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Reflections Of A Child
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Reflections Of A Child Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Reflections of a child Nele Van den Cruyce
  • 2. Phd concept
    • sociology of childhood
    • image and perception of healthy child/childhood
        • in society
        • children themselves
    • historical evolution last century
    • current situation
  • 3. Sociology of childhood
    • agency
    • broader socio economical and cultural context
    • « One of the most intriguing aspects of childhood is the manner in which it is located within particular socio-historical context. Each culture invents, or constructs, the child as a social object in its own terms » (D’Alessio, 1990)
  • 4. Research goal
    • reconstucting the historical discourse of healthy children and childhood
    • uncover « Wie es eigentlich gewesen ist »
    • evolution
    • idea: different discourses throughout different time periods
    • +
    • images of healthy child/childhood as visual sediment
  • 5. Research material
    • child discourse => female bias
    • Libelle
    • = first Flemisch female magazine published in Belgium (1945)
    • = approved by clergy
    • = was and still is popular magazine
    • advertisements :
    • « what a good mother should buy »
    • « what a healthy child looks like, needs and deserves »
  • 6. Call for advertisements in 1947
  • 7. 1940 vs 1960
    • opposites
        • post War recovering
        • golden years
    • review literature historical discourse
    • representative sample advertisements Libelle
  • 8. Historical discourse
    • welfare state : children sacralized/object of affection
    • schooling instead of labor
    • class
    • poor seen as inferior/rich charity
    • !19th and 20th century: schooling + healthy nutrition and health
    • WO I and II reinforce sacral status
  • 9. Historical discourse
    • beginning 20th:
    • holiday camps and campaigns for poor children with emphasis on
    • gaining weight and strength
    • away from bad moral influence poor parents
    • !More than charity: WO in need of menpower
  • 10. Historical discourse
    • WO period onwards
    • further development welfare state
        • public services and professions (school doctor, community nurse, social worker,...)
    • children need physical recovering and adult aid
    • medialization and professionalization (tuberculoses)
    • !Healthy nutrition and weight gain central now medical arguments
  • 11. sandbox/solarium Zeepreventorium
  • 12. Historical discourse
    • WO II and 50
    • increase medical knowledge: focus on preventing diseases and psychological state
    • holiday camps as right for all children (health insurance funds)
    • gaining weight less important than free play
  • 13. Historical discourse
    • 60
    • golden years
    • free and lucious lifestyle
    • health more or less a given
    • no special emphasis on weight
    • children as market
    • wide variety of contexts/products for children
  • 14. Hypotheses
    • image of child shifts (2 genres)
    • weight gain, adult aid and medical connotation
    • less concerned about weight and more free
    • advertisements
    • limited categories/contexts
    • broader range of categories/context
  • 15. Research method
    • generic application (generic criticism)
    • quantitative approach
    • representative sample both time periods
    • encoding material (age, CBIS, action, presence adult, type product,...)
    • data analysis
    • !Most defining cases used as illustration
  • 16. Research findings
    • 40
    • girls or boys and girls
    • young children
    • 60
    • gender specific
    • young children or teenager
    !development teenager category !young child = typical model child in W
  • 17. Research findings !ideal baby = chubby with hair
  • 18. Research findings !normal to chubby on CBIS !no significant differences in appearance !difference in connotation and product
  • 19. Research findings
  • 20. Research findings
    • 40
    • weight gain + text
    • high caloric intake + text
    • 3% skinny children = in need of better food, weight gain
    • clothing patterns, medication and food
    • butter
    • posing or in need of adult
    • 60
    • no weight gain + text
    • no comments regarding weight
    • diverse products
    • diverse contexts
  • 21. Research findings
    • <50% total adult portrayed
    • depending relationship not clear in picture
    • male = absent or stereotypical
    • no significant difference 40 – 60
    • ! mode of address not taken into account: direct
    • mode in 40’s not common in 60’s
  • 22. Posing for patterns in 1945 Fixing a lamp in 1962
  • 23. Conclusion
    • different discourses and « visual sediment »
    • both hypotheses confirmed:
    • 2 genres + genre shift
    • broadening contexts and products
    • !difficulties encoding visual material (reliability)
    • !textual aid advertisements not taken into
    • account enough (mode of address, text itself,...)
    • !need for coherent visual theory/methodology certainly for the combi visual/text cfr. advertisements
    • => uneasy balance of visual and textual not always complete analysis
  • 24.
    • Thanks for your attention...
    • Questions?
    • [email_address]