Child Labour


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Child labour and Indian Law

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Child Labour

  1. 1. <ul><li>CHILD LABOUR </li></ul><ul><li>A Shame for the Society </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>JUST </li></ul><ul><li>COMPARE…….. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Our Childhood
  4. 4. Their Childhood
  5. 5. Our Childhood
  6. 6. Their Childhood
  7. 7. <ul><li>Don’t we see this </li></ul><ul><li>everyday </li></ul><ul><li>around us..? </li></ul>
  8. 13. The Vicious Cycle Poverty Lack of Education Child Labor
  9. 14. CHILD LABOUR LAWS <ul><li>There are laws to prevent CHILD LABOUR </li></ul><ul><li>These laws aim to provide a decent childhood with proper care and education to each and every child. </li></ul>
  10. 15. Introduction <ul><li>A child is the wealth of a nation </li></ul><ul><li>The word ‘ Shramyogi ’ is a misnomer </li></ul><ul><li>14 th November is celebrated as Children’s Day </li></ul><ul><li>30 th June is observed as CHILD LABOUR DAY </li></ul>
  11. 16. Law defines child labour as…….. <ul><li>Under the Act, ‘Child’ means a person who has not completed his fourteenth year of age. Any such person engaged for wages, whether in cash or kind, is a child worker. </li></ul><ul><li>According to UNICEF, all the children not being provided education at a school are considered as Child Labourers </li></ul>
  12. 17. Legal Definition of a Child <ul><li>Section 2 (2) of Shops and Establishment Act – 1948 states that child is a person who hasn’t completed 15 years of his age. </li></ul><ul><li>Factories Act 1948 Section 2 (2) defines child as a person who is younger than 15 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Article 45 of The Constitution of India defines child as a person younger than 14 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Garden Workers Act 1951 defines child as a person younger than 12 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Mines Act – 1952 says that a child is a person not older than 16 years </li></ul>
  13. 18. Legal Definition of a Child <ul><li>According to the Suppression of Immoral Traffic in Women and Girls Act 1956, a child is a person who is not 21 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Beedi and Cigarette Workers Act (Employment Conditions) 1966 defines child as a person who hasn’t completed 14 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>According to the Juvenille Justice (Care and Protection of a Child) Act, a child is a person who has not completed 18 years of age. </li></ul>
  14. 19. CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS Regarding Child Labour <ul><li>Article 21 A </li></ul><ul><li>Right to Education </li></ul><ul><li>The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of 6 to 14 years in such manner as the State, by law, may determine. </li></ul>
  15. 20. Article 24 <ul><li>Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>No child below the age fourteen years shall be employed in work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment. </li></ul>
  16. 21. Article 39 <ul><li>The State shall, in particular, direct its </li></ul><ul><li>policy towards securing: - </li></ul><ul><li>(e) That the health and strength of workers, men and women, and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter a vocations unsuited to their age or strength. </li></ul>
  17. 22. Laws regarding CHILD LABOUR <ul><li>Article 23 of Constitution of India [1954] prohibits all kinds of bonded labour </li></ul><ul><li>Article 24 of Constitution of India [1954] prohibits employment of children below the age of 14 in hazardous conditions </li></ul>
  18. 23. Laws regarding CHILD LABOUR <ul><li>Bonded Labour System Act [1976] frees all bonded labourers and cancels all outstanding debts </li></ul><ul><li>Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act [1956] amendment provides for 7 years to life imprisonment for recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child (below 18 years) for the purpose of exploitation </li></ul>
  19. 24. Laws regarding CHILD LABOUR <ul><li>Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act [1986] regulates working hours and wages of children < 14 years working in non-hazardous employment (ILO suggests 15 years as the limit) </li></ul>
  20. 25. Laws regarding CHILD LABOUR <ul><li>Juvenile Justice Act [1986] prohibits detention of juveniles for more than 24 hours and requires then to be sent to their parents or to a remand house upon identification </li></ul>
  21. 26. <ul><li>The following laws also have provisions against Child Labour: </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum Wages Act – 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>Garden Worker Act – 1951 </li></ul><ul><li>Apprenticeship Act – 1961 </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Vehicles Act – 1961 </li></ul><ul><li>Mines Act – 1952 </li></ul><ul><li>Shops and Establishments Act – 1961 </li></ul><ul><li>Bidi and Cigarette Workers Act – 1966 </li></ul>
  22. 27. Areas where child labour is rampant <ul><li>Bidi making </li></ul><ul><li>Carpet weaving </li></ul><ul><li>Garages </li></ul><ul><li>As Servants at Homes </li></ul><ul><li>Farming </li></ul><ul><li>Building and construction industry </li></ul><ul><li>Tea stalls </li></ul><ul><li>Cement manufacture including bagging </li></ul><ul><li>Cloth printing, dyeing and weaving </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacture of matches, explosives and fire works. </li></ul><ul><li>Diamond Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Soap manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Tanning </li></ul><ul><li>Wool-cleaning </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacture of slate pencils (including packing) </li></ul><ul><li>Shoe Polishing </li></ul>
  23. 28. Reasons behind CHILD LABOUR <ul><li>Poverty (in some cases 1/3 of family income from children) </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of social welfare scheme and easy access to loans </li></ul><ul><li>Caste system (higher proportion of scheduled caste children work at a younger age) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of access to schools - Attitude of parents that skills more important than education </li></ul><ul><li>Child labour is 80% cheaper (sometimes around Rs.3 per day) </li></ul>
  24. 29. Effects of Child Labour <ul><li>The Effect on Education </li></ul><ul><li>The Effect on the Child’s Health </li></ul><ul><li>Social and Economic Effect </li></ul>
  25. 30. Magnitude and demography <ul><li>13.6 million child labourers (Indian census1981) </li></ul><ul><li>20 million children in hazardous condition (Labour Ministry) [1994] </li></ul><ul><li>77 million computed on basis of # below poverty line (Commission on Labour Standards, GoI) [1995] </li></ul><ul><li>60-115 million (Human Rights Watch) [1996] Child Economic Activity rate: 13.5% {Male} 10.3 {Female}% (Int'l Labour Org'n) [1995] </li></ul><ul><li>Largest number of working children in the world! </li></ul><ul><li>Child labour accounts for 20% of our Gross National Product </li></ul>
  26. 31. International Provisions against Child Labour <ul><li>International Labour Organisation (ILO) is an organisation working for the upliftment of the labourers and has a separate division dealing with child labour. It provides suggestions for enforcement of labour laws and for amending the existing laws. </li></ul><ul><li>UNESCO: This UN body works in 6 cities of three states of India. It runs schools and provides primary education to the poorest of the children </li></ul><ul><li>UNICEF: This organisation works for the development of women and children and provides assistance to them. </li></ul>
  27. 32. Judgments regarding Child Labour <ul><li>Unni Krishnan Vs Andhra Pradesh </li></ul><ul><li>(1993 1. SCC 645) </li></ul><ul><li>The Supreme Court in its judgment held that children up to the age of 14 had a fundamental right to free education. </li></ul>
  28. 33. <ul><li>Neeraja Chaudhary Vs. State of Madhya Pradesh (AIR 1984 SCC (3) 243) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In this case the Supreme Court of India stated that the Child Labourers should be rescued and provision for their rehabilitation should be made. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 34. <ul><li>U.P. Bandhua Mukti Morcha Vs. Union of India (AIR 1984 SC 802) </li></ul><ul><li>In this case the Supreme Court of India stated that if no steps are taken under Bonded Labour System Act – 1976 by the Government then it would be a violation of Article 23 of the constitution. Article 23 states that children should not be forced to work at cheap wages due to their economical or social disadvantage. </li></ul>
  30. 35. <ul><li>Thank You </li></ul>