man. This was because the greatest differences between populations were within one wholly African line. It was concluded that this population must be the oldest as the greatest amount of time must have passed to acquire the most variability. However, recent technical reviews of the statistical methods used to analyze of the results casted doubt on the certainty of the proposed African origin. The computer analysis of the results used to construct the most likely family tree might produce millions of equally likely pathways. The trees from not just one run but many runs should have been considered for statistical correctness and it was also considered that the 100 `family trees' evaluated from just one run were not sufficient. The upshot of this recent debate was, not definitively, that African as origin proposed on the basis of mtDNA could be ruled out at this stage.
  • 62. 60 From this point, many scientists all over the world started to postulate the origin of this gene besides Africa. Surprisingly, some of them found the proof that not all human genes today have connection with the African origin. The first postulation came from Kitale Museum Organization in Kenya, Africa. They wrote that the macro haplogroups M and N, which are the lineages of the rest of the world outside Africa, descend from L3. There were evidences of the coastal route of early settlers that extended from India along the coasts of Thailand and Indonesia all the way to Papua New Guinea. Since M was found in high frequencies in highlanders of New Guinea as well, and both the Andamanese and New Guineans had dark skin and Afro-textured hair, some scientists believe they were all part of the same wave of migrants who departed across the Red Sea 60,000 years ago in the Great Coastal Migration. With regard to dark skin color, the haplotype background of Papua New Guineans at MC1R (one of a number of genes involved in melanin production) is identical to that of Africans (barring a single silent mutation). Thus, even though these groups are distinct from Africans, it is evident that selection for the dark skin color trait likely continued (at least at MC1R) following the exodus. This supported the postulation that suggested that the original migrants from Africa resembled pre-exodus Africans (at least in skin color), and that the present day remnants of this ancient phenotype could be seen among contemporary Africans, Andamanese and New Guineans. The word pre-exodus, in the author’s opinion, necessarily means that the people who made the said exodus were just passing by and not originated from Africa. The above postulation, suggested that the Andamanese and New Guineans were people which had identical genetic with the East African who were considered as the first migrator. The question now is, how come when this East African migrated, at the same time, there were some people existing with identical genetic structure on the other side of the world ? Here, the most possible answer was the earth movement. Geologically speaking, when the earth moved very long time ago, the land of East Africa and Madagascar were separated from its original land that was from the Far East region. It can be seen from its vegetations and the animals, more or less, that they were the same with those of the Far East region. Therefore, in the next period of time, the Far East people always considered Madagascar as one of their homeland far apart.
  • 63. 61 Second came from several Russian scientists. They concluded that, genetically speaking, the people in the West and Central Asia, Russia and Eastern Europe had no connection with the African origin. These scientists postulated that : “Seven thousand five hundred fifty-six (7556) haplotypes of 46 subclades in 17 major haplogroups were considered in terms of their base (ancestral) haplotypes and time spans to their common ancestors, for the purposes of designing of time-balanced haplogroup tree. It was found that African haplogroup A (originated 132,000 ± 12,000 years before present) is very remote time-wise from all other haplogroups, which have a separate common ancestor, named β-haplogroup, and originated 64,000 ± 6000 ybp. It includes a family of Europeoid (Caucasoid) haplogroups from F through T that originated 58,000 ± 5000 ybp. A downstream common ancestor for haplogroup A and β-haplogroup, coined the α-haplogroup emerged 160,000 ± 12,000 ybp. A territorial origin of haplogroups α- and β-remains unknown; however, the most likely origin for each of them is a vast triangle stretched from Central Europe in the west through the Russian Plain to the east and to Levant to the south. Haplogroup B is descended from β-haplogroup (and not from haplogroup A, from which it is very distant, and separated by as much as 123,000 years of “lat- eral” mutational evolution) likely migrated to Africa after 46,000 ybp. The finding that the Europeoid haplogroups did not descend from “African” haplogroups A or B is supported by the fact that bearers of the Europeoid haplogroups, as well as all non-African haplogroups do not carry either SNPs M91, P97, M31, P82, M23, M114, P262, M32, M59, P289, P291, P102, M13, M171, M118 (haplogroup A and its subclades SNPs) or M60, M181, P90 (haplogroup B), as it was shown recently in “Walk through Y” FTDNA Project (the reference is incorporated therein) on several hundred people from various haplogroups.” The above postulation conformed to the hypothesis in Part II.3.2.2 that the path of the migration of the people in the West and Central Asia, Russia and Eastern Europe or simply grouped as the Land People, was from the Far East toward North West. Obviously, they never passed through the Africa continent; therefore, there was no African origin in their blood line.
  • 64. 62 This vast region of the mtDNA could also be seen on the dispersal of Denisova15. The new study has now insights about where the ancient Denisovans lived. According to Mark Stoneking at the Max Planck, Denisovans must have inhabited an extraordinarily large ecological and geographic range extending from Siberia to tropical Southeast Asia. "The fact that Denisovan DNA is present in some aboriginal populations of Southeast Asia but not in others shows that there was a checkerboard of populations with and without Denisova material more than 44,000 years ago," he said. "The presence of Denisovan genetic material in some but not all the groups there can most easily be explained if Denisovans lived in Southeast Asia itself." Known as the Amazons, the dispersal of Denisovans went as far as Central and South America. The above discussion, at least at this moment, has been illuminating the research of the mtDNA on the Land People. The conclusion is that the Land People were none other but the people who carried mtDNA gene in their blood. They also brought along their language and culture when they migrated from their origin. Their language was known as the Austroasiatic family language. The most important yet proven evidence related to this hypothesis is that, the mtDNA carriers were the inhabitants in the areas stretching from the Far East and Southeast Asia, Indochina, East India, West and Central Asia, Northern and Eastern Europe until Mesoamerica. In other words, they spread from the original homeland toward North East and South West. As for the Land People, the original homeland of the mtDNA carrier, most likely, also lied in the Far East region. This confirms the route map of the mtDNA carrier that will be used as a reference in plotting the Land People domain on the Map of Civilization. III.2.2 Patriarchy Patriarchy is a social system in which the male acts as the primary authority and central figure to social organization where fathers hold authority over women, children, and property. It implies the institutions of male rule and privilege, and entails female subordination. Many patriarchal societies are also patrilineal, meaning that property and title are inherited by the male lineage. Historically, patriarchy has manifested itself in 15 Denisova hominins (/dɪˈniːsəvə/), or Denisovans, are Paleolithic-era members of the genus Homo that may belong ̈ to a previously unknown species of human. In 2008, Russian archaeologists from the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of Novosibirsk, working at the site of Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains of Siberia, uncovered a small bone fragment from the fifth finger of a juvenile hominin, dubbed the "X woman" (referring to the maternal descent of mitochondrial DNA) or the Denisova hominin. Artifacts, including a bracelet, excavated in the cave at the same level were carbon dated to around 40,000 BP.
  • 65. 63 the social, legal, political, and economic organization of a range of different cultures. Patriarchy also has a strong influence on modern civilization, although many cultures have moved towards a more egalitarian social system over the past century. In human genetics, a human Y chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by the differences in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y chromosome (called Y-DNA). Y chromosomal Adam is the name given by researchers to a theoretical male who was the most recent common patrilineal (male-lineage) ancestor of all living humans. The patriarchy societies, however, are influenced by the Y chromosome DNA. There are plenty of writings or even books searching for the dispersal of the Ychromosome DNA. In general, they found that Y chromosome DNA appeared in the Near East, Egypt, China, Western Europe, South and East Asia and some parts of the Far East region. In these regions patriarchy became their structure of social hierarchy. Strictly speaking, this was the trail of the Sea People as well as the Austronesian. As described in Part II.3.1.1 above, the Sea People developed sailing technology, religion, astronomy, hierarchy and the concept of empire. These thought typically came out from the power of thinking of a male. These ideas necessarily produced from the gene that they carried. This was the nature of the Sea People. Once again, this proved that, patriarchy social behavior was primarily determined by genetics, especially, from Y chromosome DNA. In making the map of civilization, this is what the actual DNA research is needed. In this case, these are the traces of the Y chromosome that had spread throughout the world and set it apart from traces of mtDNA. It can be also use to find the source of the Y chromosome DNA itself. There are several theories on the dispersal of the Y chromosome. The explanation below is some theories attempting to find the original place of the Y chromosome. The first theory stated that Haplogroup F originated some 45,000 years ago, in North Africa (in which case it would point to a second wave of out-of-Africa migration). But,
  • 66. 64 actual research on these people who carried Y chromosome DNA proved that more than 90% of males which were not native Africa were descended in direct male line from the early bearer of haplogroup F. The other theories mentioned about Taiwan being the putative homeland, another was Melanesian origin of the Polynesian people which notably received considerable attention on this matter. The quote below is a conclusion in genetical research on the above theories : “In this work, we present haplotype data based on the distribution of 19 biallelic polymorphisms on the Y chromosome in a sample of 551 male individuals from 36 populations living in Southeast Asia, Taiwan, Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. Surprisingly, nearly none of the Taiwanese Y haplotypes were found in Micronesia and Polynesia. Likewise, a Melanesian-specific haplotype was not found among the Polynesians. However, all of the Polynesian, Micronesian, and Taiwanese haplotypes are present in the extant Southeast Asian populations. Evidently, the Y chromosome data do not lend support to either of the prevailing hypotheses. Rather, we postulate that Southeast Asia provided a genetic source for two independent migrations, one toward Taiwan and the other toward Polynesia through island Southeast Asia.” (Communicated by Francisco Salzano, University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil : 2000) The quote above, clearly described that the Southeast Asia population was the source for two independent migrations. Apparently, this trace of genetic marker conformed to the spreads of the Sea People from the Far East toward North East. The research on human genetics is a complex and prudent. It should result in strong proof of the dispersal and cultural of human without any bias. Yet, the conclusion of this type of research has to cross examined with other disciplines of research such as historical data, archaeology discoveries, and linguistic.
  • 67. 65 This is, it clear that the dispersal of the Y chromosome had connection with the dispersal of the Sea People as well as the Austronesian speaking people. This evidence of genetics is the strongest proof of the trail of the Sea People. The author uses it as a reference in mapping of civilizations hereby. This is, actually, the trail that historians have to describe at the first time in order to establish a reference for archaeology or other disciplines to make further investigation. Genetics research, recently, has also proved that many unique genetical marker that appeared on the Far East people that they ever found on the people in other places. Gene markers indicate that the natives of Southeast Asia in the tree roots of Asia family had spread throughout the compass points as far as America and the Middle East. One important marker is called the "Polynesian motif." This is about the Polynesians, having equal dedicated DNA, who brought the motif out of the people of Maluku (Mollucas) in eastern Indonesia during the Ice Age. Polynesian motif was thought to be held by women Austronesia from mainland Asia. They left Southeast Asia in the past 3,500 years bringing a local Maluku seal dated back to 17,000 years ago. Besides Maluku there is no other place to the west of the Wallace Line bearing the same seal. This unique marker, indeed, eventually led to the origin of the genes. The Wallace line is named after Alfred Russel Wallace16, who noticed this clear division during his travels through the East Indies in the nineteenth century. The line runs through Indonesia, between Borneo and Sulawesi (Celebes), and through the Lombok Strait between Bali and Lombok. In studying the Far East region there was a unique area that had mixture of cultures, genes as well as linguistics. These unique mixtures characteristics were subject to in depth elaboration. A place, having mixture characteristics, has actually the greatest chance to become the original place of the culture as well as the civilization. Discussion on this suggestion is given in Part IV.1. 16 Alfred Russel Wallace, OM, FRS (8 January 1823 – 7 November 1913) was a British naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist and biologist. He is best known for independently proposing a theory of evolution due to natural selection that prompted Charles Darwin to publish his own theory. He identified the Wallace Line that divides the Indonesian archipelago into two distinct parts.
  • 68. 66 PART IV THE MAPPING OF CIVILIZATION IV.1 The Origin of Human Culture Many questions about the origin of civilization are not answered until today. Despite the discovery of evidences and decipherment of ancient texts, strictly speaking, there is a ‘conspiracy’ or ‘taboo’ so to say to write or explain about the sacred or origin of civilization as told in many of the myth stories. Seemingly, this ‘taboo’ was already there since the beginning of the ancient civilizations era, because many ancient scripts pointing to the ‘sacred’ civilization or its origin were mostly written in codes. These sites might probably posses mysterious and highly controversial evidences in nature. That is why these places have been generally classified as 'out-of-place' of the artifacts. However, based on the discussion given in the previous Parts of this thesis, it is apparent that the melting pot or even the starting point of all journey of mankind in this world, most possibly, lied in the Far East. This place was also well known as a multicultural place no one has ever found before or elsewhere. The Far East then could be hereby considered as the original place of culture as well as civilization. Ironically, there is a lack of information about the history of the Far East itself in the ancient time. There are many books published on ancient civilizations not even mentioning about the Far East at all. There are a lot of clues written about the historical data of ancient civilizations of the east all over the world. Unfortunately, no in depth research on the clues has ever been conducted so far. In addition, there were also many traces of the ancient civilizations in the Far East accidently if not unexpectedly destroyed by catastrophes or even by tropical climate itself. Therefore, to extract the pre-history of the Far East is one of the most intriguing themes in research history. One thing for sure here is that if the Far East were the true and right place for the origin of culture to come from, then sooner or later the fact would be eventually discovered. For example, today, there are many evidences proving that there was indeed a connection between the Far East civilizations with the other in the world in the past never exposed before. One of the evidences of the connection came from several temple complexes found in Java, Indonesia, as discussed in Part II.4.3.2.
  • 69. 67 In addition, various research disciplines also found that the Far East influence was clearly seen in the religions, artifacts, linguistics as well as genetics of other civilizations the world over. Seemingly, it would be easier to deduce the pre-history of the Far East from the connection it has with other civilizations rather than getting directly into itself. This subject is quite complex, because it involves multicultural tradition. In Indonesia archipelago alone, there are more than 700 tribes and 748 local languages. However, the most important goal is to find places in the Far East that, naturally, have mixture characteristics, culturally, genetically as well as linguistically. A place having a mixture characteristic, most likely, could be the starting point of the ancient migration, and at the same time, would be the zero point coordinate in the geocultural presentation defined herein. Note, that these coordinates are not necessarily the same with that of geographical ones. The Far East region lies between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In pre-glacial era there were three largest islands in the Far East and they were Greater Sundaland, Lesser Sunda and Sahul Land. Today, the Far East region consists of Southeast Asia, Indochina, Indonesia, Philippines, and West Pacific. To define location of the exact zero point coordinate in the Far East as mentioned above, another reference must be used, and that is the Wallace line (see Figure 14). Wallace line is an imaginary line that separating the ecozones of Asia and Wallacea, a transitional zone between Asia and Australia. To the west of the line, organisms related to Asiatic species will be found; to the east, a mixture of species of Asian and Australian origin is present. The people, living in this zone, most probably have the same mixture characteristics as it is with its environment. The fossil of Mastodon and Elephas found in mixture, that is, various part of the world such as Africa, North and Central America were also found in single Indonesia. This necessarily implies that the mixture characteristics were naturally originated in Indonesia. Therefore, due to its natural characteristics, the Wallace line would be set as the zero line of coordinate in the mapping of civilization configured in this thesis based on the aforementioned geocultural presentation.
  • 70. 68 Figure 14 The Map of Wallacea IV.2 The Geocultural Presentation Before geocultural presentation is described, the author would like to define the meaning of the word ‘geocultural’ itself first. There are two basic references in defining this word. First are the basic cultures of human on earth. These are categorized as the Sea People and Land People. They can be identified from the environment where they lived and the culture that they built. One adapted to the maritime environment, while the other adapted to land environment. Surrounding nature is, essentially, the basic reference giving impact to the forming of human culture while sustaining life on earth. Second is the dispersal of the cultures. Based on the discussion in Parts II 3.1.2 and 3.2.2, the spread of the cultures, seemingly, does not just follow the geographical situation. Meaning that people dispersed randomly and each of them had its own path and might cover more than one continent. Thus, each culture could be spread to many regions in the world. Although, it looked random, but actually, they had established a steady trail or path. This steady trail of both Sea and Land People’s cultures would be the main reference in drawing the geocultural presentation for mapping of civilization.
  • 71. 69 Thus, geocultural is defined as the geographical position of civilizations based on a steady trail of the dispersal of the culture. In this case, one continent could accommodate both cultures at the same time. Even an island could consist of the two cultures together. However, one should never attempt to consider the term geocultural equal to geographic for the following reasons : 1. The geocultural branch reflects the diversity of places and cultures. 2. The geocultural is based on the dispersal of culture not only the people. As elaborated in Part III.1, it is obvious that the reference for defining ‘geocultural’ is the trails of Austronesia and Austroasia civilizations. The author, mathematically speaking, generates these trails to equivalent X and Y axis in Cartesian coordinate, while the cross road of the trails is the zero point coordinate equivalence. This method would be used to depict the geocultural presentation in order to map the civilization later. In the explanation below, the geocultural presentation would be best divided into four major trails for both the Sea People and the Land People. As described in Parts II 3.1.2 and 3.2.2, the steady trail of the Sea People was due South West and North East from the zero geocultural coordinate, while that of the Land People was due North West and South East. The geocultural presentation is intended to facilitate the preparation of the Map of Civilization. In the geocultural presentation, the direction of the migration of civilizations is illustrated. These civilizations then would be further grouped in accord with the direction of their migration. In this presentation, four groups of civilizations would be depicted. These four groups of civilizations would then become the main framework in drawing the Map of Civilization. Nevertheless, the civilizations drawn in this geocultural presentation are only a few as compared to the existing numbers of actual human civilization. But they are majors, and, well representing the other civilizations having the same culture. The name of the civilizations mentioned below, might not be the same exact name of the civilizations that migrated when the great catastrophes occurred. But at least, they are well known as the descendant of the group of people who migrated then.
  • 72. 70 IV.2.1 The South West and The North East Trails In the geocultural presentation given herein; the South West and the North East trails are the trails of the Sea People. This route, actually, had been justified by many evidences. The primary evidences came from the dispersal of Maritime Nusantao Trading Network and Austronesia language as postulated by Solheim as well as genetics findings. All confirmed that the Sea People culture was found in the inhabitant in the areas along the South West and North East of the Far East. To depict the geocultural presentation of the South West trails, the referential axis should be the ‘melting pot’ or the zero point coordinate. As defined above the melting pot is none other than the Wallace Line. In geographical coordinate, the Wallace Line is laying at 0o Latitude and 120o East Longitude, exactly in Makasar Strait all the way down to the Lombok Strait of the Lesser Sunda Islands. These Wallace’s latitude and longitude, by the author’s definition, is the 0o (point zero) of the geocultural coordinate. 0o Latitude, 120o East Longitude Egyptian Sumerian Hindustan Persian Lankan Nubian The South West Trail Figure 15 The Geocultural Presentation of the South West Trail From this zero point coordinate the ancient people sailed toward southwest through Indian Ocean and reached South Asia, South of Middle East and East Coast of Africa.
  • 73. 71 The civilizations who appeared along this trail were the Egyptian, Sumerian, Hindustan (referred to nowadays India), the Lankan (referred to nowadays Sri Lanka or Ceylon), Persian (referred to nowadays Iran), and Nubian (referred to nowadays Sudan). The geocultural presentation of this trail is depicted on X and Y axis in Cartesian coordinate in Figure 15. The above mentioned civilizations were only a few samples of the many others appearing along the South West trail. These many others were civilizations having the same characteristics with the civilizations along this trail. Unfortunately, their traces were lost or unwritten in the history. However, this presentation, at least, should become a reference and could be used in defining these lost civilizations discovered at later stage in time along this trail. Meanwhile, the North East trail was another trail of the migration of the Sea People. They sailed northeast bound through South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Furthermore, through the Antilles they sailed toward the Atlantic Ocean and finally reached the Mediterranean Sea. The reader is suggested to review Part II.3.1.2 of this thesis on this route map. The North East Trail Han Dapenkeng Etruscan Beaker Jōmon Sioux Indian 0o Latitude, 120o East Longitude Figure 16 The Geocultural Presentation of the North East Trail
  • 74. 72 The civilizations along this trail were the Han (present day China), Dapenkeng (present day Taiwan), Etruscan (present day Italy), Beaker (present day German), Jōmon (present day Japan) and Sioux Indian (present day North America). The geocultural presentation of the North East trail is depicted in Figure 16. Once again, they were only a few samples appearing along this trail. Likewise, the records of other civilizations in this trail, perhaps, were lost or unwritten in the history, for example, Guanches civilization in Canary Islands of the Mediterranean. Figures 15 and 16 clearly assort the group of civilizations of the Sea People. Geographically speaking, the region of the Sea People stretched from the Far East, South and East Asia, China, part of Middle East (present day Iran), North and East Africa, Western Europe to North and Central America. These locations then became the region of the Sea People in the Map of Civilization. Actually, the Sea People today approximately inhabit two third of the world. They are classified by their basic culture that is the maritime culture. The figures clearly describe not only the location of the Sea People civilizations, the spread and its transformation, but also its connection one another. IV.2.2 The North West and The South East Paths On the geocultural presentation, the North West and the South East trails were the paths of the Land People. These paths have been verified by many indicants, especially on the evidence of the culture, linguistics and genetics. Typically, the evidences can be seen from the dispersal of the Austroasiatic language and the spreads of the Mongoloid race. All confirmed that these paths were the inhabitant belts of the Land People. In the North West path, they marched from the zero point coordinate to the eastern and northern of Europe respectively. The reader is suggested to review Part II.3.2.2 of this thesis on this route map. Along this path there were many tribes that could be grouped as the Land People. The author would only write some of the most known civilizations along this path. Those were the Khmer, Vietnamese, the Huns or
  • 75. 73 Xiongnu, Mongols, Dorians (present day Greek) and Gauls (present day France). This group of civilizations is depicted in Figure 17. The North West Path Khmer Vietnamese Huns Mongols Dorians Gauls 0o Latitude, 120o East Longitude Figure 17 The Geocultural Presentation of the North West Path On the other, the South East path of the said Land People was a unique one, because these people did not really march toward southeast. Their main objective was primarily to find a place having the same environment with their former homeland. In fact, at the beginning of migration, they all marched together toward northwest, but at a point in the northeast China they separated. One group went west, the other to the east. Some group of people, going to the east, marched further across the Bering Strait and eventually reached the America continent. From North America they marched further down to Central America then finally reached South America and settled down there. They found the environment there that they thought was the same with that of their former homeland. The author calls this journey as the South East path. There were many civilizations in Mesoamerica, such as the Aztec, Inca, Maya and many others. For more than several thousand years they were isolated from the so called Old World in the Near East and Europe, therefore, no substantial effects influenced and changed their cultures thereupon. Thus, even though they were
  • 76. 74 transformed into diversified civilizations but their basic culture remained the same. That is the reason as to why the author simply groups them as just the Mesoamerican. As opposed to the Mesoamerican, the Amazons in the South America region did not isolated themselves to the outside world. They were even famous in making some journey to Greek and the Steppe of Russia. Some scholars called them as Sarmatians, Massagetae or the Woman Warriors. For the Amazons people, the matriarchy hierarchy was very obvious. Nevertheless, both the Mesoamerican and the Amazons were originally the people of the Far East migrating southeast bound to Central and South America respectively. The South East path is depicted in Figure 18 below. 0o Latitude, 120o East Longitude Mesoamerican The Amazons The South East Path Figure 18 The Geocultural Presentation of the South East Path Figures 17 and 18 clearly describe the location of the Land People civilizations, the spread, their transformation, as well as their connection one another. The vast area of the Land People covered part of the Far East, Indochina, Central and West Asia, East and North Europe, Central and South America. In a simple way, they were the tribal that inhabitants, living along the Eurasia and Mesoamerica. Land settlement was their basic culture which gave them the unifying mark as the Land People in contrast to the
  • 77. 75 Sea People who were found of ocean sailings. The above mentioned locations then become the region of the Land People in the Map of Civilization. IV.3 The Map of Civilization The Map of Civilization, superimposing the aforementioned geocultural presentation, is given in Figure 19 below. The trails or the paths of civilization shown above (Figures 15 to 18) are, historically affirmed and fixed in space. Therefore, they will be mentioned no longer in the map, but, instead, the equivalent topographical locations, adequately considered to represent them, as to where every civilization exists or has existed are presented then. The Sea People East Asia Southeast Asia China West Europe N/C America The North East Trail Oceania : Melanesia Micronesia Polynesia North Africa East Africa Iran South Asia Madagascar The South West Trail Austronesia Austroasia The Zero Point Coordinate The North West Path The South East Path Indochina West Asia Central Asia East Europe North Europe Central and South America The Land People Figure 19 The Map of Civilization on Topographical Basis In general, based on the culture, this map is divided into three regions. The first is the region of the Sea People or Austronesian and the second is the region of the Land
  • 78. 76 People or Austroasian. The third region having similar characteristics with both the Sea and Land People but topographical different from the other regions, is defines by the author as Oceania. Within the said Far East region above, the inter-islands dispersal of ancient migration then took place covering the areas from the vicinity of the Wallace Line, Maluku, Papua, Northern Australia or the West Pacific, Melanesia, Polynesia all the way northeast to Micronesia. The latter three groups of islands are sometime called Oceania. In comparison with the dynamic situation today, no significant changes of these cultures are found. As time went by, there was acculturation processes taking place between the two cultures that gave birth to a nation today. Strictly speaking, it is the nation for the people bearing the motto of, in Spanish, e pluribus unum or, in Sanskrit, bhineka tunggal ika meaning unity in diversity, in its natural kind of course.
  • 79. 77 PART V CONCLUSION In general, there are two basic human cultures; the maritime culture and the land settlement culture. If human history is postulated based on these two cultures, then the path and continuity of human history could be found. Using the currently available historical data and archaeological discoveries, the path or trail of every cultures, the transformation of human civilizations and their relationship one another can be actually seen clearly. By understanding the basic cultural characteristics of mankind, it will be easier to identify the civilizations that they formed. Based on these characteristics, human is essentially divided into two groups of people; those are the Sea People and the Land People. They are different because they have to adapt themselves to a different place. Based on the dispersal of the cultures, it was discovered that there were actually dispersals in four directions due to migration of mankind which depicted in the geocultural presentation herein. The trails found then became the steady route of the deployment of the Sea People and the Land People. Even though, one of the causes of the ancient migration was the great catastrophe, but no matter what the cause was these steady routes of human remained the same or fixed. The most important synthesis given in this thesis is the zero point coordinate, the original homeland of culture as well as civilization called the Far East. The aforementioned fixed routes and the zero point coordinate then became the basic reference in drawing the Map of Civilization. The Map of Civilization clearly depicts the regional position and cultural roots of civilizations as well as the directions and the trail of the cultural dispersal. This map is drawn based on the studies that have been done by hundreds of scientists throughout the ages. Actually, there is nothing new about this map. By referring to the Map of Civilization, the author is expecting that mankind could understand the roots of their own culture and be able to tolerate and respect other cultures that may differ from them. The Map of Civilization makes the diversity of
  • 80. 78 human cultures be more visible, in the sense that they were distinct in their paths of settlement in the world. The Map of Civilization is an early stage to more thoroughly unveil the reconstruction of human history. The author is aware that to make this map to perfection, research at a more complex or universal level should be carried out. In summary, the aim in writing this thesis is to present : 1. The unraveling of the basic human cultures leading to human civilizations including biodegradable characteristics, transformation of the existing civilization, and relationships one another. 2. The discovery of "the steady trail" and/or "the steady path" of cultures in its dispersals. 3. The discovery of the zero point coordinate or starting point of the cultural diffusion addressing to a place of origin where the culture was initially born. This map is expected to provide more understanding of the history of the human race in the future through the past knowledge of the civilization and the culture of mankind.